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Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of salmonella isolated from poultry meat in hyderabad pakistanJ. Vet. Anim. Sci. (2012), Vol. 2: 40-46
Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Chicken
†Department of Animal Product Technologies, Department of Veterinary Medicine, ‡Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan ABSTRACT
The study was designed to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. in broiler chicken meat sold in the Karachi City-Pakistan. A total of 160 meat samples were randomly collected from different retail markets and examined for the presence of various species of salmonella. The prevalence rate recorded was 48.75%. Different species of salmonella detected were S. enteritidis, S. typhi, S. pullorum and S. typhimurium (48.71, 20.51, 20.51 and 10.25% respectively). All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, cefotaxime, kanamycin, neomycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, bacitracin, erythromycin, novobiocin, and spectinomycin. However, the isolates showed sensitivity to ceftazidime, gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and chloramphenicol. In conclusion, the chicken meat may be a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistant salmonella for human infections. Key Words: Salmonella; prevalence; antimicrobial resistance; poultry meat
source of the pathogen in humans (Baeumler et al., 2000). This organism has been isolated Poultry is one of the largest industries of Pakistan that has increased at the rate of 20 country (Rumeu et al., 1997). The level of to 25% per annum for last few decades and contamination dramatically increases during producing 19% (0.60 million tons) of the the containment of the animals in holding pens before slaughter (D’Aoust, 1994). (Anonymous, 2008). The industry has been Besides this, the increasing incidence of facing devastating hazards; lack of disease salmonellosis is due to a number of technical practices (Kent et al., 1981). After slaughter, Salmonellosis is a food borne disease of the subsequent dressing of meat increases the spread of salmonella on meat surfaces, and developing countries. It is one of the major by the time the meat is in retail outlets, public health problems in terms of socio- contamination levels may be increased by economic impact (Gracia and Finlay, 1994). practices have made salmonellosis a major commercial distribution of both animals and economic and public health problem in many food products favor the spread of the disease. Most salmonella infections in humans result from the ingestion of contaminated poultry, contamination and consequently act as major beef, pork, eggs, and milk (Gomez et al., J. Vet. Anim. Sci. (2012), Vol. 2: 40-46
1997). When infection spreads beyond the intestinal tract, appropriate antimicrobial identification based on their morphological therapy can be lifesaving (Hohmann, 2001; characteristics and various biochemical tests that included catalase, oxidase, motility, triple sugar iron agar (TSI), indole, methyl Use of antimicrobials in any environment red, Voges-Proskauer and citrate utilization creates selection pressures that favor the test. The colonies identified on the basis of survival of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. The routine practice of giving antimicrobials serological tests using polyvalent serum to domestic livestock for growth promotion against O and H salmonella antigens (Difco, and prophylaxis is an important factor in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in agglutinated during the period of one to two the food chain (Tollefson et al., 1997; Witte, salmonella, and were preserved in Nutrient salmonella infections are acquired by eating agar at 4°C. Suspected colonies (maximum contaminated foods of animal origin (Angulo five) were randomly selected from each plate et al., 2000; Fey et al., 2000). The present and confirmed by further biochemical tests study planned to estimate the prevalence of including fermentation of glucose, lactose Salmonella serotypes in broiler meat and and sucrose, hydrogen sulfide production, evaluate resistance profile of these isolates urease activity, phenylalanine deamination, MATERIALS AND METHODS
Antimicrobial Sensitivity Test
The isolates were subjected to sensitivity tests as described earlier (Bauer et al., 1996). Each isolate was inoculated in brain heart randomly collected from different fresh meat markets of the City Karachi. Forty samples incubated for 24 hours at 37ºC. The broth from each of four localities designated as were streaked using sterile cotton swabs on groups A, B, C and D were collected. The Mueller-Hinton agar plates. The diffusion samples were analyzed for the presence of discs with antimicrobial drugs were placed on the plates and incubated for 24 hours at Isolation and Identification of Salmonella
Basingstoke, UK) used were: ampicillin (10 µg), cefotaxime (30 µg), ceftazidime (30 µg), streptomycin (10 µg), gentamicin (10 µg), kanamycin (30 µg), tobramycin (10 µg), peptone water (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) as a neomycin (30 µg), nalidixic acid (30 µg), pre-enrichment media and incubated at 37°C ciprofloxacin (5 µg), ofloxacin (5 µg), for 18 hours. Aliquots from pre-enrichment chloramphenicol (30 µg), tetracycline (30 were inoculated into selective enrichment µg), bacitracin (10 µg), erythromycin (10 liquid media at a ratio of 1:10 in Selenite- µg), novobiocin (30 µg) and spectinomycin Cysteine broth. A loop full of broth was streaked on plates of Brilliant Green agar, MacConkey agar, and Salmonella-Shigella RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
agar (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK). The plates were incubated at 37 ºC for 24 hours. Suspected colonies of salmonella from each J. Vet. Anim. Sci. (2012), Vol. 2: 40-46
salmonella (Table 1). Out of the positive The high prevalence (48.71%) of S. samples, S. enteritidis was found in 38 enteritidis observed in this study is (48.71%), S. typhi in 16 (20.51%), S. comparable to the situation described in most pullorum in 16 (20.51%) and S. typhimurium countries in recent years (Bailey et al., in 8 (10.25%) samples. The distribution of 2002). It appears that the presence of this various species of salmonella in all four serovar in the intestinal tract of broilers can contaminate carcasses during slaughter and processing. The presence of S. typhi and S. Poultry are the most important reservoir for typhimurium in poultry is of considerable salmonella, with prevalence in chicken importance from the standpoint of public health. S. pullorum indicated the higher level of fecal contamination in the present study, prevalence of salmonella in chicken meat as earlier reported by Orji et al. (2005). may be a result of cross-contamination from intestines during processing and cutting or protein and a valuable commodity for the retailing or marketing. The contamination rates observed in our results are not in Pakistan. The study revealed that most shops countries, 23-34% in Belgium (Uyttendaele environment. The processing of carcass as per consumers demand further increases the (Plummer et al., 1995), 26% in Ireland chances of contamination. The water used (Duffy et al., 1999) and 36% in Malaysia for washing of carcasses is mostly from the (Rusul et al., 1996). However, Beli et al. same container and it could be contaminated (2001) reported the low prevalence (8 %) of with salmonella from feces or from the salmonella in poultry products in Albania. butcher’s hands during washing. For the The difference in the prevalence rates may studies, several factors may be considered, Table 1 Species-wise prevalence of Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler meat
J. Vet. Anim. Sci. (2012), Vol. 2: 40-46
such as differences in origin, time period, to eleven (Table 3). All isolates showed contamination level of animals, slaughter house sanitation, cross-contamination of the Table 2 Total number of Salmonella
products, and differences in methodology applied for detection of pathogen (Bryan and The different salmonella serotypes and their shown in Tables 1 and 2. Majority of the salmonella serotypes isolated from all the human. A total of 17 antibiotic sensitivity discs were used. Out of these salmonella was sensitive to six antibiotics and resistant Table 3 Antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler meat
S.enteritidis S. typhi S. pullorum S. typhimurium nalidixic acid, tetracycline, bacitracin, Alambedji et al., 2006; Antunes et al., 2003; erythromycin and novobiocin. On the other Santos et al., 2003). Tetracycline has been tetracycline could be expected since the members of this class (chlortetracycline and observed in all the isolated serotype which is oxytetracycline) have been routinely used as in agreement with the findings of Suresh et al. (2006). The resistance to tetracycline was Ricke, 2003). Resistance to streptomycin also observed in 89.7% of the isolates that is J. Vet. Anim. Sci. (2012), Vol. 2: 40-46
conformity with the findings of Cardoso et spread of salmonella at various levels of al. (2006). This elevated resistance may be production is needed on a long term basis. explained by the possible diffusion of the tet (A) resistance gene, as observed in Italy by REFERENCES
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Populations légales en vigueur à compter du 1er janvier 2013 Populations légales en vigueur à compter du 1er janvier 2013 RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE Ministère de l'Économie et des Finances Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques 18, boulevard AdolphePinard75675 Paris cedex 14Tél. : 01 41 17 50 50Tableau 1 - Population des arrondissements et des cantons. 56-1