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Cardiac anomalies 2014Common Cardiovascular Anomalies and
This is a vascular disease of the heart characterized by inadequate blood supply to heart muscle leading to their damage and ultimate death. Heart Block:
This is a nervous disease of the heart in which the ventricles contract independent of the SA node. In this condition the heart usual y beats at a slower rate most of the time.
Myocardial Infarction (MI):
• This is a vascular disease of the heart
characterized by necrotic myocardial
c h a n g e s f o l l o w i n g i n a d e q u a t e o r
interrupted blood flow to the myocardium.
• It is most commonly caused by coronary
i n s u f f i c i e n c y r e s u l t i n g f r o m
atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.
• Myocardial infarction could be slowly
progressive or acute (sudden) in nature.
• The necrotic myocardial tissue is usually
replaced by fibrous tissue scar.
This is severe constricting pain or feeling of
tightness in the chest. It is usually caused by
arterial constriction due to:
2. Strenuous exercise after a heavy meal
3. Sudden exposure to a cold environment
Angina pain is normally relieved by a few
minutes of rest after it occurred
It is also relieved by the administration of a
vasodilator e.g. Sublingual Nitroglycerin which
relaxes the coronary arteries.
Angina pain is often less severe than the pain of
myocardial infarction which is also not relieved
Cardiac Functions and Ions
• Low Potassium and Calcium in blood
depresses the heart while
• Excess of calcium could lead to sustained
cardiac muscle contraction resulting in
death (Death by lethal injection)
SOME CARDIAC PARAMETERS
• Heart rate (HR):
• Female - 72-80/min
• Male – 64-72/min
• Average – 75/min
• Fetal heart rate = 140-160
• Abnormal Heart rate
• Tachycardia = over 100/min
• Bradycardia = below 60/min
• Stroke Volume (SV) – 70ml (Same for right and
• Cardiac output – HR x SV =70 x 75 = 5252ml =
approximately 5 litres.
• Systemic BP
• Pulmonary BP
• Therefore, Stroke volume = EDV-ESV=
• Venous return is increased by:
1.Slow heart rate
• Venous return increases EDV
• Afterload = Back pressure exerted by
Arterial Blood. It is the pressure the
ventricles must overcome before they
could eject blood.
• It is equal to the diastolic pressure (80 or 8
mmHg) and impedes the ability of the
ventricles to release blood.
• High afterload leads to high ESV but
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