Centro de Formación Profesional Nº 402 de Tres de Febrero ¨Ntra. Sra. de Castelmonte¨ Curso : Auxiliar de Protocolo y Ceremonial - Segundo Cuatrimestre de 2006 HIT Nº 1 Instructora: Patricia Pace PRIMERAS PALABRAS El Ceremonial como técnica no presenta mayores dificultades. Conocer, comprender y poner en práctica una serie de normas y procedimientos son tareas fáciles. Dominar
20th national congress of the italian society of criminology20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Criminology.
984 Cyclosporine and traffic of organs
Eric Sottas, director of “International Tortures”, reminds us of the 1,395 sick youth who disappeared from the psychiatric hospital of La Colonia Montes de Oca in Argentina and were found in pieces in the morgue of the Department of Medicine in Baranquilla, Colombia. Their removed organs were planned for the black market. Baby Doc, ex- dictator of Haiti, organized the transport of fresh and frozen body parts and organs from poor countries to the rich clientele of the US.
The traffic of minors coming from Guatemala summons the memory of the “Corriere del Ticino” newspaper of the 6th March 1987 and “Gente” magazine of the 20th March 1987, the situation in Honduras involving the ATS, ANSA, and APP agencies, and the kidnapping of children from Colombian streets (who, once their eyes had been properly removed, were set free and again given their “freedom”) with the AGI and EFE Most black market organs come from India, Peru, Russia, China and Moldavia. The biggest importers or dealers in these organs are the U.S.A, Canada, Italy and Israel. Other publicized cases in Europe have emerged in recent years. In 2005 the parliamentary assembly of the European Council found that in the Ukraine there have been cases of baby kidnapping specifically intended for organ trafficking. “Il Manifesto” published on 9th March 2000 and article entitled “Small guinea pigs: Great Britain, 28 children killed to test new medical treatments”. Publishing news of such happening is dangerous as well. The journalist Xavier Gautier of “Le Figaro” was found hanged while he was researching a story involving organ trafficking of Bosnian children for a well known Northern Italian clinic. The journal “O Globo” of Rio de Janeiro identified Italy as “the biggest importer of Brazilian children”.
The same has been found in Peru, where many couples have already been charged with coming to Peru only to buy a baby or a child. An investigation by the “Corriere della Sera” claims that over 1,500 Peruvian children were brought to Italy and than killed for their organs. In Italy, 1,853 minors, 1,476 strangers and 377 Italians (258 of whom were These are only the known cases, to which we must add those unknown of the black market mainly coming from Albania, Maghreb and the Rom people. From 1996 to 2001, only in Italy, the human trafficking victims were more than 30,000 (Law and justice, 2nd June 2004). Nancy Scheper Hughes, Director of Department of Anthropology at the Berkley University, identified Turkey as the most popular Italian destination for organ shopping (18th May 2004). Usually, the organs in Turkey come The typical costs of such operations are: • 1 baby 50,000€• Testicles 1,000,000€• Corneas 15,000€• Liver 30,000€• Kidney sold in Iraq 800€• Kidney sold in USA 25,000€ 1,200,000,000€ is the total cash turnover each year (UNICEF). Between Bavaria, Saxony, and the Czech Republic, thousands of children are forced to prostitute themselves, often kept under the effects of drugs and alcohol for 24 hours at a time. Such treatment often causes suicide, violence, and/or venereal diseases among the children. The local authorities accuse the children of consenting and freely providing these services – the consensus justifying the trade.
The organs are often sold by the poor, homeless, or mothers who decide to sell one child to feed their brothers/sisters. In addition, sometimes people with mental problems, political refugees, or ex-soldiers become involved. In most cases, black people are the sellers, and white people are the buyers. Women are some of the biggest sellers and The intermediaries usually are, apart from criminal organizations, doctors or religious organizations (News 2000). The principle of legality behind these actions falls under the “nullum crimen sine lege” (no crime without law), meaning that the traffic of minors escapes the criminal penal sanction because it happens through a modality and set of actions which are not considered as punishable crimes in many countries. Even if a pertaining law exists, it is often so inapplicable that it simply causes the impunity of Article 10 of the “Convention for Youth” of 1989 supports the market of international minor transferral if the minor or his/her family gives consent. The corruption of poor family facilitates, thanks to Article 10, the traffic of minors and consequently of their organs. Between 2003 and 2005 at the hospital “Santa Caterina” in Sophia, numerous transplants were completed under payment.
Each operation yields about 15,000€ for the institution, without the presentation of any kind of document proving the link between buyers and sellers. What’s worst is that there is no trace of these operations in any official records. The receivers were mostly Israeli while the givers were usually Russians and Georgians. Similar cases occurred in Why not in Italy? Because in 1984, cyclosporine, a method to inhibit the immune system and “guarantee” a successful transplant, was discovered. The availability of this substance spurred the Chinese government to prepare a document entitled “Rules concerning the use of corpses or organs of a person condemned to death”. This Act legalized the use of the organs of condemned criminals in completely secrecy (Who is the receiver of the organ? Who are the surgeons? Which machines are used?).
China capitalizes on this “opportunity” by steadily increasing the number of victims of capital punishment: they now exceed 10,000 each year, composing 80% of the world’s total number of executions. Ninety percent of the organs are destined to foreign receivers, mostly in the USA and Japan. Some Chinese surgeons have said that it is the normal routine to remove the most important organs from the condemned the day before the execution and try to rescue the others after the execution.
During the last 13 years in China alone there have been more than 60,000 kidney transplants, 6,000 liver transplants, and 250 heart transplants. One out of every two of these operations fails because of inadequacy of medical structures. In the village of Villivakkam in India, more than 5,000 citizens have had a kidney transplant to earn the lowest compensation in the world: $1,000. The stories only get worse: In Kabul, Najib, 18 years old, witnessed the kidnapping of his 4 year old sister. Two days later, from a car, a sack with the remains of the girl was thrown on her family’s doorstep. She had been disembowelled, had her heart, kidney, and one eye removed, leaving the other eye to dangle out of its eye socket. (Repubblica, 25th November 2001) The organs taken from the poor are transplanted into the rich with the help of sophisticated surgeons supported by criminal organizations. Anthropologically, organ trafficking is not a new phenomenon: during the Middle Ages saints bodies were commonly dismembered and sold and beginning in the 18th century, corpses, especially of the condemned have been common prey of research-hungry doctors and scientists.
According to the classical analysts M. Foucault and of D. Haraway, life is defined by its modality of production, manipulation, and codification. Therefore, the bio-politic is not determined by the fact of organ trafficking, but on the rules of production/productivity.
We also cannot forget the people who belong to the satanic sects. Paul Bonacci, who was declared mentally sane, is forced to live in isolation and under constant supervision because of serious accusations from American officials: “I was controlled and forced to participate in meetings by NAMBLA (North American Man Boy Love Association) since the age of nine … they forced us to have sexual intercourse while they filmed us… they made me have sexual intercourse with children … there kept a boy in a cage, they made us undress and wear Tarzan-like costumes, later making us have sexual intercourse with the boy in the cage. They would tell us to hit the boy… suddenly a man would come in and would beat the boy as if he were a doll. Once he picked up a gun and shot. This all happened during the Republican Conventions, while Larry King was organizing paedophile parties… everybody sang to contaminate the blood of Christ and with a dagger they killed a baby and mixed his blood with urine, later making us drink it while they sang” (Avvenimenti, 17th July 1991). The investigations of the Franklin Commission found that numerous people connected to King were involved in the production of child pornography and films, some journalists have died, political collaborators have committed suicide, and some bank directors have mysteriously This is just one of numerous examples. In 1996, another large satanic sect was discovered in Rome that trafficked in organs and children. Thousands of requirements and several millions of dollars were required to be registered in the organization. The accused participants were all people from the high upper class (Avvenire, 5th September
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