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Designation: D2216 – 10
Standard Test Methods for
Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of
Soil and Rock by Mass1

This standard is issued under the fixed designation D2216; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. 1. Scope*
determining water content of peat materials.
1.1 These test methods cover the laboratory determination 1.5 Materials containing water with substantial amounts of of the water (moisture) content by mass of soil, rock, and soluble solids (such as salt in the case of marine sediments) similar materials where the reduction in mass by drying is due when tested by this method will give a mass of solids that to loss of water except as noted in and For includes the previously soluble dissolved solids. These mate- simplicity, the word “material” shall refer to soil, rock or rials require special treatment to remove or account for the aggregate whichever is most applicable.
presence of precipitated solids in the dry mass of the specimen, 1.2 Some disciplines, such as soil science, need to deter- or a qualified definition of water content must be used. For mine water content on the basis of volume. Such determina- example, see Test Method regarding information on tions are beyond the scope of this test method.
1.3 The water content of a material is defined in 1.6 This test standard requires several hours for proper 1.4 The term “solid material” as used in geotechnical drying of the water content specimen. Test Methods engineering is typically assumed to mean naturally occurring and provide less time-consuming processes for mineral particles of soil and rock that are not readily soluble in determining water content. See Gilbert2 for details on the water. Therefore, the water content of materials containing extraneous matter (such as cement etc.) may require special 1.7 Two test methods are provided in this standard. The treatment or a qualified definition of water content. In addition, methods differ in the significant digits reported and the size of some organic materials may be decomposed by oven drying at the specimen (mass) required. The method to be used may be the standard drying temperature for this method (110°C).
specified by the requesting authority; otherwise Method A shall Materials containing gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate) or other compounds having significant amounts of hydrated water 1.7.1 Method A—The water content by mass is recorded to may present a special problem as this material slowly dehy- the nearest 1 %. For cases of dispute, Method A is the referee drates at the standard drying temperature (110°C) and at very low relative humidity, forming a compound (such as calcium 1.7.2 Method B—The water content by mass is recorded to sulfate hemihydrate) that is not normally present in natural materials except in some desert soils. In order to reduce the 1.8 This standard requires the drying of material in an oven.
degree of dehydration of gypsum in those materials containing If the material being dried is contaminated with certain gypsum or to reduce decomposition in highly/fibrous organic chemicals, health and safety hazards can exist. Therefore, this soils, it may be desirable to dry the materials at 60°C or in a standard should not be used in determining the water content of desiccator at room temperature. Thus, when a drying tempera- contaminated soils unless adequate health and safety precau- ture is used which is different from the standard drying temperature as defined by this test method, the resulting water 1.9 Units—The values stated in SI units shall be regarded as content may be different from the standard water content standard excluding the Alternative Sieve Sizes listed in determined at the standard drying temperature of 110°C.
No other units of measurement are included in this test method.
1.10 Refer to Practice for guidance concerning the NOTE 1—Test Method provides an alternate procedure for use of significant figures that shall determine whether Method,A or B is required. This is especially important if the water content will be used to calculate other relationships such as This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee on Soil and Rock and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee on Texture, Plasticityand Density Characteristics of Soils.
Current edition approved July 1, 2010. Published August 2010. Originally 2 Gilbert, P.A., “Computer Controlled Microwave Oven System for Rapid Water approved in 1963. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as D2216–05. DOI: Content Determination,” Tech. Report GL-88–21, Department of the Army, Water- ways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS, November 1988 .
*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.
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D2216 – 10
TABLE 1 Minimum Requirements for Mass of Test Specimen, and Balance ReadabilityA
AIf water content data is to be used to calculate other relationships, such as moist or dry mass, wet or dry unit weight or total or dry density, then specimen mass up to 200 g must be determined using a balance accurate to 0.01 g.
moist mass to dry mass or vice versa, wet unit weight to dry unit weight or vice versa, and total density to dry density or vice versa. For example, if four significant digits are required in any of the above calculations, then the water content must be recorded to the nearest 0.1 %. This occurs since 1 plus the water content (not in percent) will have four significant digits regardless of what the value of the water content is; that is, 1 plus 0.1/100 = 1.001, a value with four significant digits.
While, if three significant digits are acceptable, then the water content can be recorded to the nearest 1 %.
1.11 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the 3. Terminology
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- 3.1 Refer to Terminology for standard definitions of priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. 3.2 Definitions:3.2.1 water content by mass (of a material)—the ratio of the 2. Referenced Documents
mass of water contained in the pore spaces of soil or rock material, to the solid mass of particles in that material, expressed as a percentage. A standard temperature of 110 6 5°C is used to determine these masses.
3.3 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: 3.3.1 constant dry mass (of a material)—the state that a water content specimen has attained when further heating causes, or would cause, less than 1 % or 0.1 % additional loss in mass for Method A or B respectively. The time required to obtain constant dry mass will vary depending on numerous factors. The influence of these factors generally can be estab- lished by good judgement, and experience with the materials being tested and the apparatus being used.
4. Summary of Test Method
4.1 A test specimen is dried in an oven at a temperature of 110 6 5°C to a constant mass. The loss of mass due to drying is considered to be water. The water content is calculated using the mass of water and the mass of the dry specimen.
5. Significance and Use
5.1 For many materials, the water content is one of the most significant index properties used in establishing a correlation between soil behavior and its index properties.
5.2 The water content of a material is used in expressing the phase relationships of air, water, and solids in a given volume 3 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM 5.3 In fine-grained (cohesive) soils, the consistency of a Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.
given soil type depends on its water content. The water content Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Wed Apr 27 20:59:38 EDT 2011 2 Downloaded/printed byJOSE RODRIGUEZ (INSUMA+S.A.) pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D2216 – 10
of a soil, along with its liquid and plastic limits as determined approximately 3 and 30°C and in an area that prevents direct by Test Method is used to express its relative consis- contact with sunlight. Disturbed samples in jars or other containers shall be stored in such a way as to minimizemoisture condensation on the insides of the containers.
NOTE 2—The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the 7.2 The water content determination should be done as soon suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the as practicable after sampling, especially if potentially corrod- criteria of Practice are generally considered capable of competent ible containers (such as thin-walled steel tubes, paint cans, etc.) and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice does not in itself ensurereliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice 8. Test Specimen
provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
8.1 For water contents being determined in conjunction with 6. Apparatus
another ASTM method, the specimen mass requirement stated 6.1 Drying Oven—Vented, thermostatically-controlled, in that method shall be used if one is provided. If no minimum preferably of the forced-draft type, meeting the requirements of specimen mass is provided in that method then the values given Specification and capable of maintaining a uniform below shall apply. See Howard4 for background data for the temperature of 110 6 5°C throughout the drying chamber.
6.2 Balances—All balances must meet the requirements of 8.2 The minimum specimen mass of moist material selected Specification and this section. A Class GP1 balance of to be representative of the total sample is based on visual 0.01 g readability is required for specimens having a mass of maximum particle size in the sample and the Method (Method up to 200 g (excluding mass of specimen container) and a Class A or B) used to record the data. Minimum specimen mass and GP2 balance of 0.1 g readability is required for specimens balance readability shall be in accordance with having a mass over 200 g. However, the balance used may be 8.3 Using a test specimen smaller than the minimum indi- controlled by the number of significant digits needed (see cated in requires discretion, though it may be adequate for the purposes of the test. Any specimen used not meeting these 6.3 Specimen Containers—Suitable containers made of ma- requirements shall be noted on the test data forms or test data terial resistant to corrosion and change in mass upon repeated heating, cooling, exposure to materials of varying pH, and 8.4 When working with a small (less than 200 g) specimen cleaning. Unless a dessicator is used, containers with close- containing a relatively large gravel particle, it is appropriate fitting lids shall be used for testing specimens having a mass of not to include this particle in the test specimen. However, any less than about 200 g; while for specimens having a mass discarded material shall be described and noted on the test data greater than about 200 g, containers without lids may be used (see One uniquely numbered (identified) container or 8.5 For those samples consisting entirely of intact rock or number-matched container and lid combination as required is gravel-size aggregate, the minimum specimen mass shall be needed for each water content determination.
500 g. Representative portions of the sample may be brokeninto smaller particles. The particle size is dictated by the NOTE 3—The purpose of close-fitting lids is to prevent loss of moisture specimen mass, the container volume and the balance being from specimens before initial mass determination, and to prevent absorp- used to determine constant mass, see Specimen masses as tion of moisture from the atmosphere following drying and before final small as 200 g may be tested if water contents of only two 6.4 Desiccator (Optional)—A desiccator cabinet or large desiccator jar of suitable size containing silica gel or anhydrous 9. Test Specimen Selection
calcium sulfate. It is preferable to use a desiccant that changes 9.1 When the test specimen is a portion of a larger amount color when it needs to be reconstituted.
of material, the specimen must be selected to be representative NOTE 4—Anhydrous calcium sulfate is sold under the trade name of the water condition of the entire amount of material. The manner in which the test specimen is selected depends on the 6.5 Container Handling Apparatus, heat resistant gloves, purpose and application of the test, type of material being tongs, or suitable holder for moving and handling hot contain- tested, the water condition, and the type of sample (from 6.6 Miscellaneous, knives, spatulas, scoops, quartering 9.2 For disturbed samples such as trimmings, bag samples, cloth, wire saws, etc., as required.
etc; obtain the test specimen by one of the following methods(listed in order of preference): 7. Samples
9.2.1 If the material is such that it can be manipulated and handled without significant moisture loss and segregation, the 7.1 Soil samples shall be preserved and transported in material should be mixed thoroughly. Select a representative accordance with Practice Section 8 Groups B, C, or Dsoils. Rock samples shall be preserved and transported inaccordance with Practice section 7.5.2, Special Care 4 Howard, A. K., “Minimum Test Specimen Mass for Moisture Content Deter- Rock. Keep the samples that are stored prior to testing in mination,” Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM., Vol. 12, No. 1, March 1989, pp.
non-corrodible airtight containers at a temperature between Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Wed Apr 27 20:59:38 EDT 2011 3 Downloaded/printed byJOSE RODRIGUEZ (INSUMA+S.A.) pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D2216 – 10
portion using a scoop of a size that no more than a few judgment and experience with the materials being tested and scoopfuls are required to obtain the proper size of specimen defined in Combine all the portions for the test specimen.
10.4.1 In most cases, drying a test specimen overnight 9.2.2 If the material is such that it cannot be thoroughly (about 12 to 16 h) is sufficient, especially when using forced mixed or mixed and sampled by a scoop, form a stockpile of draft ovens. In cases where there is doubt concerning the the material, mixing as much as possible. Take at least five adequacy of drying to a constant dry mass, see and check portions of material at random locations using a sampling tube, for additional loss in mass with additional oven drying over an shovel, scoop, trowel, or similar device appropriate to the adequate time period. A minimum time period of two hours maximum particle size present in the material. Combine all the should be used, increasing the drying time with increasing specimen mass. A rapid check to see if a relatively large 9.2.3 If the material or conditions are such that a stockpile specimen (> than about 100 g of material) is dry; place a small cannot be formed, take as many portions of the material as strip of torn paper on top of the material while it is in the oven practical, using random locations that will best represent the or just upon removal from the oven. If the paper strip curls the moisture condition. Combine all the portions for the test material is not dry and requires additional drying time.
Specimens of sand may often be dried to constant mass in a 9.3 Intact samples such as block, tube, split barrel, etc, period of about 4 h, when a forced-draft oven is used.
obtain the test specimen by one of the following methods 10.4.2 Since some dry materials may absorb moisture from depending on the purpose and potential use of the sample: drying specimens that still retain moisture, dried specimens 9.3.1 Using a knife, wire saw, or other sharp cutting device, shall be removed before placing moist specimens in the same trim the outside portion of the sample a sufficient distance to oven; unless they are being dried overnight.
see if the material is layered, and to remove material that 10.5 After the specimen has dried to constant mass, remove appears more dry or more wet than the main portion of the the container from the oven (and replace the lid if used). Allow sample. If the existence of layering is questionable, slice the the specimen and container to cool to room temperature or until sample in half. If the material is layered, see the container can be handled comfortably with bare hands and 9.3.2 If the material is not layered, obtain the specimen the operation of the balance will not be affected by convection meeting the mass requirements in by: (1) taking all or currents or heat transmission or both. Determine the mass of one-half of the interval being tested; (2) trimming a represen- the container and oven-dried specimen using the same type/ tative slice from the interval being tested; or (3) trimming the capacity balance used in Record this value. Tight fitting exposed surface of one-half or from the interval being tested.
lids shall be used if it appears that the specimen is absorbing moisture from the air prior to determination of its dry mass.
OTE 5—Migration of moisture in some cohesionless soils may require 10.5.1 Cooling in a desiccator is acceptable in place of tight 9.3.3 If a layered material (or more than one material type is fitting lids since it greatly reduces absorption of moisture from encountered), select an average specimen, or individual speci- mens, or both. Specimens must be properly identified as to 10.6 A copy of a sample data sheet is shown in location, or what they represent, and appropriate remarks Any data sheet can be used, provided the form contains all entered on the test data forms or test data sheets.
10. Procedure
11. Calculation
10.1 Determine and record the mass of the clean and dry 11.1 Calculate the water content of the material as follows: specimen container and its lid, if used along with its identifi-cation number.
10.2 Select representative test specimens in accordance with 10.3 Place the moist test specimen in the container and, if = mass of container and moist specimen, g, used, set the lid securely in position. Determine the mass of the = mass of container and oven dry specimen, g, container and moist specimen using a balance (see and selected on the basis of the specimen mass or required significant digits. Record this value.
= mass of oven dry specimen (M = M NOTE 6—To assist in the oven drying of large test specimens, they should be placed in containers having a large surface area (such as pans) 12. Report: Test Data Form/Sheet
and the material broken up into smaller aggregations.
12.1 The method used to specify how data are recorded on 10.4 Remove the lid (if used) and place the container with the test data sheets or forms, as given below, is the industry the moist specimen in the drying oven. Dry the specimen to a standard, and are representative of the significant digits that constant mass. Maintain the drying oven at 110 6 5°C unless should be retained. These requirements do not consider in situ otherwise specified (see The time required to obtain material variation, use of the data, special purpose studies, or constant mass will vary depending on the type of material, size any considerations for the user’s objectives. It is common of specimen, oven type and capacity, and other factors. The practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data influence of these factors generally can be established by good commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Wed Apr 27 20:59:38 EDT 2011 4 Downloaded/printed byJOSE RODRIGUEZ (INSUMA+S.A.) pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D2216 – 10
of the standard to consider significant digits used in analysis 12.1.7 Indicate if any material (size and amount) was 12.1.1 Test data forms or test data sheets shall include the 12.2 When reporting water content in tables, figures, etc., any data not meeting the requirements of this test method shall 12.1.2 Identification of the sample (material) being tested, be noted, such as not meeting the mass, balance, or temperature such as boring number, sample number, test number, container requirements or a portion of the material is excluded from the 12.1.3 Water content of the specimen to the nearest 1 % for Method A or 0.1 % for Method B, as appropriate based on the 13. Precision and Bias
minimum mass of the specimen. If this method is used in concert with another method, the water content of the specimen 13.1.1 Precision—Test data on precision is not presented should be reported to the value required by the test method for due to the nature of the soil or rock materials tested by this test which the water content is being determined. Refer to Practice method. It is either not feasible or too costly at this time to have for guidance concerning significant digits, especially if ten or more laboratories participate in a round-robin testing the value obtained from this test method is to be used to program. Any variation observed in the data is just as likely to calculate other relationships such as unit weight or density. For be due to specimen variation as to operator or laboratory instance, if it is desired to express dry unit weight, as determined by to the nearest 0.1 lbf/f3 (0.02 kN/m3), it 13.1.2 Subcommittee D18.03 is seeking any data from the may be necessary to use a balance with a greater readability or users of this test method that might be used to make a limited use a larger specimen mass to obtain the required significant digits the mass of water so that the water content can be 13.1.3 Bias—There is no accepted reference value for this determined to the required significant digits. Also, the signifi- test method, therefore, bias cannot be determined.
cant digits in Practice may need to be increased whencalculating phase relationships requiring four significant digits.
14. Keywords
12.1.4 Indicate if test specimen had a mass less than the 14.1 aggregate; consistency; index property; laboratory; moisture analysis; moisture content; soil; water content 12.1.5 Indicate if test specimen contained more than one 12.1.6 Indicate the drying temperature if different from 110 5 Supporting data have been filed at ASTM International Headquarters and may be obtained by requesting Research Report RR:D13-1108.
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D2216 – 10
APPENDIX
(Nonmandatory Information)
X1. WATER CONTENT OF SOIL AND ROCK SAMPLE DATA SHEET
Container+Moist Specimen Mass, g M Initial Container+Oven Dry Specimen Mass, g Secondary Container+Oven Dry Specimen Mass, g Final Container+Oven Dry Specimen Mass, g, M Water Content, %, w = (M /M ) Unified Soil Classification Group Symbol (Visual) Bold Approximate Maximimum Grain Size (Visual)
3⁄4 in., 3⁄8 in., #4,
3⁄4 in., 3⁄8 in., #4,
3⁄4 in., 3⁄8 in., #4,
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D2216 – 10
SUMMARY OF CHANGES
Committee D18 has identified the location of selected changes to these test methods since the last issue, D2216–05, that may impact the use of these test methods. (Approved July 1, 2010) (1) Replaced “has to” with “must” in (6) Added “that still retain moisture” in (2) Added the “heat resistant” to “gloves” in (7) Replaced “its being heated” with “heat transmission” in (3) Replaced “reduce” with “minimize” in (4) Added “or required significant digits” in (5) Revised to clarify the process of obtaining andchecking to determine if a specimen had reached constant (9) Added Footnote A to reflecting balance require- ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standardsand should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of theresponsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you shouldmake your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the aboveaddress or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website(www.astm.org). Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website (www.astm.org/COPYRIGHT/). Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Wed Apr 27 20:59:38 EDT 2011 7 Downloaded/printed byJOSE RODRIGUEZ (INSUMA+S.A.) pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.

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