doi: 10.1146/annurev.med.54.101601.152421Copyright c 2003 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS OF THE PARAOXONASE (PON1) POLYMORPHISMS: Effects on Pesticide Sensitivity, Cardiovascular Disease, and Drug Metabolism Lucio G. Costa,1 Toby B. Cole,1,2 Gail P. Jarvik,2 andClement E. Furlong2 Departments of 1Environmental Health and 2Genome Sciences and Medicine, Divisionof Med
Microsoft word - schizophrenia.doc
In this paper, I would like to talk about the Schizophrenia disease because it is
worldwide in the field of psychiatry.
There is more health than just a physically healthy body; a healthy person also should
need a healthy mind.
A person with a healthy mind should b e able to think clearly, should be able to solve
various problems faced in life, should enjoy good relations with friends, family and
colleagues at work, and should feel spiritually at ease and bring happiness to others in the
reality they are look two sides of the same coin.
Just as the physical body can fall ill, so too can the mind, this is called mental illness,
experienced by a person which affects their emotions , thoughts or behavior, which is out
of keeping with their cultural beliefs and personality, and is producing a negative effect
on their lives or the lives of others.
In this work, I am going to talk about the schizophrenia which is the most common
mental illness in the world.
Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder that has been recognized
throughout recorded history? People with schizophrenia may hear voices other people
don’t hear or they may believe that other are reading their minds, controlling their
thoughts, or plotting to harm them. These experiences are terrifying and can cause
fearfulness, withdrawal, or extreme agitation. People with schizophrenia may not make
sense when they talk, may sit for hours without moving or talking much, or may seem
perfectly fine until they talk about what they are really thinking. Because many people
with that sickness have difficulty holding a job or caring for themselves, the burden on
their families and society significant as well.
Available treatments can relieve many of the disorder’s symptoms, but most people who
have schizophrenia must cope with some residual symptoms as long as they live.
Nevertheless, this is a time of hope for people with schizophrenia and their families.
Many people with the disorder now lead rewarding and meaningful lives in their
How can we recognize the Schizophrenia? (Symptoms)
A hallucination is something a person sees, hears, smells, or feels that no one else can
see, hear, smell, or feel. Voices are the most common type of hallucination in
schizophrenia. Many people with the disorder hear voices that may comment on their
behavior, order them to do things, warn them of impending danger, or talk to each other.
They may hear these voices for a long time before family and friends notice that
something is wrong. Other types of hallucinations include seeing people or objects that
are not there, smelling odors that none else detects(although this can also be a symptom
this can also be a symptom of certain brain tumors), and feeling things like invisible
fingers touching their bodies when no one is near.
They are false personal beliefs that are not part of the person’s culture and do not change,
even when other people present proof that the beliefs are not true of logical. People with
schizophrenia can have delusions that are quite bizarre, such as believing that neighbors
can control their behavior with magnetic waves, people on television are directing special
messages to them, or radio stations are broadcasting their thoughts aloud to others. They
may also have delusions of grandeur and think they are famous historical figures. People
with paranoid schizophrenia can believe that others are deliberately cheating, harassing,
poisoning spying, or plotting against them or the people they care about. These beliefs are
called delusion of persecution.
Thought disorder: People with schizophrenia often have unusual thought processes. One
dramatic form is disorganized thinking, in which the person has difficulty organizing his
or her thoughts or connecting them logically. Speech may be garbled or hard to
understand. Another form is thought blocking, in which the person stops abruptly in the
middle of a thought. When asked why, the person may say that it felt as if the thought had
been taken out of his or her head. Finally, the individual might make up unintelligible
Disorders of Movement Schizophrenic people can be clumsy and uncoordinated. They
may also exhibit involuntary movements and may grimace or exhibit unusual
mannerisms. They may repeat certain motions over and over or, in extreme cases, may
become catatonic. Catatonic is a state of immobility and unresponsiveness. It was more
common when treatment for schizophrenia was not available, fortunately, it is now rare.
This is the period that a person can start having such symptoms
Psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions usually emerge in men in their
late teens and early 20s and in women in their mid 20s to early 30s. they seldom occur
after age 45 and only rarely before puberty, although cases of schizophrenia in children
as young as 5have been reported . in adolescents, the first signs can include a change of
friends, a drop in grades, sleep problems, and irritability. Because many normal
adolescents exhibit these behaviors as well as , a diagnosis can be difficult to make at this
stage. In young people who go on to develop the disease , this is called the prodronal
Some causes of Schizophrenia
1. Substance abuse
Some people who abuse drugs show symptoms similar to those of schizophrenia, and
people with schizophrenia may be mistaken for people who are high on drugs. While
most researchers do not believe that substance abuse causes that illness, people who have
it abuse alcohol and /or drugs more often than the general population.
The most common of substance abuse in people with schizophrenia is an addiction to
nicotine. People with schizophrenia are addicted to nicotine at three times the rate of the
Scientists have long known that schizophrenia runs in families. It occurs in 1 percent of
the general population but is seen in 10percent of people with a first degree relative
(parent, brother, sister) with the disorder. People who have second degree relatives
(aunts, uncles, grandparents, or cousins) with the identical twin of a person with
schizophrenia is most at risk, with a 40 to 65percent chance of developing the disorder.
Although there is a genetic risk for schizophrenia, it is not likely that genes alone are
sufficient to cause the disorder. Interactions between genes and the environment are
thought to be necessary for schizophrenia to develop. Many viruses or malnutrition in the
womb, problems during birth, and psychosocial factors, like stressful environment
Medication to give to Schizophrenic patient(client)
These are some antipsychotic medications:
Chloropromazine (Thorazine), haloperidol (Haldol), perphenazine (Etrafon, Trilafon),
and Fluphenzine( Prolixin). They can cause extrapyramidal side effects, such as rigidity,
persistent muscle spasms, tremors, and restlessness.
Everyone responds differently to antipsychotic medication. Sometimes several different
drugs must be tried before the right one is found. People with schizophrenia should work
in partnership with their doctors to find the medications that control their symptoms best
with the fewest side effects.
Psychosocial treatments can help patients who are already stabilized on antipsychotic
medications deal with certain aspects of schizophrenia, such as difficulty with
communication, motivation, self-care, work, and establishing and maintaining
relationships with others. Learning and using coping mechanisms to address these
problems allows people with schizophrenia to attend school, work, and socialize. Patients
who receive regular psychosocial treatment also adhere better to their medication
schedule and have fewer relapses and hospitalizations. A positive relationship with a
therapist or a case manager gives the patient a reliable source of information, sympathy,
encouragement, and hope, all of which are essential for managing the disease.
Rehabilitation emphasizes social and vocational training to help people with
schizophrenia function more effectively in their communities. Because people with
schizophrenia frequently become ill during the critical career-forming years of life (ages
18 to 35) and because the disease often interferes with normal cognitive functioning,
most patients do not receive the training for skills work. Rehabilitation programs can
include vocational counseling, job training, money management counseling, assistance in
learning to use public transportation, and opportunities to practice social and workplace
Mental health: new understanding, new hope (Schizophrenia, pp 68-69) WHO library cataloguing in Publication Data • http://nih.gov/ • National Institute of Mental Health. Schizophrenia: Addendum January 2007.Bethesda, Maryland, USA: NIMH Publications, 2007. Retrieved May 26,2007,from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/schizoph.cfm WHO: The World Health report 2001.Mental Health: new understanding, new hope. Geneva, World Health Organization 2001
1200 W. Hillcrest Dr. Suite 201 Newbury Park, CA 91320Phone: (805) 375-0435 Fax: (805) 376-1446 NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION Tests Used for Analysis: Comments: Patient Symptom Survey. Patient's comments: My concerns are fatigue and hair loss. This analysis and the recommendations are not for the purpose of treating or curing disease (cancer, hepatitis, arthritis, diabetes, M.S., heart