University of Rome "Tor Vergata", ItalyWe compare government investment and consumption multipliers in developed economies duringthe recent …scal consolidation, following the Blanchard and Leigh (2013) approach. We …nd that,in highly-indebted countries, the investment multiplier is likely to be much higher than what hasbeen assumed by policy makers and much higher than the consumpt
Healthisnumberone.orgFACT SHEET — Osteoporosis
What is Osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones, resulting in an increased loss of bone massand bone strength, which in turn makes them more susceptible to sudden and unexpectedfractures. Often the disease progresses without any symptoms or pain and is notdiscovered until weakened bones cause painful fractures.
Facts and Figures
According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation: ♦Twenty-eight million Americans, 80 percent of them women, are at risk forosteoporosis.
♦One-third of women in their 70s will develop osteoporosis.
♦Two-thirds of women in their 80s will develop osteoporosis.
♦Seven percent of a woman's bone mass is lost after menopause.
♦Of the women who suffer a bone fracture after age 85, 25 percent will die within a year.
Death is usually due to fat or blood clots originating at the site of the fracture.
According to the Older Women's League, a woman's frequency of hip fracture is equal tothe combined risk of developing breast, uterine and ovarian cancer.
Risk Factors for Osteoporosis
♦Gender — Women over the age of 50 are at the greatest risk. Women experience rapid
bone loss during and five to 10 years after menopause. Menopause decreases the
production of estrogen, a hormone that protects against excess bone loss.
♦Age and Race — A woman's risk for osteoporosis increases as she ages. Caucasian and
Asian women are at the most risk.
♦Bone Structure and Body Weight — Thin, petite women are at a greater risk for
developing the disease because they have less bone to lose than people with more body
weight and larger frames.
♦Family History — If a woman's parents or grandparents have had any signs of
osteoporosis, such as a fractured hip after a minor fall, she may have a greater risk for
developing the disease.
♦Nutrition — If a woman's body lacks sufficient amounts of calcium and vitamin D, she
is more likely to develop osteoporosis.
♦Lifestyle — People that live a sedentary lifestyle are at a greater risk for the disease
because exercising and activity place weight on the bones, helping to prevent
♦Medications — Some medications, such as corticosteroids and anti-convulsants, result
in side effects that may damage bone and lead to osteoporosis.
♦Smoking — Cigarette smoking plays a very significant role in increasing the risk of
142 East Ontario
osteoporosis, by decreasing the blood circulation to bone.
♦Menopause — Estrogen produced by the ovaries helps prevent bone mineral loss in a
Chicago, IL 60611
woman. When she reaches menopause her estrogen level decreases and no longer TEL 312-202-8000
♦Anorexia or Bulimia — Women who have suffered from an eating disorder are at risk
because their bones have not had the weight bearing needed to help prevent bone loss.
How A Woman Can Prevent
How is Osteoporosis Pharmacologically
♦Diet — To maintain strong, healthy bones, a diet
All available FDA approved therapies along with
rich in calcium is needed throughout a woman's life.
Calcium and Vitamin D preserve bone by preventing The need for calcium becomes greater as a woman further breakdown. Today’s options include; ages. The U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance forcalcium is 1,000 milligrams per day. Post- ♦Biophosphonates: Fosamax and Actonel. Both
menopausal women who are not taking estrogen medications build bone and prevent vertebral and should get 1,500 milligrams a day. Leading experts non-vertebral fracture. Both are poorly absorbed and suggest the following foods as a source for calcium: ♦Calcitonin: Miacalcin. Available via injection or
as an intranasal spray, Calcitonin is systematically absorbed to build bone and prevent vertebral fracture. Calcitonin also has some analgesic effects.
♦Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator
(SERMS): Evista/Raloxifene. Evista builds bone and prevents vertebral fracture. Evista also lowers LDL and total cholesterol levels, and may lower risk of ♦Hormone Replacement Therapy: Estrogen pills
or patch. Estrogen builds bone and appears to reduce Vitamin D — Vitamin D is also important
vertebral fracture. Estrogen also reduces menopausal because it enables the body to absorb calcium. The recommended daily allowance of vitamin D is 200immunizing units. Vitamin D can be easily obtained No one medication is for everyone, each has its own by getting five to 15 minutes of sunlight a few times risks and benefits. Your physician will review with a week or by consuming fortified milk.
you which medication fits your profile and instruct you on exactly how the medication should be taken Exercise — Exercise helps a woman reduce the
degree of bone loss. This can be done byestablishing a regular exercise program. Exercises Future Treatment
that make a woman's muscles work against gravity A hormone called parathyroid hormone could soon (such as walking, jogging, aerobics and weight be available, via injection, as a treatment that lifting) are best for strengthening bones.
promotes bone formation and fracture reduction.
How Does a Woman Know if She Has
The American Osteopathic Association (AOA) urges Osteoporosis?
women to contact their osteopathic family physicianfor advice on preserving good health for an active Painless and accurate medical tests can provide lifestyle. Osteopathic physicians (D.O.s), physicians information about a woman's bone health. Bone treating people, not just symptoms, are especially Mineral Testing, or bone measurements, use X-rays well qualified to assist in preventive healthcare since at very small amounts of radiation to determine the they are fully trained licensed physicians who have bone density of the spine, hip, wrist or heel. A additional training that focuses on the body's woman's physician can provide more information structure and function, and its ability to heal itself.
For more information visit the AOA's Web site atwww.aoa-net.org.
Application of Embedded System for Home Care and Health Management Jyh-Perng Fang and Yang-Lang Chang National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract Non-compliance and inappropriate usage of medication are common problems found among the elderly, especially in the environment of home care. To address these problems, a drug dispenser is developed with the followin