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Chet.org.zaCHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y This section deals with the Eduardo Mondlane’s student enrolments over the period 2000/01-2007/08. Data for the years 2008/09 to 2009/10 were not available.
Graph 1 below shows how Eduardo Mondlane University’s head count student enrolments changed over the period 2000/1-2007/8. It should be noted that in a head count enrolment total, students are counted as units, regardless of whether they are studying full-time or part-time. The data show that Eduardo Mondlane’s head count student enrolment increased by 8 600 in 2007/08 compared to 2000/01; an average annual growth rate of 11.3%. Undergraduate enrolments increased by 8 000 over this period. Postgraduates were enrolled for the first time in 2002/03 and reached a total of 600 by 2007/08. Graph 1 Head count enrolments by qualification type (thousands)
Note: The category “postgraduate” includes qualifications such as postgraduate diplomas, masters and doctoral degrees. Graph 2 summarises the changes that occurred in Eduardo Mondlane’s shape by qualification level. Growth in postgraduate enrolments was slow, and Eduardo Mondlane remained as a consequence a predominantly undergraduate university throughout this period.
Graph 2 Shape of head count enrolments by qualification type
CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y Graphs 3 and 4 which follow summarise Eduardo Mondlane’s head count enrolments by field of study, where this is understood as the major or principal subject which students are following in their qualifications. The fields of study used in the graph are (a) science and technology which includes agriculture, engineering and the health sciences, (b) business and management which includes business, commerce, management, accounting, finance and economics, and (c) humanities which includes all majors in education, languages, fine and applied arts, social sciences. The totals in the graph include undergraduate as well as postgraduate enrolments.
Graph 3 Head count enrolments by fields of study
Graph 4 Shape of head count enrolments by fields of study
The main changes reflected in Graphs 3 and 4 are these: • The total of students enrolled for science and technology majors increased from 4 700 in 2000/01 to 7 600 in 2007/08. Because their average annual growth rate of 7.1% was less than half of that of the other fields (15.8% for business/management and 16.6% for humanities), the share which science and technology majors had of the total enrolments fell from 61% in 2000/01 to 47% in 2007/08.
• The total of students enrolled for humanities majors (in the broad sense defined above) trebled from 2 100 in 2000/01 to 6 200 in 2007/08. Their proportion of the total enrolment increased from 28% in 2000/01 to 38% in 2007/08.
CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y • Enrolments in business/management majors rose from a low base of 900 in 2000/01 to 2 500 in 2007/08. The share which business/management majors had of the total enrolment rose from 11% in 2000/01 to 15% in 2007/08. Graph 5 summarises Eduardo Mondlane’s head count enrolment totals of masters and doctoral students. Graph 5 Masters and doctoral enrolments
The data in the graph show that Eduardo Mondlane registered masters students for the first time in 2002/03. Masters enrolments increased rapidly from the original total of 73 to 602 by 2007/08. Doctoral students were registered for the first time in 2006/07. Three students were registered in that year and in 2007/08.
Graphs 6 and 7 contain student enrolment data which will be used in later analyses. These are Eduardo Mondlane’s full-time equivalent student (FTE) enrolment totals for 2000/01 to 2007/08. A full-time equivalent total differs from a head count total because it takes account of the course load carried by students. So a student enrolled for all the courses in a standard full-time curriculum = 1.0 FTE students, and a part-time student carrying half of a standard full-time curriculum = 0.5 FTE students. The fields of study used in the two graphs are the same as those defined in the discussion of Graph 3. The calculation of an FTE enrolment depends on the fields into which a student’s course load is placed. The FTE totals in Graph 6 are equivalent to about 85% of the corresponding head count totals in Graph 6, which is an acceptable ratio for a university which offers mainly undergraduate programmes.
CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y Graph 6 FTE student enrolments by fields of study (thousands)
Graph 7 Shape of FTE student enrolments by fields of study
AVERAGE ANNUAL INCREASES IN STUDENT ENROLMENTS Graph 8 below sets out the various average annual changes that occurred in Eduardo Mondlane’s student enrolment over the period 2000/01 to 2007/08. Some points to note about the graph are these: • Total head count and total FTE enrolments grew, as is to be expected, at similar average annual rates, 11.3% in the case of heads and 10.8% in the case of FTE enrolments.
• Growth rates which were well above the head count average were: humanities majors (16.6%), and business/ • No growth is recorded for masters degrees because their enrolment was 0 in 2000/01. Their average annual growth rate from 2002/03 to 2007/08 was an exceptionally high 52.5%.
CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y Graph 8 Average annual increases in enrolments 2000/1 to 2007/8
Note: the abbreviations used are: SET = science and technology, including health sciences; BUS = business, management, accounting, finance; HUM = humanities, including social sciences and education. Graph 9 summarises Eduardo Mondlane’s output of graduates over the period 2000/01 to 2007/08. Two points to note about Graph 9 are these: • The overall total of graduates increased from 445 in 2000/01 to 1 199 in 2007/08. This was an average annual increase of 15.2%, which was about one third higher than the average annual increase of 11.3% in head count enrolments. Eduardo Mondlane’s output efficiency, by this measure, improved over this period.
• The output of masters graduates has been low. Over the 5-year period 2002/03 to 2007/08 only 111 students graduated with masters degrees, despite the large enrolments reported in Graph 5. Graph 9 Graduates by qualification type
CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y Graphs 10 and 11 show how Eduardo Mondlane’s totals of graduates by fields of study changed over the period 2000/01 to 2007/08. Data on its graduates for 2008/09 and 2009/10 were not available. The totals in the graphs include undergraduates plus postgraduates within each field of study.
The graphs show that Eduardo Mondlane’s graduate totals grew in all three of the broad fields of study. The average annual growth between 2000/01 and 2007/08 in science and technology graduates was 14.9%, in business/management 15.8%, in humanities 15.4%. Because these growth rates were so similar, the shares which the three broad fields had of the graduate total remained stable over this period. Science and technology had a 42% share of graduates in 2007/08, humanities had a 49% share, and business/management a 9% share.
Graph 10 Graduates by fields of study
See note to Graph 8 for explanation of abbreviations used. Graph 11 Shape of graduates by fields of study
CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y Graph 12 is calculated by dividing the graduate data for each year in Graph 13 by the corresponding enrolment data for that same year. The ratios which result can be used as proxies for graduate throughput rates. Examples of the relation between the proxies and graduate throughput rates are these: • In the case of undergraduates in three-year bachelor’s degrees, if 25% of the enrolments in any given year complete their qualifications in that year, then at least 75 out of every 100 students entering an undergraduate programme at that university should eventually complete their degrees.
• In the case undergraduate degrees of five-years, if 18% of the enrolments in any given year complete their qualifications in that year, then at least 75 out of every 100 students entering one of these undergraduate programmes should eventually complete their degrees.
• In the case of masters degrees, if there is to be an acceptable throughput rate, then the ratio of graduates to enrolments should be at least 33%. In the case of doctoral degrees, the ratio should be at least 25%.
Eduardo Mondlane’s average ratios for this seven-year period are low, and suggest that it has experienced major inefficiencies in the output of graduates. The average ratio of graduates in undergraduate bachelors degrees is only 8%, and in masters degrees only 7%.
Graph 12 Graduates as % of head count enrolments
Graph 13 which follows divides the undergraduate ratio in Graph 12 into the three broad fields of study. The calculation method employed was the same as that used in Graph 12: bachelors degree graduates in a field of studies in a given year were divided by the corresponding head count enrolments in the same year.
CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y Graph 13 Undergraduate qualifiers as % of undergraduate head count enrolments
The data in the Graph 13 show that Eduardo Mondlane’s output performance has been strongest in humanities fields of study over this period, and weakest in science and technology. The average ratios of graduates to enrolments over the period 2000/01 to 2007/08 were: humanities 13%, science and technology 7%, and business/management 10%.
Graph 14 converts these average ratios for 2000/01 to 2007/08 to cohort output equivalences. This conversion relies on analyses used for the examples at the beginning of this section. Graph 14 Average graduation rates for undergraduate qualifiers and cohort output equivalences
Average ratio: 2000-2007 of u/grad qualifiers to enrolments Some points to note about Graph 14 are these: • The average undergraduate ratio for science and technology is equivalent to a cohort output rate of 25%. This cohort rate implies that only 25 of every 100 students who enter undergraduate science and technology (including health sciences) programmes at Eduardo Mondlane will eventually complete their degrees. A very high proportion of 75 of every 100 students entering undergraduate science and technology programmes will drop out without completing their degrees.
• The average undergraduate ratio for humanities is the best at Eduardo Mondlane. It is equivalent to a cohort CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y output rate of 50%, but still implies that 50 of every 100 students who enter undergraduate humanities programmes at Eduardo Mondlane will drop out without completing their degrees.
• The cohort equivalent output rate for business/management is only 33%, which is also an indication of high These analyses should show that, from an overall point of view, Eduardo Mondlane’s graduate output performances, because of high drop out rates, have been unsatisfactory.
In 2007/08 Eduardo Mondlane employed a total of 3 035 permanent staff members. These fell into two broad categories: 842 (or 28%) were academic staff members and the balance of 2 193 (or 72%) were administrative and service staff members. Graph 15 sums up these totals of staff employed. Staff data for 2008/9 and 2009/10 were not available.
Graph 15 Permanent staff
The main definitions which appear in the graph are these: • A permanent staff member is an employee who either (a) contributes to a retirement fund, or is employed full- time on a contract of at least three years. • Academic staff are employees who spend at least 50% of their time on duty on instruction and/or research activities.
• Service staff are unskilled workers such as general cleaners, kitchen staff, gardening staff and messengers.
• Administrative staff are all other non-academic employees, including the executive/management of the university.
Eduardo Mondlane’s permanent staff total in all categories grew at an average annual rate of 3.5% during 2000/01-2007/08. The permanent academic staff total grew at an average annual rate of 6.4% over this period, compared to the average annual growth of 11.3% that occurred in student enrolments. Because the primary activities of a university are instruction and research, it is clear that its commitment to academic staff should be as high as possible, without putting the operations of the institution at risk. A university’s ratio of administrative and service staff to academic staff can, as a consequence, be used as an indicator of efficiency in terms of overall staff allocations. The empirical evidence available from analyses of the data of South African universities suggests that a university’s ratio of administrative and service staff to academic staff should ideally be no higher than 2.0:1. In cases where this ratio exceeds this benchmark of 2.0, the university often has unsatisfactory student to academic staff ratios. CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y Graph 16 shows that Eduardo Mondlane’s ratio of administrative and service staff to academic staff was above 3 for all but the final two years in the period 2000/01-2007/08. This ratio was 3.5 in 2000/01, but fell to 2.6 in 2007/08, which could be an indication of improving efficiencies in the allocation of the university’s overall budget. It may still however be spending more than it should on the employment of administrative and service staff.
Graph 16 Ratio of permanent administrative plus service staff to permanent academic staff
Graph 17 compares Eduardo Mondlane’s totals of permanent and full-time equivalent (FTE) academic staff members. The FTE total is higher than that for permanent staff because it takes account not only of permanent academic staff, but also of temporary and part-time academic staff members. An FTE staff member is defined, for these purposes, as an employee who works full-time for a full year. So a permanent academic who is paid for a full year = 1 FTE staff member, and a temporary full-time academic who is paid for a full year will also = 1 FTE staff member. A temporary academic who works full-time for 4 months = 0.33 FTE staff members, and a half-time academic who works for a full year = 0.50 FTE staff members.
Graph 17 Permanent and FTE academic staff
CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y Graph 18 shows how Eduardo Mondlane deployed its academic staff to meet the teaching/learning needs of students. The ratios of FTE students to FTE academic staff in humanities programmes have been well below the ratios for other programmes, which is not typical of these ratios. In most universities FTE student to FTE academic staff ratios in science and technology programmes tend to be the lowest, and are usually about half of the ratio applicable in humanities programmes. The ratios for business/management programmes, in marked contrast, to those of the other two broad fields, are very high and would match those often found in distance education programmes. The average ratio for the period was 50:1, and may be part of the cause of the high drop out rates reflected in Graph 14.
Graph 18 Ratios of FTE enrolled students to FTE academic staff
The ratio of FTE students to FTE academic staff in science and technology programmes are typical of those found in many other countries. The ratios for humanities programmes and for business/management programmes are anomalous. The ratios for humanities programmes would be regarded as satisfactory, but very low, in most countries. The ratios for business/management programmes, in marked contract, would be considered to be unsatisfactory in even distance education programmes. Graph 19 presents a further set of input data on Eduardo Mondlane’s academic staff. It shows, for 2007 only, what the highest formal qualifications were of the university’s permanent academic staff. In 2007 only 163 (or 19%) of Eduardo Mondlane’s academic staff members held doctoral degrees, which is well below the averages reported by other universities in these case studies.
Graph 19 Permanent academic staff by highest formal qualification in 2007
CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y The next set of graphs deals with the research outputs of Eduardo Mondlane’s permanent academic staff. These are taken to be peer-reviewed research publications and doctoral graduates. Graph 20 summarises Eduardo Mondlane’s output totals for the eight-year period 2000/1 to 2007/08. Graph 20 High level knowledge outputs: research publications and doctoral graduates
Graph 21 uses these publication totals and the academic staff data in Graph 17 to show how Eduardo Mondlane’s ratio of research publications to permanent academic staff members changed over the period 2000/01 to 2007/08. The benchmark of 0.50 is based on a judgement that each permanent academic staff member should be expected to produce one research publication every two years. The graph shows that Eduardo Mondlane’s research publication output falls a long way short of this benchmark. The average ratio is 0.03, which implies that Eduardo Mondlane’s permanent academic staff would produce on average one research publication every thirty three years.
Graph 21 Ratio of research publication units per permanent academic staff member
CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y Graph 22 is supposed to relate doctoral graduate totals to permanent academic staff. The graph does not record an average for Eduardo Mondlane because it had no doctoral graduates over the period 2000/1 to 2007/8. The benchmark of 0.15 is based on a judgement that each permanent academic staff member should produce on average one doctoral graduate every seven years.
Graph 22 Ratio of doctoral graduates to permanent academics
Graph 23 compares Eduardo Mondlane’s total of income from all sources to its total of current expenditure. This graph is based on the financial statements supplied by the university to CHET, which contains all income and all expenditure recorded in these statements. Information for 2000/01 was not available.
The data in the graph show that Eduardo Mondlane’s total income increased at an average annual rate of 15.2% and its current expenditure at an average annual rate of 12.5% between 2001/02 and 2006/07. Graph 23 Total income from all sources and total expenditure (MZM millions)
CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y Graph 24 divides the income total in Graph 23 into these categories: • a government funds category which includes all subsidy amounts plus earmarked funds for special purposes; • a student fees category which includes tuition and all class fees, as well as accommodation or residence fees; • a private income category which includes donations, investment income, and income from non-government contracts for research or the delivery of other services.
Graph 24 Sources of income
The shares which each category had of Eduardo Mondlane’s total income changed over this period. Private income fell from 38% of income in 2001/02 to 28% in 2006/07. The share which government funding had of the total rose from 52% to 57%, and student fees from 10% to 15%. Eduardo Mondlane’s income from government sources grew at an average annual rate of 17.3% between 2000/01 and 2006/07, and its income from student fees at the higher average annual rate of 24.9%. Private income grew at an average annual rate of 8.4%.
Size and shape of enrolments
Student enrolments at Eduardo Mondlane grew at the high average annual growth rate of 11.3% between 2000/01 to 2007/08. The highest growth rate occurred in humanities majors and the lowest in science and technology majors. The average annual growth rate in humanities majors between 2000/01 to 2007/08 was 16.6%, in business/management majors 15.8%, and in science and technology majors 7.1% Eduardo Mondlane’s proportion of science and technology students fell from 62% in 2000/01 to 48% in 2007/08. The proportion of business and management students rose from 11% in 2000/01 to 14% in 2007/08. The proportion of enrolments in humanities rose from 27% to 48% over this period. Graduates
Between 2000/01 and 2007/8, Eduardo Mondlane’s graduate growth rate was higher than its enrolment growth rate, which is an indication of some improvements in the efficiency of its outputs. Eduardo Mondlane’s average graduation rates do however indicate that it has high drop out rates in all fields of study. Total staff
In 2007/08 Eduardo Mondlane employed a total of 3 035 permanent staff members. These fell into two broad categories: 842 (or 28%) were academic staff members and the balance of 2 193 (or 72%) were administrative (including service) staff members. Its ratio between administrative staff and academic staff dropped from 3.5:1 in 2000/01 to 2.6:1 in 2007/08. CHET HIGHER EDUCATION CROSS-NATIONAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EDUARDO MONDLANE UNIvERSIT y Academic staff
Eduardo Mondlane’s total of full-time equivalent (FTE) academic staff grew from 642 in 2000/01 to 1 054 in 2007/08; an average annual increase of 6.4%. Because this did not match the increase of 10.8% in FTE student enrolments, Eduardo Mondlane’s ratios of FTE students to FTE academic staff rose over this period. The overall ratio of 13:1 in 2007/08 remained however a highly favourable one.
The proportion of Eduardo Mondlane’s permanent academic staff with doctorates was 19% in 2007/08, which is low. Research outputs
The research output of Eduardo Mondlane’s permanent academic staff members has been low. Its 842 permanent academic staff members produced a total of only 21 research publications in 2007/08. The main change which occurred in Eduardo Mondlane’s funding over the period 2000/01 to 2007/08 was in its level of private funding. The share which government funding had of Eduardo Mondlane’s income rose from 52% in 2000/01 to 57% in 2006/07. The share of student fees rose from 10% to 15%, while that of private funding fell from 38% to 28% over the same period.
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