Present Research Activity and Publications (2007-continuing…) Conferences: 1. Sanghamitra Pradhan, National workshop on Nano-materials as Nano-catalyst, January 2 . Sanghamitra Pradhan, 77th National Workshop on Radiochemistry and applications of radioisotopes, 28th November – 6th December 2011, Bhubaneswar, India. 3. Sanghamitra Pradhan , Delivered a talk on Stereochemical a
Microsoft word - moose.docB A N F F M O O S E E C O L O G Y P R O J E C T Project Field Supervisor - Contract – 1994 - 1997 BACKGROUND Moose were relatively common in Banff National Park in the early 1940’s and remained so throughout the 1950’s and 1960’s. Their numbers began to rapidly decline during the 1970’s to the point where sightings in the Bow River valley during annual aerial and ground surveys became rare between 1985 and 19971. The reason for the decline is complex involving a variety of factors but simply put, the moose populations’ rate of mortality exceeded its recruitment. The reason for the increase in the rate of mortality is also complex having coincided with a number of ongoing and recent events including: Long-term habitat loss through forest succession aided by fire suppression Increases in the prevalence of giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magma, infection, a parasite Hosted and shed by elk, but harmful to infected moose Increases in the numbers of elk in the central Bow valley Wolf recolonization in the mid 1980’s with a corresponding increase in predation Increases in the rates of highway and railway mortality Of the factors and events listed above 2,1 the increases in the rates of highway and railway mortality have had the most significant impact on the moose population. Between 1970 and 1988 traffic volumes on both the Trans Canada Highway (TCH) and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) more than doubled, from 5,060 vehicles/day to over 11,234 vehicles/day and from 14 trains/day to over 30/day 3 . During the same period, documented ungulate road and railway kills numbered 1,469 (58 moose, 4%) and 494 (36 moose, 7%) respectively 3. Although the numbers, impact and significance of highway mortality on ungulate populations in the Bow Valley greatly exceed railway mortality, the long-term importance of railway mortality cannot be understated. Between 1970 and 1988 train-kills went largely unreported, as well, data revealed significant increases in ungulate train-kills, in particular moose and elk, during heavy snowfall years while their road-kill rates remained unaffected 3. Concerns over the decline in moose numbers coupled with the fact that the current status of the population was unknown; Banff National Park initiated a moose research program To assess the current status of the moose population within the Bow River watershed of Banff National Park. Key elements include: Capture and Monitoring Captures by immobilization or net gun via helicopter Capture/survey sessions conducted during the rut and mid winter Individual moose marked for identification using combination visual/radio collars Daily intensive road and ground searches, telemetry aided Locate transmitters on mortality immediately Yearly population estimates, pre-calving (survival), post-calving (productivity) Age and sex classification of unmarked individuals Document individual reproductive success and survival Identify timing and locations of parturition (birth), test for site fidelity Document sex of all known calves, sex ratios Document timing and causes of calf mortality, mortality rates Identify movement patterns and critical habitats Assess the interaction between moose, elk and other ungulates Assess the interaction between moose, wolves and other large predators The Banff Moose Ecology Project began fieldwork in early March of 1994, completing the fieldwork portions in September of 1997 and monitoring portions in December of 1998. Moose Capture 45 adult moose (22 female, 23 male) were captured and radio-collared. 37 by chemical immobilization, 8 with a net gun Chemically immobilized via IM injection with carfentanil/xylazine hydrochloride, reversal naltrexone Population estimate 57 (48 – 66, 95% C.I.) No definable Bow Valley population but rather a constant influx of dispersing 76 known mortalities, 40 F (25 AD, 5 YL, 9 YOY), 27 M (25 AD, 1 YL, 4 YOY), - 27 predation (24 wolf, 2 grizzly bear, 1 unk), 12 unk, 5 railway, 4 malnutrition etc., 2 highway, 2 hunting 33 (73%) of 45 radio collared moose dead by March of 1999 19 predation (17 wolf, 2 grizzly bear), 6 unk, 3 malnutrition etc., 2 highway, 2 hunting, 1 ceacal torsion • The mean annual survival rate was 71% (64 - 82%, 95% C.I.) • The mean annual calf production was 67% • Calf survival to 1yr 23% 1. Hurd, T.E. 1999. Factors limiting moose numbers and their interactions with elk and wolves in the Central Rocky Mountains, Canada. Masters Thesis. University of British Columbia. Vancouver. 2. Holroyd, G.L. and Van Tighem, K.J. 1983. Ecological (biohpysical) land classification of Banff and Jasper National Parks. Vol. III: Wildlife Inventory. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton. 3. Woods, J.G. 1990. Effectiveness of fences and underpasses on the Tran-Canada Highway and their impact on ungulate populations in Banff National Park, Alberta. Canadian Parks Service, Calgary.
Fixed dose combinations – declared unapproved by Drug Controller General of India Sl No Name of fixed dose combinations 5 - bromosalicyl - 4 - chloranilide + Salicylic acid Aceclofenac + paracetamol + Chlorzoxazone Aceclofenac + Paracetamol + Serratiopeptidase Choline Bitartrate + Pyndoxine + Folic Acid + Vitamin E + Cyanocobalamin + Vitamin E + Cyanocobalamin + Vitamin E + Cyano