Production Scientifique de Françoise Benoit-Vical
Publications internationales & Revues
*: auteur correspondant
F. Ariey, B. Witkowski, C. Amaratunga, J. Beghain, A.-C. Langlois, N. Khim, S. Kim, V. Duru, C. Bouchier, L. Ma, P. Lim, R. Leang, S. Duong, S. Sreng, S. Suon, C. M. Chuor, D. Mey Bout, S. Ménard, W. O. Rogers,
B. Genton, T. Fandeur, O. Miotto, P. Ringwald, J. Le Bras, A. Berry, J.-C. Barale, R.M Fairhurst*, F.
, O. Mercereau-Puijalon*, D. Ménard* ; * co-senior. A molecular marker of artemisinin-
resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 2014 505(7481): 50-5
A. Robert, C. Claparols, B. Witkowski, F. Benoit-Vical. Correlation between Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis
susceptibility to artemisinin and alkylation of heme by the drug. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
2013; 57(8):3998-4000.
M.-C. Garcia-Alvarez, I. Moussa, P. Njomnang Soh, R. Nongonierma, A. Abdoulaye, M.-L. Nicolau-Travers, A. Fabre, J. Wdzieczak-Bakala, A. Ahond, C. Poupat, K. Ikhiri, F. Benoit-Vical*. Both plants Sebastiania
from Niger and Chrozophora senegalensis from Senegal used in African traditional medicine in
malaria treatment share a same active principle. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2013; 149: 676-684.
M. Rajemiarimiraho, J. T. Banzouzi, S. Richard Rakotonandrasana, P. Chalard, F. Benoit-Vical, L. H.
Rasoanaivog, A. Raharisololalao, R. Randrianja. Pyranocoumarin and Triterpene from Millettia
richardiana. Natural products Communications
2013; 8(8):1099-1100.
; Surveillance of travellers: an additional tool for tracking antimalarial drug resistance in endemic countries. 30;8(10):e77775. In vitro
piperaquine susceptibility is not associated with the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance
transporter gene. Malaria Journal 2013 25;12:431.
C. Hemmert*, A. Fabié, A. Fabre, F. Benoit-Vical*, H. Gornitzka. Synthesis, structures and antimalarial
activities of some silver(I), gold(I) and gold(III) complexes involving N-heterocyclic carbene ligands.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2013;60:64-75.
B. Witkowski, N. Khim, P. Chim, S. Kim, S. Ke, N. Kloeung, S. Chy, S. Duong, R. Leang, P. Ringwald, A. M Dondorp, R. Tripura, F. Benoit-Vical, A. Berry, O. Gorgette, F. Ariey, J.-C. Barale, O. Mercereau-
Puijalon, D. Menard. Reduced artemisinin susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum ring stages in western
Cambodia. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2013; 57(2):914-23.
Longitudinal study assessing the return
of chloroquine susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum in isolates from travellers returning from West and
Central Africa, 2000—2011. Malaria Journal 2013, 12(1):35.
O. Dechy-Cabaret & F. Benoit-Vical*. The effects of antimalarial molecules on the gametocyte stage of
Plasmodium falciparum: the debate. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2012 Perspectives, 55: 10328−10344.
A. Pascual, P. Parola, F. Benoit-Vical, F. Simon, D. Malvy ,S. Picot, P. Delaunay, D. Basset, D. Maubon, B.
Faugère, G. Ménard, N. Bourgeois, C. Oeuvray, E. Didillon, C.Rogier, B. Pradines. Ex vivo activity of the
ACT new components Pyronaridine 1 and Piperaquine in comparison with conventional ACT drugs against
isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Malaria Journal 2012, 11:45
B. Witkowski, J. Lelièvre, M.-L. Nicolau-Travers, X. Iriart, P. Njomnang Soh, F. Bousejra-ElGarah, B. Meunier, A. Berry, F. Benoit-Vical*. Evidence for the contribution of the hemozoin synthesis pathway to the
antiplasmodial activity of artemisinin-related drugs. Plos one 2012, 7(3): e32620.
S. Menard, I. Morlais, R. Tahar, C. Sayang, P. Mayengue, X. Iriart, F. Benoit-Vical, B. Lemen, J.-F.Magnaval,
P. Awono-Ambene, L.K. Basco, A. Berry. Molecular monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum drug
susceptibility at the time of the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Yaoundé,
Cameroon: implications for the future. Malaria Journal 2012, 11(1):113.
malaria in travelers returning from haiti after 2010 earthquake.2012
P. Njomnang Soh, B. Witkowski, A. Gales, E Huyghe, A. Berry, B. Pipy, F. Benoit-Vical*. Implication of
glutathione in the in vitro antiplasmodial mechanism of action of ellagic acid. Plos one 2012 ; 7
(9) :e45906. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045906
A. Berry, X. Iriart, N. Wilhelm, A. Valentin, S. Cassaing, B. Witkowski, F. Benoit-Vical, S. Menard, D.
Olagnier, J. Fillaux, S. Sire, A. Le Coustumier, J.-F. Magnaval. Imported Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in
a French Tourist Returning from Thailand. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 2011, 84(4),
C. Passemar, M. Saléry, P. Njomnang Soh, M.-D. Linas, A. Ahond, C. Poupat, F. Benoit-Vical*. Indole and
aminoimidazole moieties appear as key structural units in antiplasmodial molecules. Phytomedicine 2011,
18(13) : 1118-1125.
D. Olagnier, R.-A. Lavergne, E. Meunier, L. Lefevre, C. Dardenne, A. Aubouy, F. Benoit-Vical, B. Ryffel, A.
Coste, A. Berry, B. Pipy. Nrf2, a PPARc Alternative Pathway to Promote CD36 Expression on
Inflammatory Macrophages: Implication for Malaria. PLoS Pathogens 2011, 7(9), e1002254.
M. Willcox, F. Benoit-Vical, D. Fowler, G. Bourdy, G. Burford, S. Giani, R. Graziose, P. Houghton, M.
Randrianarivelojosia, P. Rasoanaivo. Do ethnobotanical and laboratory data predict clinical safety and
efficacy of anti-malarial plants? Malaria Journal, 2011, Mar 15;10 Suppl 1:S7.
L Delhaes Jeanne, A Berry, E Dutoit, F Leclerc, J Beaudou, D Camus, F Benoit-Vical. Molecular method for
the diagnosis of imported pediatric malaria.euses 2010, 40(2),115-8.
G.F. Nsonde Ntandou, J.T. Banzouzi, B. Mbatchi, R.D.G. Elion-Itou, A.W.Etou-Ossibi, S. Ramos, F. Benoit-
Vical, A.A. Abena, J.M. Ouamba. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Cassia siamea Lam stem
bark extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2010, 127, 108-111.
B. Witkowski, J. Lelièvre, M.J. López Barragán, V. Laurent, X.Z. Su, A. Berry, F Benoit-Vical*. Increased
tolerance to artemisinin in Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by a quiescence mechanism. Antimicrobial
Agents and Chemotherapy
2010, 54(5), 1872-1877.
B. Witkowski, M.-L. Nicolau, P. Njomnang Soh, X. Iriart, S. Menard, M. Alvarez, B. Marchou, J.-F. Magnaval, F. Benoit-Vical, A. Berry. Plasmodium falciparum isolates with increased pfmdr1 copy number circulate
in West Africa. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2010, 54(7), 3049-51.
B. Witkowski, X. Iriart, P. Njomnang Soh, S. Menard, M. Alvarez, V. Naneix-Laroche, B. Marchou, J.-F. Magnaval, F. Benoit-Vical (Co-dernier auteur), A. Berry. Pfmdr1 amplification associated with clinical
resistance to mefloquine in West Africa: implication in artemisinin combination therapies efficacy. Journal
of Clinical Microbiology
2010, 48(10), 3797-9.
Severe imported falciparum malaria: a
cohort study in 400 critically ill adults.2010, 8;5(10), e13236.
A. Berry, C. Deymier, M. Sertorio, B. Witkowski, F. Benoit-Vical. Pfs16 pivotal role in Plasmodium falciparum
gametocytogenesis: a potential antiplasmodial drug target. Experimental parasitology 2009, 121(2), 189-92
B. Camara, J.-B. Kantambadouno, G. Martin-Blondel, A. Berry, M. Alvarez, F. Benoit-Vical, J. Delmont, O.
Bouchaud and B. Marchou. Hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly: Three clinical cases.euses 2009, 39(1), 29-35.
P. Njomnang Soh, B. Witkowski, D. Olagnier, M.-L. Nicolau, M.-C. Garcia-Alvarez, A. Berry, F. Benoit-
Vical*. In vitro and in vivo properties of ellagic acid in malaria. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
2009, 53(3), 1100-1106.
P. Njomnang Soh, J.- T. Banzouzi, A. Berry, H. Mangombo, M. Lusakibanza, F. O. Bulubulu, L. Tona, A. N. Diamuini, S. N. Luyindula & F. Benoit-Vical*. Antiplasmodial activity of various parts of the plant
Phyllanthus niruri according to its geographical distribution. African Journal of Pharmacy and
2009, 3(12), 598-601.
B. Witkowski, A. Berry, F. Benoit-Vical*. Resistance to antimalarial compounds: Methodology and
applications. Drug Resistance Updates 2009, 12(1): 42-50.
A. Berry, F. Benoit-Vical, R. Fabre, S. Cassaing, J.F. Magnaval. PCR-based methods to the diagnosis of
imported malaria. Parasite 2008, 15(3) : 484-8.
F. Benoit-Vical*, P. Njomnang Soh, M. Saléry, L. Harguem, C. Poupat, R. Nongonierma. Evaluation of Senegalese plants used in malaria treatment: Focus on Chrozophora senegalensis. Journal of
2008, 116: 43-48.
F. Benoit-Vical*, M. Saléry, P. Njomnang Soh, A. Ahond, C. Poupat. Girolline: a potential lead structure for
antiplasmodial drug research. Planta Medica 2008, 74: 438-444.
C. Ribaut, A. Berry, S. Chevalley, K. Reybier, I. Morlais, D. Parzy, F. Nepveu, F. Benoit-Vical, A. Valentin.
Concentration and purification by magnetic separation of erythrocytic stages from all human Plasmodium
species. Malaria Journal 2008, 7: 45.
F. Bousejra-El Garah, C. Claparols, F. Benoit-Vical, B. Meunier, A. Robert. The antimalarial trioxaquine
DU1301 alkylates heme in malaria infected mice. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2008, 52(8):
J.T. Banzouzi, P. Njomnang Soh, B. Mbatchi, A. Cavé, S. Ramos, P. Retailleau, O. Rakotonandrasana, A. Berry, F. Benoit-Vical. Cogniauxia podolaena H. Baill. Zundt: Bioassay-guided fractionation of defoliated stems,
isolation of active compounds, antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity. Planta Medica 2008, 12(74), 1453-
F. Benoit-Vical*, J. Lelièvre, A. Berry , C. Deymier ,O. Dechy-Cabaret, J. Cazelles, C. Loup, A. Robert, J.-F.
Magnaval, B. Meunier Trioxaquines : new antimalarial agents active on all erythrocytic forms including
gametocytes. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2007, 51(4): 1463-1472.
A. Berry, P. Balard, A. Coste, D. Olagnier, C. Lagane, H. Authier, F. Benoit-Vical, J.C. Lepert, J.P. Séguéla,
J.F. Magnaval, P. Chambon, D. Metzger, B. Desvergne, W. Wahli, J. Auwerx, B. Pipy. IL-13 induces
expression of CD36 in human monocytes through PPARgamma activation. European Journal of
2007, 37(6): 1642-1652.
C. Loup, J. Lelièvre, F. Benoit-Vical*, B. Meunier. Trioxaquines and Heme-Artemisinin Adducts Inhibit the in
vitro Formation of Hemozoin Better than Chloroquine. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2007,
51(10): 3768-3770.
D. Olagnier, P. Costes, A. Berry, M.-D. Linas, M. Urrutigoity, O. Dechy-Cabaret & F. Benoit-Vical*.
Modifications of the chemical structure of Terpenes in Antiplasmodial and Antifungal drug research.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2007, 17: 6075-6078.
J. Lelievre, A. Berry, F. Benoit-Vical*. Artemisinin and chloroquine: Do mode of action and mechanism of
resistance involve the same protagonists? Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs 2007, 8(2): 117-124.
G. Martin-Blondel, M. Barry, L. Porte, F. Busato, P. Massip, F. Benoit-Vical, A. Berry, B. Marchou. Impact de
l’infection VIH sur l’infection palustre chez l’adulte. Médecine et maladies infectieuses 2007, 37 : 629-636.
P. Njomnang Soh and F. Benoit-Vical*. Are West African plants a source of future antimalarial drugs? Journal
of Ethnopharmacology 2007, 114: 130-140.
S.F. Mbatchi, B. Mbatchi, J.T. Banzouzi, T. Bansimba, G.F. Nsonde Ntandou, J.-M. Ouamba, A. Berry, F.
Benoit-Vical. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of eighteen plants used in Congo Brazzaville traditional
medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2006, 104(2) : 168-174.
A. Berry, A. Senescau, J. Lelièvre, F. Benoit-Vical, R. Fabre, B. Marchou, J.-F. Magnaval. Prevalence for
Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome b gene mutations in isolates imported from Africa, and implication for
atovaquone resistance. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2006,
F. Benoit-Vical*, P. Grellier, A. Abdoulaye, I. Moussa, A. Ousmane, A. Berry, K. Ikhiri, C. Poupat. In vitro and
in vivo antiplasmodial activity of Momordica balsamina alone or in a traditional mixture. Chemotherapy
2006; 52: 288-292.
J. Lelièvre, A. Berry, F. Benoit-Vical*. A fast and simple alternative method for Plasmodium culture
synchronization. Experimental Parasitology 2005, 109 (3) : 195-197.
A. Berry, G. Chene, F. Benoit-Vical, J.C. Lepert, J. Bernad, B. Marchou, J.P. Séguéla, J.F. Magnaval, B. Pipy.
Ex vivo and in vitro impairment of CD36 expression and TNF-α production in human monocytes in response
to Plasmodium falciparum-parasitised erythrocytes. Journal for Parasitology 2005, 91(2) : 316-322.
A. Senescau, A. Berry, F. Benoit-Vical, O. Landt, R. Fabre, J. Lelièvre, S. Cassaing, J.-F. Magnaval. Use of a
Locked-Nucleic-Acid Oligomer in the Clamped-Probe Assay for Detection of a Minority Pfcrt K76T Mutant
Population of Plasmodium falciparum. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2005, 43(7) : 3304-3308.
A. Robert, F. Benoit-Vical, C. Claparols, B. Meunier. The antimalarial drug artemisinin alkylates heme in
infected mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005, 102(38) : 13676-13680.
F. Benoit-Vical*. Ethnomedicine in Malaria treatment. IDRUGS 2005, 8(1) : 45-52.
A. Robert, F. Benoit-Vical, B. Meunier. The key role of heme to trigger the antimalarial activity of trioxanes.
Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 2005, 249 : 1927-1936.
A. Berry, R. Fabre, F. Benoit-Vical, S. Cassaing, J.F. Magnaval. Contribution of PCR-based methods to the
diagnosis and the management of imported malaria. Médecine Tropicale, 2005, 65(2) : 176-183.
O. Dechy-Cabaret, F. Benoit-Vical, C. Loup, A. Robert, H. Gornitzka, A. Bonhoure, H. Vial, J.F. Magnaval,
J.P. Séguéla, B. Meunier. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of trioxaquine derivatives. Chemistry European
2004, 10 : 1625-1636.
A. Vessière, A. Berry, R. Fabre, F. Benoit-Vical, J.F. Magnaval. Detection by real-time PCR of the Pfcrt K76T
mutation, a molecular marker of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. Parasitology
2004, 93 : 531-533.
A. Berry, A. Vessière, R. Fabre, F. Benoit-Vical, B. Marchou, P. Massip, J.-F. Magnaval. Pfcrt T76 mutation
and its associations in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. Infection, Genetics and Evolution
2004, 4 : 361-364.
Y. Baissac, F. Benoit-Vical, C. Lavaud, C. Imbert. Antifungal activity of a spirostanol tomatoside obtained from
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. against various yeast species. Journal of Medical Mycology 2004, 14 : 59-63.
L. Delhaes, F. Benoit-Vical* (Co-premiers auteurs), D. Camus, M. Capron, B. Meunier. Chloroquine and
artemisinin: five decades of research – what next? IDRUGS 2003 ; 6(7) : 674-680.
F. Benoit-Vical*, C. Imbert, J.-P. Bonfils, Y. Sauvaire. Antiplasmodial and antifungal activities of Iridal, a
plant triterpenoid. Phytochemistry 2003 ; 62 : 747-751.
O. Dechy-Cabaret, F. Benoit-Vical, A. Robert, J.-F. Magnaval, J.-P. Séguéla, B. Meunier. Synthesis and
biological evaluation of a new trioxaquine containing a trioxane moiety obtained by halogenocyclisation of a
hemiperoxyacetal. C.R. Chimie 2003 ; 6 : 153-160.
F. Benoit-Vical*, A. Valentin, B. Da, Z. Dakuyo. L. Descamps, M. Mallié. Treatment of uncomplicated
falciparum malaria with N'Dribala (Cochlospermum planchonii Hook). Journal of Ethnopharmacology
2003, 89 : 111-114.
I. Jaquemond-Collet, F. Benoit-Vical, Mustofa, A. Valentin, E. Stanislas, M. Mallié, I. Fourasté.
Antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of galipinine and other tetrahydroquinolines from Galipea officinalis.
Planta medica 2002; 68 : 68-69.
A. Robert, O. Dechy-Cabaret, J. Cazelles, F. Benoit-Vical, B. Meunier. Recent advances in malaria
chemotherapy. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society 2002 ; 49: 301-310.
F. Benoit-Vical, A. Valentin, M. Mallié, J.M. Bastide, J.M. Bessière. Antiplasmodial activity of
Cochlospermum planchonii and C. tinctorium tubercule essential oils. Journal of Essential Oils Research
2001; 13 : 65-67.
A. Robert, F. Benoit-Vical, O. Dechy-Cabaret, B. Meunier. From classical antimalarial drugs to new
compounds based on the mechanism of action of artemisinin. Pure and Applied Chemistry 2001; 73 (7) :
Mustofa, Valentin A., Benoit-Vical F., Pélissier Y., Koné-Bamba D., Mallié M. Antiplasmodial activity of plant
extracts used in west African traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2000; 73 : 145-151.
O. Dechy-Cabaret, F. Benoit-Vical, A. Robert, B. Meunier. Preparation and antimalarial activities of
“ trioxaquines ”, new hybrid molecules with a trioxane skeleton linked to a 4-aminoquinoline.
ChemBioChem 2000; 4 : 281-283.
F. Benoit-Vical, M. Santillana-Hayat, M. Mallié, F. Derouin. Anti-Toxoplasma activity of vegetal extracts used
in West African traditional medicine. Parasite 2000 ; 7 : 3-7.
F. Benoit-Vical, A. Robert, B. Meunier. Potentiation in vitro and in vivo of Artemisinin and synthetic
endoperoxide antimalarial drugs by metalloporphyrins. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2000 ; 44 :
F. Benoit-Vical, A. Valentin, M. Mallié, J.M. Bessière. In vitro antimalarial activity and compositions of
essential oils and extracts from Cochlospermum spp leaves. Planta Medica 1999 ; 65 : 1-4.
F. Benoit-Vical, A. Robert, B. Meunier. Potentiation of the artemisinin activity against chloroquine resistant
Plasmodium falciparum strains by using heme models. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1999 ; 43 :
A. Raibaut, C. Combes, F. Benoit. Analysis of the parasitic copepod species richness among mediterranean fish.
Journal of Marine Systems 1998 ; 15 : 185-206.
F. Benoit-Vical, A. Valentin, V. Cournac, Y. Pélissier, D. Kone-Bamba, M. Mallié, J.M. Bastide. In vitro
antimalarial activity of Nauclea latifolia stem and root extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1998 ; 61 :
G. Milhau, A. Valentin, F. Benoit, Y. Pélissier, M. Mallié, J.M. Bessière, J.M. Bastide. In vitro antimalarial
activity of eight essential oils. Journal of Essential Oils Research 1997 ; 9 : 329-333.
A. Valentin, F. Benoit-Vical, C. Moulis, E. Stanislas, M. Mallié, I. Fourasté, J.M. Bastide. In vitro antimalarial
activity of Pendulin, a bisbenzylisoquinoline from Isopyrum thalictroides. Antimicrobial Agents and
1997 ; 41 : 2305-2307.
F. Benoit, A. Valentin, Y. Pélissier, F. Diafouka, C. Marion, D. Kone-Bamba, M. Mallié, A. Yapo, J.M.
Bastide. Antimalarial activity in vitro of vegetal extracts used in west african traditional medicine. American
Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
1996 ; 54 : 67-71.
F. Benoit-Vical, A. Valentin, Y. Pélissier, C. Marion, D. Castel, M. Milhau, M. Mallié, J.M. Bastide, F.
Diafouka, D. Kone-Bamba, A. Malan, M. Kone, Y. Loukou, D. Monet, L. Ake-Assi, A. Yapo. Confirmation
in vitro, de l’activité antimalarique de certaines plantes d’origine africaine utilisées en médecine
traditionnelle. Médecine d’Afrique Noire 1996 ; 43 : 393-400.
F. Benoit, A. Valentin, Y. Pélissier, C. Marion, Z. Dakuyo, M. Mallié, J.M. Bastide. Antimalarial activity in
vitro of Cochlospermum tinctorium (A. Rich) tubercles extracts. Transactions of the Royal Society of
Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
1995 ; 89 : 217-218.
A. Valentin, Y. Pélissier, F. Benoit, C. Marion, D. Kone, M. Mallié, J.M. Bastide, J.M. Bessière. Composition
and antimalarial activity in vitro of volatile components of Lippia multiflora. Phytochemistry 1995 ; 40 :
Chapitres de livre
Ch1. A. Robert, F. Benoit-Vical, B. Meunier. Heme as trigger and target of the antimalarial peroxide
artemisinin. Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry, 2005. American Chemical society Ed. Chapter 16, 281-294.
Ch2. F. Benoit-Vical, P. Njomnang Soh. Traditional Medicine: Its Role in the Search for New Antiparasitic
Candidates. 2012. book series Traditional and Folk herbal Medicine, Vol 1. published by M/S. Daya
Publishing House, New Delhi, ISBN 978-81-7035-766-7, Chapter 11, 251-277.



NEW MICROBIOLOGICA, 30 , 346-349, 2007 Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in HAART and antibiotic therapy Marta Boffito St. Stephen’s Centre, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK Therapeutic agents used to inhibit the HIV replication are used in combination. The achievement of effective plas-ma concentrations of the drug in its active form, and sustaining such concentrati


Parasitic Diseases and Vector Control (PVC) Communicable Disease Control, Prevention and Eradication (CPE) World Health Organization 1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE MONITORING IN DISEASE VECTORS Procedures and conditions for supply of test kits Test kits will be supplied/dispatched from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia, a WHO Collaborating Centre. 1

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