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Pharmacognosy Reviews
PHCOG REV.
Vol 1, Issue 1, Jan-May, 2007

An official Publication of Phcog.Net

PHCOG REV.: Review Article
Male Sexual Dysfunction and Methods used in Assessing
Medicinal Plants with Aphrodisiac Potentials
Yakubu, M. T.*, Akanji, M. A and Oladiji, A. T
Medicinal Plants Research Laboratory,
University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria *Corresponding author: Yakubu, M. T. (Ph. D) Email: tomuyak@yahoo.com; tomuyak@gmail.com ABSTRACT
Sexual dysfunction, that is the repeated inability to achieve normal sexual intercourse, which include various forms like
premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido),
compulsive sexual behaviour, orgasmic disorder and failure of detumesence, are on the increase world wide because of aging
population and other increasing etiological factors. Several management options employed are associated with some serious side
effects not readily available and are expensive. The search for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified
probably, because of its reduced side effect, its ready availability and reduced cost. Therefore, the increasing search for
medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potentials has necessitated the need to review methods available for screening medicinal
plants with aphrodisiac potentials in males.
KEYWORDS: Aphrodisiac, Medicinal plants, Sexual dysfunction
INTRODUCTION
Male sexual function
One of the main aims of marriage is the procreation Sexuality is a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon that (reproduction) and more importantly for sexual fulfilment of incorporates biological, psychological, interpersonal and both partners. For life to continue, an organism must behavioural dimensions. Sexual behaviour in male rats reproduce itself before it dies. In Homo sapiens, reproduction is initiated by the mating of a male with a female in sexual Mount: the animal assumes the copulatory position, but
intercourse which facilitates the coming together of sperm does not insert its copulatory organ (the penis) into the and egg for the purpose of fertilization (1). For there to be a normal sexual intercourse and sexual fulfilment in males, the Intromission: the copulatory organ enters the vagina
male sexual organs (the copulatory organ, the penis) and factors relating to erection must function normally. Inability Ejaculation: forceful expulsion of semen
to perform this function effectively is a major problem facing Sexual stimulation of the human male results in a series of the reproductive process. This is known as sexual dysfunction psychological, neuronal, vascular, and local genital changes. (2). This condition which is of various types can be managed At least three different classifications for these changes have by the use of aphrodisiacs. An aphrodisiac can therefore be been described. Some authors (7) described a psychosexual described as any substance that enhances sex drive and/ or response cycle that consists of four phases: excitement, sexual pleasure. Aphrodisiac can also be viewed as any food, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Another classification by (8) drug, scent or device that can arouse or increase sexual drive based on penodynamic changes during the sexual cycle divides or libido (3). Several plants like Terminalia catappa seeds each of the psychosexual phases into two interrelated events (almond fruit), Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (Clove), as excitement into latency and tumescence; plateau into Fadogia agrestis stem (Black aphrodisiac) have been found to erection and rigidity; orgasm into emission and ejaculation; have aphrodisiac activities in male rats (4, 5, 6). The and resolution into detumescence and refractoriness. The increasing incidence of male sexual dysfunction is third classification by (9) focuses on the functional activities necessitating more and rapid search into plants with during the sexual cycle by adding an initial phase of desire or aphrodisiac potentials. This review is intended to provide libido. Thus, the normal male sexual response cycle can be adequate information on the various methods that can be functionally divided into five interrelated events that occur in used to screen medicinal plants with sex enhancing potentials a defined sequence: libido, erection, ejaculation, orgasm, and since attention is now being focussed on the use of medicinal plants in the management of this high rising incidence of 1. Libido or sexual desire- Libido is defined as the biological
need for sexual activity (the sex drive) and frequently is expressed as sex-seeking behaviour. Its intensity is variable 2007 Phcog.Net , All rights reserved. Available online: http://www.phcogrev.com Pharmacognosy Reviews
PHCOG REV.
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between individuals as well as within an individual over a fear of sexual failure), androgen deficiencies (testosterone given time. Higher serum testosterone appears to be deficiency, hyperprolactinemia), chronic medical conditions associated with greater sexual activity in healthy older but (diabetes, hypertension, vascular insufficiency (atherosclerosis, venous leakage), penile disease (Peyronie’s, 2. Erection- Erection is the enlarged and rigid state of the
priapism, phinosis, smooth muscle dysfunction), pelvic sexually aroused penis sufficient enough for vaginal surgery (to correct arterial or inflow disorder), neurological penetration. It results from multiple psychogenic and sensory disorders (Parkinson’s disease, stroke, cerebral trauma, stimuli arising from imaginative, visual, auditory, olfactory, Alzhemier’s spinal cord or nerve injury), drugs (side effects) gustatory, tactile, and genital reflexogenic sources. (anti-hypertensives, central agents, psychiatric medications, 3. Ejaculation- Ejaculation is the act of ejecting semen. It is
antiulcer, antidepressants, and anti-androgens), life style a reflex action that occurs as a result of sexual stimulation. (chronic alcohol abuse, cigarette smoking), aging (decrease in It is made up of two sequential processes. The first process hormonal level with age) and systemic diseases (cardiac, called emission is associated with deposition of seminal fluid hepatic, renal pulmonary, cancer, metabolic, post-organ into the posterior urethra while the second process is the true ejaculation, which is the expulsion of the seminal fluid from Sexual dysfunction takes different forms in men. A the posterior urethra through the penile meatus. dysfunction can be life-long and always present, acquired, 4. Orgasm- This is the climax of sexual excitement. The
situational, or generalized, occurring despite the situation. A entire period of emission and ejaculation is known as the Ejaculates before he or his partner desires 5. Detumescence- This is the subsidence of an erect penis
Does not ejaculate, or experiences delayed
Male sexual dysfunction
Is unable to have an erection sufficient for Sex disorders of the male are classified into disorders of sexual function, sexual orientation, and sexual behaviour. In general, several factors must work in harmony to maintain normal sexual function. Such factors include neural activity, Male sexual dysfunction can be categorized as disorders of vascular events, intracavernosal nitric oxide system and desire, disorders of orgasm, erectile dysfunction, disorders of androgens (2). Thus, malfunctioning of at least one of these ejaculation and failure of detumescence. could lead to sexual dysfunction of any kind. A. Disorders of desire: Disorders of desire can involve either
Sexual dysfunction in men refers to repeated inability to a deficient or compulsive desire for sexual activity. achieve normal sexual intercourse. It can also be viewed as Dysfunctions that can occur during the desire phase include: disorders that interfere with a full sexual response cycle. (i) Hypoactive sexual desire (HSD), defined as persistently or
These disorders make it difficult for a person to enjoy or to recurrently deficient (or absent) sexual fantasy and desire for have sexual intercourse. While sexual dysfunction rarely sexual activity leading to marked distress or interpersonal threatens physical health, it can take a heavy psychological difficulty. It results in a complete or almost complete lack of toll, bringing on depression, anxiety, and debilitating feelings desire to have any type of sexual relation (18). of inadequacy. Unfortunately, it is a problem often neglected (ii) Compulsive sexual behaviours (CSBs) constitute a wide
by the health care team who strive more with the technical range of complex sexual behaviours that have strikingly and more medically manageable aspects of the patient’s repetitive, compelling, or driven qualities. They usually manifest as obsessive-compulsive sexuality (e.g. excessive Sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in males than in females masturbation and promiscuity), excessive sex-seeking in and thus, it is conventional to focus more on male sexual association with affective disorders (e.g. major depression or difficulties (2). It has been discovered that men between 17 mood disorders), addictive sexuality (e.g. attachment to and 96 years old could suffer sexual dysfunction as a result of another person, object, or sensation for sexual gratification to psychological or physical health problems (14). Generally, a the exclusion of everything else), and sexual impulsivity prevalence of about 10% occurs across all ages. Because (failure to resist an impulse or temptation for sexual sexual dysfunction is an inevitable process of aging, the behaviour that is harmful to self or others such as prevalence is over 50% in men between 50 and 70 years of age exhibitionism, rape, or child molestation) (19). (15). As men age, the absolute number of Leydig cells B. Erectile dysfunction (ED): This is a problem with sexual
decreases by about 40%, and the vigour of pulsatile lutenizing arousal. ED can be defined as the difficulty in achieving or
hormone release is dampened. In association with these maintaining an erection sufficient for sexual activity or events, free testosterone level also declines by approximately penetration, at least 50% of the time, for a period of six 1.2% per year. These have contributed in no small measure to months (20). It results in significant psychological, social and prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the aged (2). physical morbidity (21), and annihilates his essence of Male sexual dysfunction (MSD) could be caused by various factors. These include: psychological disorders (performance C. Disorders of ejaculation: There exists a spectrum of
anxiety, strained relationship, depression, stress, guilt and disorders of ejaculation ranging from mild premature to severely retarded or absent ejaculation. These include: 2007 Phcog.Net , All rights reserved. Available online: http://www.phcogrev.com Pharmacognosy Reviews
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(i) Premature ejaculation which is the most common male Aphrodisiac
sexual dysfunction (23) and can be any of the following: a) Aphrodisiac was named after Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of persistent or recurrent ejaculation with minimum sexual sexual love, beauty and fruitfulness identified in Roman stimulation that occurs before, upon, or shortly after Mythology with the goddess Venus, who was the daughter of penetration and before the person wishes it; b) marked Zeus and Dione (29). However, the Greek word ‘aphros’ distress or interpersonal difficulty; and c) the condition does means ‘foam’ and according to the tradition recounted by not arise as a direct effect of substance abuse. Premature Hesoid, Aphrodite arose from the foam generated when the ejaculation and sexual desire disorders were the frequent severed genitals of Uranius personification of Heavens were reported problems in young adult males with adverse familial thrown into the sea. Several ancient authorities agreed that she was the wife of the lame blacksmith, Hephaestus (30). (ii) Painful ejaculation which results from side effect of An aphrodisiac can therefore be described as any substance tricyclic antidepressants (25) is a persistent and recurrent pain that enhances sex drive and or sexual pleasure. Aphrodisiac in the genital organs during ejaculation or immediately can also be viewed as any food, drug, scent or device that can arouse or increase sexual drive or libido (3). Most aphrodisiacs (iii) Inhibited or retarded ejaculation: This is when also heighten other aspects of sensory experience such as light, touch, smell, taste and hearing; and this enhanced (iv) Retrograde ejaculation: This is when ejaculation is forced sensory awareness contributes to sexual arousal and pleasure back into the bladder rather than through the urethra and out Through history, a wide range of characteristics has qualified D. Disorders of orgasm: Male orgasmic disorder is defined as
different substances as aphrodisiac (31). However, two a persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of orgasm after possible approaches include the cultural and scientific. a normal sexual excitement phase during sexual activity (18). Several primary non-scientific themes have arisen that have E. Failure of detumescence: is a prolonged erection usually
echoed through multiple cultures and times. First, the lasting for between 4 h or greater. It is painful and always genitals have often been deemed to be aphrodisiacs. Another unaccompanied by sexual desire despite the fact that it is popular belief by hunters of those eras was consumption of often preceded by usual sexual stimuli.Diagnostic options for specific parts of their prey in order to gain characteristics of male sexual dysfunction include: patient’s history which embodies medical history (evaluating historical events like The Kama Sutra suggested that one boils the testicle of a ram chronic disease, pharmacological agents, endocrine disorders, or goat and add milk and sugar before consumption (31). In surgeries and trauma), psychological history (assessing England, it was believed that plants with any phallic-like individual’s upbringing relationships, early sexual features such as asparagus, parsnips and carrots were likely to experiences, inadequate sexual information and general be aphrodisiac in their effect (32). Ukrainians celebrate psychological health), sexual history (to ascertain the time carrots and celery as folk aphrodisiac. In Chinese culture, and manner of onset, its course, current status, and much of the aphrodisiac power of ginseng and rhinoceros horn associated medical or psychological problems), physical comes from their appearance rather than their chemical examination (entails general and systemic evaluation, assessment of gonadal function, vascular competence, Based on their mechanism of actions, aphrodisiacs can be neurological integrity, and genital organ normalcy), diagnosis divided into three categories which include: testing (include blood tests, vascular assessment, sensory a. Aphrodisiacs that simply provide a burst of nutritional
testing and nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity testing) value, thereby improving the immediate health or well being of the consumer and consequently improving sexual performance and libido. This simple improvement in general psychological/behavioural (therapy with a trained counsellor health can lead to a burst of energy and translate into an aimed at helping people to address feelings of anxiety, fear increased sexual appetite (33). For example, in Chinese and guilt that may have an impact on sexual function); drug tradition, the use of rhinoceros horn as an aphrodisiac may lie therapy (use of testosterone replacement therapy for cases of in the fact that rhino horn consists of fibrous tissue with large androgen insufficiency and other pharmacological agents); proportions of elements like calcium and phosphorus; beyond non surgical devices which include vacuum pump (expands the the fact that rhino horn resembles an erect penis. Deficiency penis and reduces pressure within the cavernous sinusoidal in these elements could lead to muscle weakness and general space) and constrictive rings (external device used for fatigue while large doses of these elements could lead to managing erectile dysfunction in patients with mild to general increased vigour and stamina (31). moderate venous leakage); surgical treatment which include b. The second group are those with specific physiological
venous ligation (used to correct leakage of blood from the effect. They may affect blood flow; mimic the burning of fire veins); penile prosthesis (creates adequate space within the of sex and intercourse and increase the duration of sexual tissue of each cavernosal body); penile implants (involves activity. An example is Spanish fly made of dried and crushed inserting a malleable or rigid substance into the penis to beetles of the cantharis and mylabris genus. The active effect a semi-rigid state) and phytotherapy (involves the use ingredient in Spanish fly, a crystallized lactone, cantharidin of herbs (medicinal plants)) (26, 27, 28). (30), when applied topically, causes burning sensation at the 2007 Phcog.Net , All rights reserved. Available online: http://www.phcogrev.com Pharmacognosy Reviews
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point of blistering (29). Its consumption has also been decade, an increase in the use of plants has been observed in reported to cause increased blood flow in the body (29). metropolitan areas of developed countries (36). Plants are Other physiologically active drugs used to sustain erection extensively used to relieve sexual dysfunction. Ginseng, for help to limit the influence of sympathetic nervous system. example, is an essential constituent in traditional Chinese e.g. Sildenafil citrate (viagra) and yohimbine from medicine (37) and at least 6 million Americans use the root of Pausinystalia yohimbe (30). this slow-growing perennial (38). Another root, known as Maca c. The third group of biologically active aphrodisiacs are those
(Lepidium meyenii), has traditionally been used by Peruvian that are psychologically active in nature. They actually cross inhabitants living at high altitudes as a nutrient, an energizer, the blood brain barrier and mimic or stimulate some areas of as aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing agent. It has been sexual arousal. Examples include hormones, pheromones and proved to be effective in improving sexual desire in men (39), a wide variety of neurotransmitters (34). and sexual behaviour in male rats and mice (40, 41, 42). Medicinal plants
Similarly, other authors (6) have lend scientific credence to A medicinal plant can be described as any plant in which one the use of Fadogia agrestis (English: black aphrodisiac, Hausa: or more of its organs contain substances that can be used Baakin gagai) stem as an aphrodisiac by increasing the therapeutic purposes or which are precursors for the synthesis concentration of serum testosterone made possible by its of useful drugs (35). Examples include food, spices, saponin content. Traditional herbs have also been a perfumery plants, microscopic plants like fungi, revolutionary breakthrough in the management of sexual actinomycetes used for isolating drugs especially antibiotics, inadequacies (sexual dysfunction) and have become known fibre plants like cotton, flax, and jute used for preparing world wide as an “instant” treatment (43). Some of these herbs include Terminalia cattapa seeds (Almond fruit), root of Medicinal plants are very ancient and only true natural Garcina kola Heckel (Yoruba: orogbo), stem bark and twig of medicines that have been found useful in several ways. They Carpolobia albe (Yoruba: osunsun, osun), whole plant of can be used directly or in other extracted forms for the Euphorbia hirta L (Yoruba: egele) and leaves, roots and fruits management of various ailments because of the presence of of Musa parasidiaca L (plantain) (4, 44, 45, 46). Other many phytochemicals. They can also be used as agents or indigenous medicinal plants, which have been claimed to starting materials in the synthesis of drugs. improve potency, are depicted in Table 1. The use of herbs is very common in developing countries, particularly in rural settings. However, during the last Table 1: Some plants used in the management of sexual dysfunction in Nigeria
Botanical Names
English Name
Local Names
Parts used
Geographical
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Methods used in Assessing Medicinal Plants with Frequency (IF) is therefore defined as the number of
Aphrodisiac Properties
intromissions from the time of introduction of the female A. Physical Methods
1. Mating Behaviour Test
iii. Mount latency
The mating behaviour tests could be carried out by the Mount Latency (ML) is defined as the time interval between methods of (48) and (49), modified by (50). Briefly, healthy the introduction of the female and the first mount by the and sexually experienced male albino rats that show brisk sexual activity should be selected for the study. After extract iv. Intromission latency
administration at various concentration to various groups of Intromission Latency (IL) is the time interval from the time of the animals depending on the experimental design and introduction of the female to the first intromission by the objective(s) of the study, the male animals should be brought male. This is usually characterized by pelvic thrusting, and to the laboratory and exposed to dim light (in 1 w fluorescent tube in a laboratory of 14' × 14') at the stipulated time of v. Ejaculatory latency
testing daily for some days (3-6 days) before the experiment. Ejaculation is the act of ejecting semen brought about by a The female animals should be artificially brought into oestrus reflex action that occurs as the result of sexual stimulation. (heat) as the female rats allow mating only during the oestrus Ejaculatory Latency (EL) is defined as the time interval phase by administering either suspension of ethinyl oestradiol between the first intromission and ejaculation. This is usually orally at the dose of 100 µg/animal 48 h prior to the pairing characterized by longer, deeper pelvic thrusting and slow and subcutaneous administration of progesterone at the dose dismount followed by a period of inactivity or reduced of 1 mg/animal 6 h before the experiment or alternatively by the sequential administration of estradiol benzoate vi. Post-ejaculatory interval
(10µg/100g body weight) and progesterone (0.5mg/100g body
Post-ejaculatory interval (PEI) is the time interval between weight) through subcutaneous injections, 48 h and 4 h ejaculation and the first intromission of the following series respectively prior to pairing (50, 51). The receptivity of the vii. Index of libido
female animals should be confirmed before the test by Index of Libido is defined as the ratio of number mated exposing them to male animals, other than the control and to number paired expressed in percentage. This can be test animals. The most receptive females should then be selected for the study. The experiment could be carried out % Index of Libido = Number mated x 100 on some days depending on ethnobotanical information on the posology of the plant being investigated after the viii. Computed Male Sexual Behaviour Parameters
commencement of the treatment of the male animals. The
Using the above parameters of sexual behaviour, the experiment should be conducted at 20:00 h in the same laboratory and under light of same intensity. The receptive female animals should be introduced into the cages of male (a) % Mounted = Number Mounted x 100 animals in the ratio 1 female to 1 male. The observation for mating behaviour should commence immediately and (b) % Intromitted = Number of Intromissions x 100 continued for first 2 mating series. The test should be terminated if the male failed to evince sexual interest. Any (c) Intromission ratio = Number of Intromission female animal that do not show receptivity should be Number of mounts + Number of intromissions replaced by another artificially ‘warmed’ female. The (d) % Ejaculated = Number of Ejaculations x 100 occurrence of events and phases of mating may be called out to be recorded on audio-cassette as soon as they appeared. (e) Copulatory Efficiency = Number of Intromissions x 100 Their disappearance should also be called out and recorded. Later, the frequencies and phases should be determined from (f) Intercopulatory Efficiency = Average time between intromissions cassette transcriptions. The parameters of male sexual behaviour that should be monitored should include: i. Mount frequency
*Any medicinal plant with aphrodisiac tendencies should
Mounting is defined as the climbing of one animal by another produce statistically significant increase in the indices of usually from the posterior end with the intention of sexual vigour of mount and intromission frequencies, introducing one organ into another. Mount may also be significant decrease in mount and intromission latencies. operationally defined as the male assuming the copulatory These indices are indicators of stimulation of sexual position but failing to achieve intromission. Mount Frequency arousability, motivation and vigour (4, 6). The significant (MF) is therefore defined as the number of mounts without decrease in mount and intromission latencies as well as intromission from the time of introduction of the female until significant increase in computed male sexual behaviour parameters of %mounted, %intromitted, %ejaculated and the ii. Intromission frequency
reduction in intercopulatory efficiency are indications of Intromission is the introduction of one organ or parts into sustained increase in sexual activity and aphrodisiac property another. e.g. the penis into the vagina. Intromission 2007 Phcog.Net , All rights reserved. Available online: http://www.phcogrev.com Pharmacognosy Reviews
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2. Test for libido
penile skin and degloving of the prepuce to expose the This test could be carried out by the method of (53), modified corpora cavernosa. A 26 gauge needle connected to a by (50). Sexually experienced male albino rats should be kept polyethylene tube (PE-50) filled with NSS with 100 IU/mL of singly in separate cages during the experiment. The female heparin on one side of the Corpora cavernosa is inserted for rats should be made receptive by hormonal treatment and all ICP measurement. Another 22 gauge needle is placed into the the animals should be accustomed to the testing condition as right carotid artery connected to a PE-tube for the previously presented in mating behaviour test. The animals measurement of Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP). Both tubes should be observed for the Mounting Frequency (MF) on the should be connected to blood pressure transducers which evening of specific day according to the design of the should also be connected to a data acquisition board via experiment (likely 7th day) at 20:00 h. The penis should be transducer amplifiers. Computers can be used to see real- exposed by retracting the sheath and apply 5% xylocaine time display and recording of pressure measurements ointment 30, 15 and 5 min before starting observations. Each animal should be placed individually in a cage with the Similarly, the major pelvic ganglion, pelvic and cavernous receptive female rat in the same cage. The number of nerves can be exposed by a midline abdominal incision. The mountings should be noted. The animals should also be cavernous nerve can then be stimulated by using a square observed for intromission and ejaculation. pulse stimulator connected to a platinum bipolar electrode 3. Test for potency
positioned on the cavernous nerve using five volts with a The potency of the plant extract at various doses depending frequency of 50 Hertz and duration of 5 min as stimulus on the design may be studied according to the methods parameters. The stimulation may be done three times and the described by (54) and (55), modified by (50). The male ICP can then be recorded. The ICP should be allowed to animals should be kept singly in separate cages during the return to baseline before the next stimulation. experiment. The extracts are to be administered at least, Statistically significant increase in ICP may imply their role on 30min-1 h before the commencement of the experiment. On nitric oxide (NO) and erectile function. Medicinal plants with the 8th day, the test for penile reflexes should be carried out aphrodisiac potential should be capable of stimulating by placing the animal on its back in a glass cylinder with cavernous nerve which normally should lead to increase in NO partial restraint. The preputial sheath should be pushed and cyclic Guanosine Phosphate (cGMP) signalling in corpus behind the glans by means of the thumb and index finger and cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation. The subsequent held in this manner for a period of 15 min. Such stimulation arteriolar dilation leading to increased arterial inflow and should normally elicit a cluster of genital reflexes. The impaired venous return (due to engorgement of the frequency of the following components of penile reflexes can cavernosum) builds up a pressure system within the corpora that result in penile tumescence and rigidity (57). i. Erections (E) ii. Quick Flips (QF) iii. Long Flips (LF). B. Biochemical Methods
From the above listed components of penile erection, the 1. Determination of Testicular and Serum Cholesterol
Total Penile Reflexes (TPR) which is the sum total of each of Cholesterol is the precursor in the synthesis of many the components of penile erection i.e. E + QF + LF is physiologically important steroids such as bile acids, steroid hormones and vitamin D and its requirement for normal Statistically significant increase in the frequency of penile testicular activity has been well established (51, 58, 59). reflexes suggests a medicinal plant with aphrodisiac Testicular and serum cholesterol concentrations may be potential. determined by the Chod-PAP method as described by (60). 4. Penile microcirculation study
Briefly, 0.02cm3 of the sample (testicular homogenate and or A Laser Doppler Flow Meter may used to determine penile serum) is mixed with 2.00cm3 of working reagent and the microcirculation, using the method described by (56). Briefly, absorbance of the resulting mixture read after 5min at 546nm the animals should be anesthetized by intravenous wavelength. The blank and standard are composed in a administration of 30mg/kg body weight pentobarbital sodium. similar way except that they are replaced with 0.02cm3 each The central ear artery should be cannulated for continuous of distilled water and standard solution respectively. monitoring of arterial blood pressure. At the beginning of the A medicinal plant with potential for aphrodisiac should result test, the penile sheath should be retracted manually, and in statistically significant increase in testicular and or serum after 10 min of adaptation to room temperature in the cholesterol concentration. Such increase may imply laboratory, the Laser Doppler flow detection probe should be stimulation in the steroid genesis, which may lead to positioned in a holder close (2–3 mm) to the dorsal side of the increased testosterone concentration (51). Such increase in penis. The result of the test will be based on the average of testosterone concentration should normally reflect a arbitrary flow units (flux) within 10 min of the test. The probe should be calibrated with flux standard before each test. 2. Hormonal Determination
5. Intracavernous Pressure (ICP) Study
The positive effects on the indices of male sexual behaviour Twelve hours after giving the last dose of the plant extract, must have been brought about by the constituents of the the male animals should be anesthetized by intraperitoneal medicinal plant on some reproductive hormones. These administration of 50mg/kg body weight of sodium include testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating pentobarbital. This should be followed by the incision of the hormone and prolactin. Therefore, there is the need to 2007 Phcog.Net , All rights reserved. Available online: http://www.phcogrev.com Pharmacognosy Reviews
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evaluate the effect of administration of the extract of the CONCLUSION
plant associated with aphrodisiac potentials on the serum Sexual function is an important component of quality of life and subjective well being in humans. Sexual problems are Testosterone supplementation has previously been shown to widespread and adversely affect mood, well being, and improve sexual function and libido (61), in addition to the interpersonal functioning. Sexual problems are related to intensity of orgasm and ejaculation which is likely to improve sexual desire and male erectile dysfunction. Successful (62). Testosterone in the blood exists in three different forms treatment of sexual dysfunction may improve not only sexual namely: free, albumin-bound and sex-hormone binding relationships, but also the overall quality of life. Thus, this globulin (SHBG). While it is generally considered that SHBG- review has dealt with various approaches by which the bound testosterone is not available for uptake by tissues, screening of medicinal plants can be achieved. This is very opinion is mixed as to whether the biologically active important because of the side effect associated with other testosterone is restricted to the small quantity of the treatment options and the readily availability of medicinal hormone that is free ( 2%) or includes the larger amount of plants and now that the world is fast turning into the use of albumin-bound hormone (20–80%). However, investigations medicinal plants for managing sexual dysfunctions. suggest that both free and albumin-bound testosterone is REFERENCES
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