Heat problems and complications

– adults 8-12 ozs. every hour during active periods.
„ Water or sports drinks replace fluids lost through „ Drink more than you think you will need.
„ Cool drinks tend to be more palatable, may be – Normal volume and pale yellow.
– Normal frequency - at least once every four hours.
 Normal body function.
 Salt = sweat leftovers.
 Sweat facts:  2 - 4 million sweat glands (100 grams).
 Highest concentration - bottom of feet.
 Lowest concentration - back.
 Women have more sweat glands than men.
 Male sweat glands are more active.
 Men can become dehydrated more quickly.
 Evaporation causes cooling of the skin.  Blood is diverted to the skin surface.
 Circulating blood volume is reduced.
 Water and electrolytes (salts) are lost.
 Above 95° F the body relies on sweating to control  High humidity ”gums up” the sweating cooling system  Dehydration - loss exceeds replacement.
 Thirst is not a reliable indicator of dehydration.
 Evaporation cannot occur in high humidity.
 Normal body cooling prevented → body  Decreased blood to the brain → pass out.
Symptoms„ Dry Mouth„ Thirst„ Irritability„ Headache„ Seeming bored or Disinterested„ Dizziness„ Cramps„ Excessive Fatigue „ Move to shaded or air conditioned area.
„ Watch for further signs of continuing „ Occurs in voluntary muscles (i.e. legs).
„ Caused by fluid loss.
„ Blood supply is sent to the skin.
„ Reduces blood to the brain.
„ Confusion and/or unconsciousness.
„ Wet skin – perspiration present.
„ Stop activity.
„ Get out of heat (not in the sun).
„ Lie down.
„ Raise your feet.
„ COOL OFF!!!! (AC) „ Skin is usually hot and dry (no sweat).
– Dizziness– Vomiting– Diarrhea– Confusion „ Reduce body temperature with cool water.
„ Drink cool liquids if person is conscious.
„ Listen to your body.
„ Wear loose-fitting clothing. „ Stop activity when you start to feel overheated.
„ Avoid overheating -- pour water over your head.
„ Get out of the heat -- avoid hot places.
„ Drink plenty of fluids: – Before, during and after entering heat facility– Schedule water breaks to drink at least 8 ozs. of – Avoid caffeine and alcohol which add to dehydration.
„ Obese and/or older adults at > risk.
„ Medications, prescription and over-the-counter, may interfere with you body's ability to regulate temperature. – Gastrointestinal drugs containing atropine (Donnatal); antidepressants or antipsychotics (Thorazine, Haldol, Prozac); – Antihistamines (Benadryl); – Certain cardiovascular medications including betablockers (Blocadren) and diuretics (Diuril); „ If you use any of these medications, be especially careful to limit your exertion and drink plenty of water during hot, humid weather.
„ Place this card in your wallet so that you have it handy should you need to refer to it.
„ Look out for each other, if your neighbor is becoming confused or acting “funny,” get him to – The Merck Manual, 16th Edition, R. Berkow, M.D., – University of Michigan Health System (web resource) http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/life18.htm http://www.drkoop.com/template.asp?page=newsdetail&ap=93&id=510008

Source: http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/grsc_subi/Research/Current_Research_Projects/Heat_IPM/Workshop_Presentations/Presentations_2003/Day1/08_CKennedy.pdf


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