## Essay 1 - the essence of matter

ESSAY ONE
THE ESSENCE OF MATTER
By Rajiv Pande
B.E. (Mech), DMET, Class 1 Marine Engineer
INTRODUCTION

The problems of modern physics seem to founded in an incomplete or improper
understanding of the basic dimensions that physics uses, namely Mass, Length and
Time. Of these the most ill-understood physical dimensions are of time and mass, and
while length seems to be the simplest to relate to, it can be quite odd when seen in
some particular ways. Physics is divided on certain laws that seem to hold well
enough in one aspect but fail in another. The discrepancy is largely between Quantum
Mechanics and General Relativity and scientists have been trying to understand, for
several decades, without success, as to what exactly went wrong and where
Attempts have been made to reconcile the schism between the laws of quantum
physics (QM) and those of general relativity (GR) and one such attempt identifies the
problem as being the manner in which time is treated in QM and GR.
The following extract from Hitoshi Kitada’s paper on local time is one such example
…the main theme of the paper is to present one possible consistent unification of quantum mechanics and general relativity. This is stated intentionally with anticipating the naive refutation that the Euclidean geometry which quantum mechanics follows and the non-flat Riemannian geometry which relativity follows can never be united consistently. Our trick of the consistent unification of these two theories is to adopt a ten-dimensional vector bundle X x R6 (the reason R6 is adopted instead of R4 will be touched below) as the total physics space, where the base space X and the fibre R6 are mutually orthogonal. Quantum mechanics is set on the Euclidean space R6 and relativity theory on the curved Riemannian space X. Each point (t,x) in X is correlated to the centre of mass of the local system consisting of finite number of (quantum-mechanical) particles, and these centres of mass are considered as the classical particles. These classical particles are regarded as moving following general relativity in the Riemannian manifold X on the one hand, and the particles inside the local systems are regarded as moving following quantum mechanics on the other hand. In this sense each point (t,x) of the base Riemann space X of the vector bundle X x R6 corresponds to the local system consisting of finite number of particles which follow quantum mechanics in each fibre R6. – Hitoshi Kitada, Theory of Local Times, (from http://kitada.com/timeI.html ) Dr. Hitoshi Kitada seems to have identified two kinds of motions – the ones that follow GR in the Reimannian manifold X and the other kind that follows QM “inside” the local system. Assuming that the centre of mass of a local system is a point “outside” the local system – and it is correlated with the classical motions in the
manifold X of GR, what an observer sees is only the “outsides” of local systems.
Further, as per the theory, Local systems are internal clocks – and the very activity of
local systems is “clocking”, but this time is not “visible” from the outside. So much so
that Hitoshi describes the internal clocking of the local system “as if the inside world
of the mind”
The involvement of “mind” and “observer interaction” in physics has seriously upset
the apple-cart of a purely objective physics of the Newtonian kind.
In QM it is the Heisenberg’s Uncertainty principle, in GR it is the speed of light.
Either way, it is not possible for our observations to follow the common sense of
Newtonian physics and we are forced to create counter-intuitive geometries and
complex analytical systems in the process.
But even doing so, while we are good enough with the mathematics, we are still at a
loss to understand the basic physics that we are attempting to analyze with our
complex calculations. It seems to me that while mathematics has advanced
phenomenally in the past century or so, physics is still languishing in the pre- and
post-Newtonian age.
My purpose is to take a new look at the basic dimensions of mass, length and time –
and whether these are the true physical dimensions or mere conveniences of
measurement. It is my intention to gradually introduce “mind” into physics itself, and
take a radically different look at the conventional dimensions that physics uses.
To talk about physics is to talk about substances. I draw some support from Leibniz in
the course of the study of substances and try to create what is called “matter” by using
a combination of fundamental substances. Like Newton I rely heavily on
understanding the nature of the physical world as what we ourselves experience1, and
how these experiences can be objectified and eventually absorbed into a self-
consistent physics.
ABSOLUTE SPACE AND TIME

Einstein’s relativity declares outright that there is no such thing as absolute space and
time. All is “relative”. In a relative world, it is impossible to be sure of the
measurement of any motion with any degree of certainty whatsoever. However by
integrating space and time together as a single entity (what is called the space-time
continuum) Einstein was able to get rid of relativity and accurately predict what
Newton’s mechanics could not. However we shall see that Einstein’s theories are
devised only in so far as we are concerned about the motions of material objects and
only as far as we need to pro-actively measure such motions using physically
standardized units of length and physical clocks.
Newton’s Space and Time were metaphysical – in the sense that they did not lend
themselves to measurement and were thus “above” the realm of practical
(measurable/demonstrable) physics. Newton’s space was always at absolute rest and
his time was always in absolute motion. It is not at all difficult to imagine space that is
at absolute rest – when we understand that emptiness itself does not move. Similarly
1 Mass, force and time, work, power and energy – all these were, before Newton, purely subjective experiences which he tried to objectify and measure – with a fair degree of success. time as relentless motion is also a purely common sense idea and even without reference to any motion of any physical body, we easily understand that time does not stop – that it is always flowing no matter which way we look. By rejecting absolute space and time, it is not that Einstein is rejecting our common sense, but because measurement introduces relativity, our common sense understanding of space and time is not practicable when it comes to actual calculations and verifying experimental results. This is the only reason why Newton’s absolute space and time was relegated to and still continues to languish in the “metaphysical” domain. Let us start with what Newton had to say about absolute space and time. Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable. Relative Space is some moveable dimension or measure of the absolute spaces; which our senses determine, by its position to bodies; and which is vulgarly taken for immovable space. . And so instead of absolute places and motions, we use relative ones; and that
without any inconvenience in common affairs; but in Philosophical disquisitions, we
ought to abstract from our senses, and consider things themselves, distinct from what
are only sensible measures of them. For it may be that there is no body really at rest,
to which the places and motions of others may be referred. (Newton, 1687)

Comments: In the first part we see the reference to bodies – material objects –
“which our senses determine, by its position to bodies” – and which is “vulgarly”
taken for immovable space. In philosophical disquisitions, Newton says, we ought to
abstract from (draw away from, keep away from) our senses (of physical things) and
consider things in themselves (metaphysically) as distinct from what are only (merely,
practically, crudely) sensible (sense-based) measures of them.
Please note that Newton is explaining an observation problem in regard to the
understanding of absolute space, i.e. that sense perception will not reveal any proof of
absolute space. Thus for the sake of sense-perception we utilize a relative space
merely for our convenience.
The concept of absolute time also follows similarly:
. Absolute, True, and Mathematical Time, of itself, and from its own nature flows equably without regard to any thing external, and by another name is called Duration: Relative, Apparent, and Common Time is some sensible and external (whether accurate or unequable) measure of Duration by the means of motion, which is commonly used instead of True time; such as an Hour, a Day, a Month, a Year. . For the natural days are truly unequable, though they are commonly consider'd as
equal, and used for a measure of time: Astronomers correct this inequality for their
more accurate deducing of the celestial motions. It may be, that there is no such thing
as an equable motion, whereby time may be accurately measured. All motions may be
accelerated and retarded, but the True, or equable progress, of Absolute time is liable
to no change. The duration or perseverance of the existence of things remains the
same, whether the motions are swift or slow, or none at all. (Newton, 1687)

Comments: Absolute time flows equably without relation to “anything external” –
which again indicates that no material reference is required for its existence and that
time will continue even without reference to any manner of clocks. It also flows “of
itself” and “from its own nature” – which means it is uncaused, natural, and, being
uncaused or unprovoked or uninitiated, it is a relentless continuity. The term
“duration” as employed by Newton is better not confused with a “measure” of
duration. If we were to measure the duration of say, the earth’s rotation as “one day”
and relate this to the motion of a clock, we would be doing a “relative” measure of
time. Duration is the time-interval between a beginning and an end. This time interval
may vary as per our measure – when we make a comparison with some “standard”
measure like a clock. This is further complicated by the knowledge that standard
clocks themselves vary according to the relativity theory – what Einstein calls “time
dilation or contraction” depending on the velocity of the inertial frame in which the
clock is kept (such as a fast jet plane). Clocks are material bodies in “motion” and the
linear “motion” of the clock’s frame itself seems tangled with the circular motions of
its hands. The moving frame (such as the fast jet plane) is also a material body in
motion, because the clock has to be physically carried within this moving frame.
Throughout this essay, I refer to Newton’s absolute time as “Motion” as it is just that
and nothing else but that
The Continuum Thesis of Space and Motion

Let us imagine space and time (motion) without the existence of any material bodies.
In this utter emptiness, we will lack awareness of any shape, size, distance, position or
movement. In fact we would lose our concepts of space and time entirely. To
understand space we need to have bodies separated by a distance, to understand time
we need to register some change - whether of position, motion, shape, size or
whatever. Without any material reference we are more or less in an eternal oblivion.
Let us call this oblivion as Absolute Space and Absolute Motion
If we place one solitary point (with zero size and zero mass) in this oblivion and call it
an observer, this observer may be hurtling along at high speed, twisting, turning and
spinning – perhaps suddenly stopping to a dead halt and again plunging onward
crazily at breakneck speed but, all along, this solitary observer is not in the least
aware of any position nor is he aware of any motion because he has no visual
reference and no sensation of inertia.
To understand the idea of “absolutes” we have to first understand the meaning of
“continuum”. A continuum is that which prohibits the appearance of any parts. It is
given entirely or not at all. Space and Motion, as absolutes, obey the continuum
thesis, whereby:
Every point in space is an absolute position and also the whole of space.
Every point in motion is an absolute motion and also the whole of motion.

We can liken the continua of space and motion with the real numbers. In any real
number line, there is a continuum of numbers between any two given numbers. That
is, between 1 and 2 there is a continuum of numbers, even between 0.0001 and 0.0002
lies the same continuum of numbers. To generalize the description of continua from
the real numbers we have to avoid the terms zero and infinity altogether, and use only
“point” and “continuum”. Note that the “zero” of a real number line has no particular
position – any position will do just fine because there is a continuum on both sides
anyway.
Every point in a continuum is an identical point because, between any two points no
matter how close or how far, there is a continuum and on either side of these points
there is also the same continuum. The distance between any two points in a
continuum is indeterminate because the whole continuum field can expand or contract
and it will not make any difference whatsoever. Any number of points anywhere in
the continuum are indistinguishable from one another because they lack any
distinctive qualification. They seem to keep slipping just out of reach, no matter how
delicately we try to extract them. The Real Number axes are therefore not numbers at
all but a field of possibilities of numbers. Even the origin of any three mutually
orthogonal axes could be variously placed anywhere in a continuum field. Since all
points are identical to each other, identity and uniqueness of any number is not
possible to possess unless we use an entirely different way of presenting a unique
identity. For this, the identity of any point must be such that it is no longer a part of
the continuum of points, but rather stands out from the continuum as something
separated from it. It must therefore be a discrete entity that exists of itself and apart
from space and motion. Identity and distinction are what we possess, while space and
motion are not possible to possess as one’s own – they must always remain common
to all. By understanding a continuum we are in a position to understand the quantum –
which we can then call “the absolute number”. There are no absolute numbers to be
found among the reals.
The three basic dimensions of classical physics Mass, Length and Time are
represented as real number lines. If we have understood the continuum thesis – then
mass and mass-number (quantity of mass) are different, length and length-number
(distance) are different, time and time-number (duration) are different. We have to
treat numbers, as measures, as something apart from the continuum of their supposed
origin – as separate entities in themselves.
For our purposes, we treat only space and motion as continua, and reject all other
possible continua because with just these two continua we can build the whole of
physical world.
Leibnizian theory of substances:

Leibniz seems to have understood the continuum thesis well enough2
1. The Monad, of which we shall here speak, is nothing but a simple substance, which
enters into compounds. By 'simple' is meant 'without parts.' (Theod. 10.)
2. And there must be simple substances, since there are compounds; for a compound
is nothing but a collection or aggregatum of simple things.

We will need to qualify our decision as to which seems the most correct view as we
go along with this essay.
Quantum Mechanics

By definition of the word “quantum” itself – QM deals purely with the secondary
substances of time and energy. But we have said that secondary substances are
secondary only with relation to the pre-existence of primary substances. If we look at
the two basic parameters of QM – namely position and momentum, we can identify
“position” as position “in space” because position in itself is meaningless.
Analogously we can identify momentum as momentum “in motion”. What we are
doing here is to attach a particle (a quantum of secondary substance) with a primary
substance, where the primary substance is given as a point in the continuum. By the
continuum thesis the point and the continuum are the same. Thus the position of a
quantum particle “in space” is an absolute position and also the whole of space itself.
The physical particle as an object is a body that “occupies space”, not by displacing it
like a body immersed in some fluid but by being associated with some discrete
volume or “size” in a way that does not diminish or increase the “volume” of space
itself. To give a simple analogy, when we draw a figure on a blackboard, we do not
diminish the extent nor modify the character of the black-board itself, but “add-on” a
secondary substance like a chalk mark, such that the blackboard and the chalk mark
are only associated in perception. The quantum particle thus can be said to be floating
“outside” space, it exists “transcendentally” in relation to space and hence is in an
ideal state of existence to choose and fix an absolute position for itself. The position
of a quantum particle in space is an absolute position because it is free of any relative
references – by being transcendental.
Similarly for the momentum parameter, the motion of the particle is given as an
absolute motion. However we detract from the classical view that particles move,
rather we say that the Quantum Mechanical momentum parameter is a particle OF
motion – not a particle IN motion. Positions are thus given in SPACE and momenta
are given separately in MOTION. Thus the body and its associated motion are given
separately. They are given in different7 FIELDS altogether.
This is the crucial understanding of Space and Motion as entirely different media or
substances, whereby QM has intuitively differentiated them as independent
parameters. What a brilliant intuition!
Roger Penrose writes:
“The versatile and original Irish mathematician William Rowen Hamilton (1805-
1865) …had developed this form of theory in a way that emphasized an analogy with
wave propagation. This hint of a relation between waves and particles – and the form

7 This is the same crucial differentiation that will eventually lead us to an understanding of mass. of Hamiltonian equations themselves – was highly important for the later
development of quantum mechanics…
One novel ingredient of the Hamiltonian scheme lies in the ‘variables’ that one uses
in the description of the physical system. Up until now, the positions of particles were
taken as primary, the velocities simply being the rate of change of position with
respect to time…in the specification of the initial state of a Newtonian system we
needed the positions and the velocities of all the particles in order that the subsequent
behavior be determinate. With the Hamiltonian formulation we must select the
momenta of the particles rather than the velocities….This might be a small change in
itself, but the important thing is that the position and momentum of each particle are
to be treated as though they are independent quantities, more or less on an equal
footing with each other. Thus one ‘pretends’, at first, that the momenta of the various
particles have nothing to do with the rates of change of their respective positions
variables, but are just a separate set of variables, so we can imagine they ‘could’
have been quite independent of the position motions. In the Hamiltonian formulation
we now have two sets of equations. One of these tells us how the momenta of the
various particles are changing with time and the other tells us how the positions are
changing with time
. - (from “The Emperor’s New Mind” ISBN 0-09-977170-5)
We can comment here that there is no need to ‘pretend’ as Roger Penrose says, rather
position and momentum simply just ‘are’ separate parameters altogether.
Probabilities

Quantum Mechanics deals with subatomic particles as if they were probabilities. So
far the probability approach to QM has been very successful except that no one has
yet established any physical basis for probability – that is, while we accept the
mathematical equations for what they are and the results that they produce, we will
now try to understand the physical basis of these equations.
In the formalism of quantum mechanics, the state of a system at a given time is
described by a complex wave function (sometimes referred to as orbitals in the case of
atomic electrons), and more generally, elements of a complex vector space. This
abstract mathematical object allows for the calculation of probabilities of outcomes
of concrete experiments. For example, it allows one to compute the probability of
finding an electron in a particular region around the nucleus at a particular time.
Contrary to classical mechanics, one can never make simultaneous predictions of
conjugate variables, such as position and momentum, with arbitrary accuracy. For
instance, electrons may be considered to be located somewhere within a region of
space, but with their exact positions being unknown. Contours of constant probability,
often referred to as “clouds” may be drawn around the nucleus of an atom to
conceptualize where the electron might be located with the most probability.
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle quantifies the inability to precisely locate the
particle given its conjugate.
- from Wikipedia “Quantum Mechanics”
I have underlined the reference to an “abstract mathematical object”. Given the nature
of our continuum substances as described above, we do not need the term “abstract”
nor do we need the term “mathematical object” – because it is the nature of the
continuum itself that every point is a possible point. Every point in space is always a
possible position and every point in motion is always a possible motion.

We thus have a physical basis for the existence of probability and we have discovered
the reality underlying the quantum mechanical world.

Bound states

We now look at how quantum substances “bind” with continuum substances with the
resulting appearance of matter. All those who are familiar with QM have heard of
what is called the “wave function collapse”
“In quantum mechanics, wave function collapse (also called collapse of the state
vector
or reduction of the wave packet) is the process by which a wave function,
initially in a superposition of different eigenstates, appears to reduce to a single one
of the states after interaction with the external world. It is one of two processes by
which quantum systems evolve in time according to the laws of quantum mechanics as
presented by John von Neumann. The reality of wave function collapse has always
been debated, i.e., whether it is a fundamental physical phenomenon in its own right
or just an epiphenomenon of another process, such as quantum decoherence. In
recent decades the quantum decoherence view has gained popularity. Collapse may
be understood as a change in conditional probabilities.”
– from Wikipedia “Wave
Function Collapse”
Something happens when the wave function collapses. As Danah Zohar cryptically
remarks in her book “The Quantum Self” – “Reality happens when we look at it”. In
our opinion what happens when “reality happens” is that a quantum binds with a point
in its particular continuum i.e for energy the continuum that it binds to is Motion and
for time the continuum for binding is Space.
The bindings of energy and time with the respective continua bring about the
existence of what is called “matter”, such that matter is a compound of these four
substances
END

CONCLUSIONS:

1) The schism or “gap” between the understanding of QM and GR is approached 2) Newton’s Absolute time and space is recovered as an essential part of physics 3) A real basis for the probability approach in QM is established – rather than being a mere “mathematical tool” – the probability approach is verified as having a physical reason 4) Similarly the distinction between position and momentum as separate variables in QM is no longer a trick of mathematics – but has a firm physical grounding 5) A physical basis for what happens in a wave-function collapse is explained. 6) The basic constituents and formation of matter is explained. 1) Terms commonly used in physics such as “Wave Function Collapse”, “Bound States”, “Quantum Mechanics” may have somewhat different meanings in current physics circles than those used in this essay. The reader is advised to be cautious because many of these terms even as used today are not completely well-defined. 2) The ideas presented in this essay were developed to this form after almost thirty years of introspection and the author is indebted to the time@yahoogroups.com internet group and to Prof. Hitoshi Kitada of the University of Tokyo for his kind indulgence and encouragement from the year 2001 till today. 3) In July 2009 the author dicovered an amazing co-incidence with Dr. Atso Eerikainen’s work (as as a footnote quoted in the above essay) or rather, was able to understand, for the first time as it were, the true essence of what Dr. Eerikainen has been saying for all these years on the time list

Source: http://www.metasciences.ac/essay1.pdf

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