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Colourless liquid or crystals with a camphor-like odour 47 ppm (method not specified); 72 ppm (219 mg/m3) (method not Poor - odour threshold is same or greater magnitude as TLV Alcohol denaturant; solvent for pharmaceuticals; dehydration agent; perfumery; chemical intermediate; paint removers; preparation of methyl methacrylate; octane improver in unleaded gasoline. *** SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION *** Colourless liquid or crystals, with a camphor-like odour.FLAMMABLE AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion. Very high vapour concentrations may cause unconsciousness and death. May cause eye irritation. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM (ACUTE) EXPOSURE : tert-Butyl alcohol is a central nervous system depressant. High concentrations can cause irritation of the nose and throat, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, confusion and unconsciousness. No minimum concentrations at which these effects occur have been reported. exposure to concentrations less than 100 ppm is not likely to produce these effects. No ill effects due to occupational exposures have The potency for intoxicatin is approximately 1.5 times that of Direct contact with tert-butyl alcohol only caused slight swelling and redness.(5) SKIN SENSITIZATION: tert-Butyl alcohol caused an allergic reaction in a 58 year old patient who used a skin screen containing alcohol. A patch tests was positive for tert-butyl alcohol.(5) Exposure to liquid is likely to cause irritation. High vapour concentrations are irritating. Related alcohols, such as n-butyl Ingestion of a large amount is likely to have effects similar to related alcohols, such as n-butyl alcohol, if ingested tert-butyl aspirated into the lungs, it may cause severe lung damage (edema), respiratory and cardiac arrest and possibly death. EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM (CHRONIC) EXPOSURE : There have been no reports of specific health effects due to long-term exposure to tert-butyl alcohol SKIN: Repeated or prolonged contact may drying, reddening and cracking of the skin (dermatitis) No human information. Developmental toxicity was seen at doses which tert-Butyl alcohol gave negative results in one bacterial assay and in TOXICOLOGICALLY SYNERGISTIC MATERIALS : Alcohols may interact synergistically with chlorinated solvents (e.g. tetrachloride), aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. xylene) or dithiocarbamates Probably does not accumulate. tert-Butyl is rapidly absorbed into the It is slowly broken down in the body. It is excreted in exhaled air and the urine. Several days may be required for complete removal from the In general, the toxicity of tert-butyl alcohol is thought to be very to the other butyl alcohols. Some animal evidence indicates that tert-butyl alcohol may increase the acute inhalation toxicity of carbon Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Remove contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Obtain As quickly as possible, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for least 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Quickly and gently brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes or until chemical is removed. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20 minutes, or until the chemical is removed while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, unconscious or is convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water to dilute material in stomach. If occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of Repeat administration of water. If breathing has stopped, trained should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Quickly transport Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures minor instances of inhalation or skin contact. All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material its conditions of use in the workplace. *** SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES *** LOWER FLAMMABLE (EXPLOSIVE) LIMIT (LFL/LEL) : UPPER FLAMMABLE (EXPLOSIVE) LIMIT (UFL/UEL) : EXPLOSION DATA - SENSITIVITY TO MECHANICAL IMPACT : Probably not sensitive. Stable material. EXPLOSION DATA - SENSITIVITY TO STATIC CHARGE : Informaiton not available. However, vapour can probably be ignited by COMBUSTION AND THERMAL DECOMPOSTITION PRODUCTS : Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), isobutydene (5) Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. liquid. Can release vapours that form explosive mixtures with air at, above, 11 deg C. Can accumulate in confined spaces. Alcohol foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical Water may be ineffective, it may not cool tert-butyl alcohol below its flashpoint. tert-Butyl alcohol is soluble in water and has a low flash point. Water be ineffective for fighting fires involving this compound because of flash point, unless used under favourable conditions by experienced fighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires. water may be used to dilute the liquid to the point where it is no flammable. Water can be used in the form of spray or mist to absorb keep containers cool and protect exposed material. If a leak or spill not ignited, use water spray to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray may be used to flush away from ignition sources. tert-Butyl alcohol is only slightly health. However, as in any fire, wear self-contained breathing (SCBA), pressure-demand, (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full ** NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD INDEX ** NFPA - HEALTH : 1 - Slightly hazardous to health NFPA - FLAMMABILITY : 3 - Can be ignited under almost all NFPA - REACTIVITY : 0 - Normally stable, even under fire The hazard identification ratings and definitions presented here are on the 1985 edition of NFPA Code 704. NFPA is currently reviewing these hazard ratings based on the 1990 edition of NFPA Code 704. *** SECTION 6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES *** Restrict access to area until completion of cleanup. Eliminate all sources. Ventilate area. Ensure cleanup is conducted by trained only. Provide adequate personnel protective equipment. Establish plans to emergency situation. Contact manufacturer/supplier for advice. government environmental agencies if release of material into the Do not touch spilled material. Stop or reduce leak if safe to do so. leaking container to outdoors or well-ventilated area and transfer to other suitable containers if safe to do so. Prevent material sewers or confined spaces. Small spills: Take up with inert sorbent material. Place in suitable, covered, labelled containers. Flush area water. Large spills: Dike with earth, sand, or inert sorbent material contain spill. Remove liquid by pumps or vacuum equipment. Place in suitable, covered, labelled containers. Take up residual with inert material and place in suitable, covered, labelled containers. Flush with water. Solid spills: shovel into suitable, clean, dry, labelled containers and cover. Flush area with water. NOTE: Tert-butyl alcohol solidifies at temperatures below 25 deg C (77 deg F). Contaminated may pose the same hazards as the spilled product. *** SECTION 7. HANDLING AND STORAGE *** Use in minimal quantities in designated areas with adequate Containers should be suitable, labelled, kept closed when not in use protected from damage. Empty containers may be hazardous due to material. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment. Have equipment (for fires, spills, leaks, etc.) readily available. Eliminate ignition sources. Post "No Smoking" signs in area of use. For liquid: approved portable containers in work areas. Ground all drums and vessels. (Grounding clips must contact bare metal.) Avoid generating For solid: Use dust-tight containers. Prevent accumulation of dust. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area, out of direct sunlight, from incompatible materials and heat and ignition sources. Use ventilation systems and electrical equipment that does not provide an ignition source. Store in suitable, labelled containers, keep tightly when not in use and when empty, and protected from damage. Use suitable approved storage tanks, buildings, rooms and cabinets. Consider leak detection and alarm systems. Limit quantity of material in storage. access to storage area. Post warning signs when appropriate. Keep area separate from populated work areas. Inspect periodically for *** SECTION 8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION *** NOTE : Exposure to this material can be controlled in many ways. The measures appropriate for a particular worksite depend on how this material is used and on the extent of exposure. This general information can be used to help develop specific control measures. Ensure that control systems are properly designed and maintained. Comply with occupational, environmental, fire, and other applicable regulations. COLORIMETRIC-INDICATING (DECTECTOR) TUBES: Commercially available NIOSH METHOD(S): 1400 - NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. Vol. 1 DIRECT INSTRUMENTS: The following devices are commercially available: Infrared sampling; fixed location) Sampling should only be done by trained using appropriate instrumentation and sampling strategy (location, duration, frequency, and number of samples). Interpretation of sampling results is related to these variables and the analytical method. Engineering control methods to reduce hazardous exposures are Methods include mechanical ventilation (dilution and local exhaust), or personnel enclosure, control of process conditions, and process modification (e.g. substitution of a less hazardous material). Administrative controls and personal protective equipment may also be required. Use a non-sparking, grounded ventilation system separate from other exhaust ventilation systems. Exhaust directly to the outside. sufficient replacement air to make up for air removed by exhaust If engineering controls and work practices are not effective in exposure to this material, then wear suitable personal protective including approved respiratory protection. Have appropriate equipment available for use in emergencies such as spills or fire. If respiratory protection is required, institute a complete respiratory protection including selection, fit testing, training, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation. Refer to the CSA Standard Z94.4-M1982 Care and Use of Respirators", available from the Canadian Standards NIOSH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR tert-BUTYL ALCOHOL CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR (4): TO 1000 ppm: Powered air-purifying respirator with organic vapour cartridge(s); or full-facepiece chemical cartridge respirator with vapour cartridge(s). UP TO 2500 ppm: SAR operated in a continuous flow UP TO 5000 ppm: Gas mask with organic vapour canister; or SCBA; or full-facepiece SAR. UP TO 8000 ppm: Positive pressure, full-facepiece SAR. EMERGENCY OR PLANNED ENTRY INTO UNKNOWN OR IDLH CONDITIONS: Positive pressure, full-facepiece SCBA; or positive pressure, full-facepiece SAR with an auxiliary positive pressure SCBA. ESCAPE: Gas mask with organic vapour canister; or escape-type SCBA. The IDLH concentration for tert-butyl alcohol is 8000 ppm. NOTE: causes eye irritation or damage; eye protection needed. ABBREVIATIONS: SAR= supplied-air respirator; SCBA = self-contained breathing Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health. NOTE: In these IDLH concentration is defined as the maximum concentration which would cause any escape-impairing symptoms or irreversible health effects to a person exposed for 30 minutes if the respirator failed. Recommendations apply only to NIOSH and MSHA (Mine Safety and Health Administration) approved respirators. Air-purifying respirators do not protect against Chemical safety goggles suitable for dust/splash protection. A face Impervious gloves, coveralls, boots, and/or other resistant protective RESISTANCE OF MATERIALS FOR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING : No specific guidelines are available. Guidelines for a related material (butyl alcohol) follow: VERY GOOD: Neoprene, nitrile, polyethylene Butyl rubber, chlorinated polyethylene, Viton, Teflon, polyurethane FAIR/POOR: Natural rubber, nitrile/polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinyl alcohol, PVC, neoprene/natural rubber, neoprene/styrene-butadiene (SBR), SBR Contact the manufacturer/supplier or a safety equipment for specific advice. NOTE: Chemical resistance of a specific material vary from product to product. Evaluate clothing resistance under of use. Maintain clothing carefully and inspect regularly. EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION COMMENTS : Have a safety shower and eye-wash station readily available for use. Do not eat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Wash hands thoroughly handling tert-butyl alcohol. Maintain good housekeeping. Remove clothing promptly. Keep contaminated clothing in closed containers. before rewearing or discard. Inform laundry personnel of tert-butyl * THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES (TLVs) / AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF GOVERNMENTAL INDUSTRIAL HYGIENISTS (ACGIH) / 1992-93 * TIME-WEIGHTED AVERAGE (TLV-TWA) : 100 ppm (303 mg/m3) *NOTICE OF INTENDED CHANGE: Deletion of the TLV-STEL has been proposed. NOTE: In many Canadian jurisdictions, exposure limits are similar to ACGIH TLVs. Since the manner in which exposure limits are established, interpreted, and implemented can vary, obtain detailed information from appropriate government agency in each jurisdiction. * PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMITS (PELs) / OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION (OSHA) * TIME WEIGHTED AVERAGE (PEL-TWA) : 100 ppm (300 mg/m3) SHORT TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL-TWA) :150 ppm (450 mg/m3) *** SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES *** Soluble in all proportions in ethanol and ether VAPOUR PRESSURE : 4.13 kPa (31 mm Hg) at 20 deg C SATURATION VAPOUR CONCENTRATION : 4.08% (123.6 g/m3) at 20 deg C EVAPORATION RATE : No information available COEFFICIENT OF OIL/WATER DISTRIBUTION (PARTITION COEFFICIENT) : *** SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY *** STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. nitrates, perchlorates). Increased risk fire and explosion POTASSIUM-SODIUM ALLOY: Contact with tert-butyl caused ignition.(6) STRONG MINERAL ACIDS: Can cause decomposition to flammable isobutylene gas.(5) HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND SULFURIC ACID: with tert-butyl alcohol resulted in severe explosions.(7) *** SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION *** SKIN IRRITATION: Prolonged contact with rabbit skin failed to cause INHALATION: tert-Butyl alcohol is irritating to the mucous membranes very high concentrations.(1) tert-Butyl alcohol, like the other butyl alcohols, is a central nervous system depressant and the signs of intoxication in animals exposed to its vapour are similar to the other butyl alcohols, i.e. ataxia (muscular incoordination) and narcosis. It a stronger narcotic action upon animals than has normal or isobutyl ORAL: Eighteen repeated daily narcotic doses were not fatal to rats, and no harmful effects resulted from a long-continued, easily The degree of central nervous system depression was measured in rats an inclined plane test which assesses balance. Using this test, alcohol was found to be 4.8 times more intoxicating than ethanol, only by 1-butanol. Recovery was very slow, with no improvement in performance 7 hours after administration.(1). It seems that tert-butyl alcohol is broken down very slowly in the Six rats were fed a high dose (40% of the LD50) of tert-butyl alcohol. After 16 to 18 hours, they were exposed to a high concentration (1,000 carbon tetrachloride for 2 to 2 1/2 hours. Exposure to the alcohol increased the effects of carbon tetrachloride MUTAGENICITY: tert-Butyl alcohol gave negative results in a bacterial assay, the mouse lymphoma assay and the cultured Chinese hamster ovary assay for increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations and TERATOGENICITY AND EMBRYOTOXICITY: Pregnant mice (3 groups of 15) were 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00% (w/v) tert-butyl alcohol from day 6 to day 20 of pregnancy. A developmental delay in physiological and psychomotor performance scores was seen in the offspring. It was not established if this delay in central nervous system was due to permanent or temporary damage. There were signs of toxicity *** SECTION 12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION *** NOTE : This section is under development. *** SECTION 13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS *** Review federal, provincial and local government requirements prior to disposal. Store material for disposal as indicated in above Storage Conditions. Disposal by controlled incineration or secure landfill *** SECTION 14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION *** ** TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS (TDG) SHIPPING INFORMATION ** DESCRIPTION AND SHIPPING NAME: Butanols PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION NUMABER (PIN): 1120 *** SECTION 15. REGULATORY INFORMATION *** ** WORKPLACE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INFORMATION SYSTEM (WHMIS) ** B2 - Flammable and combustible material - Flammable liquid D2B - Poisonous and Infectious Material - Other Effects - Toxic Confirmed A for disclosure at 1% or greater. DETAILED WHMIS CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO CRITERIA : CLASS A - COMPRESSED GAS: Does not meet criteria CLASS B - FLAMMABLE & COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL: Meets criteria for liquid"; Flash point: 11 deg C (closed cup). CLASS C - OXIDIZING MATERIAL: Does not meet criteria CLASS D - POISONOUS AND INFECTIOUS MATERIAL. DIVISION 1 - IMMEDIATE SERIOUS TOXIC EFFECTS: Does not meet criteria Acute Lethality: Does not meet criteria; LD50 (oral, rat) 3500 mg/kg CLASS D - POISONOUS AND INFECTIOUS MATERIAL. DIVISION 2 - OTHER TOXIC EFFECTS: Insufficient information. See evaluation below. Chronic Health Effects: Insufficient information Carcinogenicity: Insufficient information Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity: Insufficient information; one indicates effects can occur in the offspring at doses which are toxic Reproductive Toxicity: Insufficient information Mutagenicity: Insufficient information. Negative results obtained bacterial assay and in tests using cultured mammalian cells. Respiratory Tract Sensitization: Does not meet criteria; not Skin Irritation: Does not meet criteria. t-Butyl alcohol was not irritating in a test with rabbits and only caused slight redness in Eye Irritation: "Toxic". Related alcohols, such as n-butyl alcohol an allergic skin reaction in one person. Skin Sensitization: Insufficient information CLASS E - CORROSIVE MATERIAL: Does not meet criteria CLASS F - DANGEROUSLY REACTIVE MATERIAL: Does not meet criteria Meets criteria for hazardous material, as defined by 29 CFR 1910.1200. WHMIS: This MSDS has been prepared according to the hazard criteria of the Controlled Products Regulations (CPR) and the MSDS contains all of the information required by the (1) Tert-butyl alcohol. In: Clayton, G.D.; Clayton, F.E., eds. industrial hygiene and toxicology. Third revised edition. Vol. 2C : toxicology. New York, NY; Toronto, Ontario : John Wiley and Sons, (2) Daniel, M.A.; Evans, M.A. Quantitative comparison of maternal and maternal butanol diet on postnatal development. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 222, no. 2 (1982). (3) Cornish, H.H.; Adefuin, J. Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride toxicity by aliphatic alcohols. Archives of Environmental Health. (4) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June 1990. p. (5) Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological indices. 6th ed. ACGIH, 1991. p. 174-175 (6) HSDB record for t-butyl alcohol. Last revision date: 92/01/23 (7) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 10th ed. National Protection Association, 1991. p. 325M-21, 491M-41, 491M-106 (8) Odour thresholds for chemicals with established occupational


Assessment of mould spoilage of packaging materials

Bactericidal activity of GAMA Healthcare Ltd. biocide determined using the European Standard Test method BS EN 1276:1997 against: Klebsiella pneumoniae NCTC 13368 (ATCC 700603) March 2007 Author: P. Humphreys Tests Carried Out By: University of Huddersfield Huddersfield Microbiology services School of Applied Sciences Queensgate Huddersfield HD1 3

Microsoft word - 3 - therapeutic properties of periodontal cement packs.doc

The Therapeutic Properties of Periodontal Cement by W J. LINGHORNE, D.D.S., Department of Physiology D. C. O'CONNELL, M.S.A., Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, experiments that may be of interest to the Ipa cks have been increasingly used in the clinician are reported in this paper. treatment of periodontal disease. Aided by a grant to Dr. H. K. Box, Research Professor toget

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