Why does competence in basic calculation matter? Why do primary children differ in it? Richard Cowan1, Chris Donlan2, Donna-Lynn Shepherd1, Rachel Cole-Fletcher1 1Institute of Education University of London, London, United Kingdom, 2University College London, London,United Kingdom Differences between children in mathematicalprogress in primary school have long beenacknowledged to be conside
My storyFirstly, let me tell you a bit about myself. Up until September 2000, Iwas employed by Microsoft as its Technical Director for the AsiaPacific region. I resigned my position due to the effects of an illness Iacquired (as described herein). I have been involved in the computeror technical related industries for over 30 years now. Apart from Microsoft, I worked with companies like Informix, Apple Computer, TexasInstruments and Pirelli-Ericsson. I am a bachelor degree-qualified Electrical Engineer,with a further post graduate degree in Finance and a Masters in BusinessAdministration. I have worked for some innovative companies. These companiestaught me a great deal and influenced my approach to doing business, challengingthe status quo, asking questions, searching for answers and resolving complexproblems. As a result of my technical background I have a keen understanding ofcomputers, control systems and electronics. Much of what I have learnt in the past30 years working with computers and control systems has an uncanny resemblanceto my more recent learning of the workings of the human body, especially the I have always been actively involved in sport from an early age, playing it atrepresentative levels and have never been overweight or had any medical problemsto speak of. I have ridden surfboards for the majority of my life, played Rugby Union,Rugby League, Australian Rules, Touch Football, done Karate and participated inmany other sports. Thus it was quite disturbing and almost unbelievable that when Ineeded help from doctors in relation to a condition I seemed to have acquired, thatthey would dismiss my condition as simply a ‘normal’ part of the aging process. Itwas this response from doctors and a lot of other ‘rubbish’ that would test myperseverance, resilience and patience and cause me to commence a journey ofdiscovery. This journey would see me not only arriving at the end of my ownsuffering, but also allow me to help other people rid themselves of their pain and WHAT HAPPENED TO ME
It was 31st August 1997, the same day as Lady Diana was killed in Paris, and I wasplaying rugby union football in a Golden Oldies competition in the northern suburbsof Sydney. I was then 43 years of age. I have played rugby since I was 5 years oldand never really been hurt. This day it was going to be different. I was tackledheavily, my head hit the ground and I was knocked out for between 3 and 5minutes. After regaining consciousness and having been walked to the sideline, I wastaken to hospital for a check-up. The conclusion, by the young intern, was thateverything was OK. No X-rays, CT scans or MRI’s were taken, no nothing! I wasasked some general questions like: who is the leader of our country, what is the datetoday etc, followed by some very basic reflex checking. These tests are of courseinadequate and totally primitive for the human body. The head injury procedurecarried out by some hospitals is in my opinion seriously lacking. Nothing I have discovered since my incident has changed my opinion on this subject whatsoever.
The next few days I recovered at home, with only a blackened right cheekbone andbloodshot right eye to show for my troubles, or so I thought. The problems that I was to experience were not apparent immediately after the accident. It wasn’t until afew months post the injury, which is frequently the case with this type of incidentthat my life started to change. Imagine the problem some people have trying toconnect a head injury 5 or 10 years earlier to an illness they have now. This is an all THE NIGHTMARE BEGINS
For three months following this head injury I felt quite fine. I had remarked to my GPthat my neck did not feel quite right, although I had no pain and no restriction. I didhowever have some crunching noises when moving my head from side to side. Thenoises appeared to be coming from behind my nose. It was about three months tothe day after the football game incident that I started experiencing symptoms. Atfirst they were minor and annoying but then they progressed quite rapidly and The following lists the symptoms and other signs that I began to experience. Theyare listed roughly in order of occurrence although some were concurrent and some 1. A strange pulling sensation to my right shoulder. This was almost like someone was holding me back by the right shoulder. I was being pulledbackwards to the right and had trouble maintaining balance. Walking up hills or slopes became a real chore, with gravity having a significant affect on me.
2. One week later, tinnitus (ear noises) started in my left ear. The sounds appeared to get worse depending on my neck position. Soon after this,tinnitus started in my right ear. At first the sounds were not too loud,however they soon became much louder. I say sound(s) because I seemed to 3. A strange buzzing sensation in my head began to affect me when I tried to sleep. If I placed my head to the left on my pillow my whole head would buzzand wake me immediately. This was so weird, that explaining it is somewhat 4. My tongue and the left corner of my mouth started to burn.
5. I started to experience left facial numbness. It progressed and I experienced numbness to my whole left side. On occasions I would wake and becompletely numb down my left side, arm, leg, foot and torso. Needless to say 6. I would experience intermittently, what I can only describe as pressure to the roof of my mouth. You would get the same feeling if you took both yourthumbs and put them inside your mouth and pressed firmly up against the 7. On other occasions it would feel like my whole skull was freezing.
8. I began to experience vision distortions, like sensitivity to light and difficulty seeing especially at dusk. My vision became filled with what are known as 9. Breathing difficulties began and intermittently affected me. It would seem that my breathing would just stop randomly, but momentarily. This is nothing like doctors describe as anxiety, which I was accused of having.
10. My speech was becoming slurred, and I found it difficult to get my tongue around certain phrases. This wasn’t a major problem but the fact was I had 11. I also experienced what I would call memory lapses. I couldn't remember even the simplest names of things e.g. wheelbarrow, shovel. How come I couldn’t remember the name of these things? 12. Soon I had difficulty swallowing. Even water was a problem, although easier 13. My arms and legs felt very heavy, like I had concrete dangling from each 14. I had difficulty coordinating fingers when typing and writing. The computer keyboard was becoming more difficult to handle.
15. An eye twitch started in my right eye. This would on some days be there all day, and on others only for part of the day. One doctor had delight in tellingme he had one and I was to watch his eye, so I could see it happen. As if to 16. I started to get leg twitches and tremors down my left leg. It appeared to be somewhat similar to what I had read about Parkinson's disease. I would standup and my leg would shake of its own accord. My electronics background makes me think this is overshoot of the electrical impulse to the muscles.
17. My fingers and toes tingled and periodically I would get pins and needles 18. I had clicking sounds from the left area under my skull when moving my 19. I had a sensation of something stuck to the bottom of my left foot. It was like a piece of cardboard was stuck there.
20. On many occasions, especially after eating, I would experience tingling all over, like I had ants crawling over my body.
21. I could hear squelching sounds in my right ear when eating. When I put my fingers in my ear canal, I would hear a sound, like you would hear when using a wet sponge or flannel to clean your ears.
22. I had a feeling of fullness or blockage in the left ear, and experience sounds like crumpling a newspaper near my ear if I moved my jaw.
23. I experienced ground-moving sensations several times a day. The ground would seem to escape me. Sometimes opening a car door, the whole car seemed to move. I would usually experience some nausea at this time.
24. Upon visiting an ENT specialist I was told I had left ear hearing loss, although the frequency at which I had trouble hearing was more likely the samefrequency as my tinnitus. My left ear was also very sensitive to any loud 25. I could hear crunching sounds behind my nasal cavity when I moved my neck 26. My right trapezius muscle, the shoulder part, was now lower (wasted) than my left and the sternocleidomastoid muscle or SCM (main neck muscle)seemed wasted also, as well as the deeper scalene muscles appeared much smaller on the right side of my neck.
27. This right trapezius muscle was excruciatingly painful during and after eating.
The very act of eating now made me quite ill.
28. I felt light-headed and dizzy on many occasions, especially during and after 29. My left foot would often feel extremely cold.
30. My left little toe would go bright red whenever I put my neck in a certain 31. I noticed that I had right head tilt and my chin was rotated to left. I have since found that doctors call this the 'cock robin' position.
32. I had pain in every thoracic vertebra. My whole back was now painful but mainly around the shoulder blades and at my sacrum.
33. I began to get knee pain and they would click quite loudly.
34. I frequently sprained my right ankle.
35. I had this horrible sensation that my whole body was twisted and that I was 36. It was often painful to have any clothing touching my skin.
37. I had jaw joint noises, squelching and clicking sounds.
38. My blood pressure dropped to 70/50 lying down but would come back to normal when sitting up. I also experienced horrible sensations whilst lyingdown. This could be replicated monotonously. No doctors would believe me; one even indicated that low blood pressure was nothing to worry about! 39. My feet hurt badly and buzzed regularly. They didn’t buzz with my heartbeat, but had their own regular pattern. Testing by a doctor by scraping animplement along the bottom of my foot resulted in no discernable response.
She thought I was somehow faking the non-response.
I had none of the above symptoms or conditions prior to my head injury. Nobody canmake me believe that this is to be expected as part of the normal aging process. Yet In my quest for relief, and to find out what was wrong with me, I saw numerousdoctors, dentists, orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, otologists, neurologists,osteopaths, physiotherapists and otolaryngologists. They ordered brain (many on myinsistence!) scans (MRIs,CTs), cervical spine scans (x-rays, CTs, MRIs),TMJ MRIs,blood tests, ECGs, EMGs, ultrasounds (liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys), dopplercarotids - ALL came back clear (apart from some minor disc bulges at C3-4, C4-5and C5-6) and I was told that there was nothing wrong with me. The responsesranged from "learn to live with it", "you're getting old", "it’s in your mind" to "takethese" - [being a referral to anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory drugs]. When Inow look at those images, subluxations between my skull and atlas and my atlas and Believe it or not, many of the above symptoms became worse in severity as timewent on until I was bedridden. My weight dropped to 60kg (132lbs) from 86kg(190lbs) and my skin turned gray. I started to bleed from the bowel. I now know thiswas due to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) the doctors hadprescribed. One of these NSAID was Indomethacin. I found out that this drug hasbeen known to cause fatal GI bleeding! As you can see, doctors were absolutely nohelp whatsoever. Some doctors tried to shorten consultations, telling me I was anightmare patient and shouldn't be reading x-rays or looking up things on theInternet. This was when I decided to take matters into my own hands. I thought tomyself, this is just plain rubbish (stronger words used!) If it were my child who wasthis ill what would I do? And what would a doctor do if it were their child FINDING SOME ANSWERS
I started to research more vigorously using various Internet search engines anduncovered a wealth of information. Once I found a theme I tracked it relentlessly,and applied the conclusions to my own situation. Much I could simply dismiss, butthere soon became this common thread, which I followed. I followed a TMJ -temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) thread, but eventually (and after many bitesplints and TMJ surgery) I learnt that I was off track. My actual problem was mycervical spine (neck), in particular C1. The jaw was a secondary problem, caused bythe problem at C1. Actually it was a dentist who suggested I should get C1 checked.
Thus I found myself visiting a chiropractor. I'm sitting there thinking, "Why do I needto see a chiropractor?" “I’ve never been to one, and why do I need one for my jaw?”My doctors warned me about chiropractors. It turns out that warnings aboutchiropractors are an all too common practice, and in the majority of cases totally My first visit to a chiropractor turned out to be a very profound experience. I toldhim nothing other than what I had been experiencing and in less than 5 minutes ofconsultation he diagnosed C1 subluxation (which means ‘minor misalignment’). Hejust observed me as I was leaning over his desk, and he carried out a couple ofreally quick checks. He mentioned C2 as well. He sat me in a chair and proceeded to correct this subluxation with his thumb under my left jaw/left ear area whilst seated.
I now know that he was contacting the left transverse process (wing) of my atlas orC1 vertebra. This is the vertebra, which the skull sits on top of and it is no biggerthan say a credit card. The skull and its contents weigh in at around 4 to 5kg (about10lbs). Needless to say that this is a tough job for this little bone and the ligamentsattached to it. [You will note that a doctor Kaute discusses a similar ‘atlas therapy’ performed by Arlen for treating tinnitus, in a paper “The Influence of Atlas Therapy on Tinnitus”, International Tinnitus Journal 1998;4(2):165-167.] Remarkably within 2 minutes of the C1 adjustment, I started to feel better. Duringthe following week the majority of the previous symptoms disappeared! Some of thesymptoms, such as my back pain, disappeared over a slightly longer period. Theremaining symptoms were - left ear tinnitus, strange pulling sensation rightshoulder, light paresthesias left side, left tongue/mouth burning however there hadbeen a vast improvement as these were now only of minor intensity. Following acheck up 6 months later the chiropractor made another adjustment. OUCH! Thisturned out to be a disaster as I got back my symptoms and then some. After this hewas not much help. I was on my own again. I supposed I could have written off thewhole of the chiropractic profession because of this second event. Do you write offthe entire medical profession because of the mistake of one doctor? I’m glad I My further research revealed that there is a small group of the chiropracticprofession practicing a specialist form of chiropractic technique, known as specific orprecision upper cervical (UpC) chiropractic. There are numerous upper cervicalchiropractic techniques and approaches to making atlas and axis adjustments. Thereare some, which are very gentle and very specific. That is, the amount ofmisalignment is measured with pre and post specific and accurate x-rays. I amfamiliar with many of these techniques now and I provide information about them onmy site. When delivered correctly they seem to have no adverse side affects and areextremely gentle. Certainly, more gentle than the first adjustment that wasmoderately forceful for me, although initially providing the desired results. Therewould seem to be no trauma involved in the Atlas Orthogonal (AO) approach. Mostupper cervical techniques seem to be effective and many are very, very low force.
The point is there are a few techniques for upper cervical and they do seem to work It was the AO approach that I became very interested in because of the fact thatthere is NO manual (hands on) manipulation involved in this technique, besides there was at the time only one upper cervical practitioner in the whole of Australia! The ‘adjustment’ to the atlas is administered via a percussion (sound wave)
instrument. Dr. Roy Sweat, an upper cervical chiropractor, developed this technique
[see www.atlasorthogonality.com]. This is a wonderful approach yielding almost
miraculous results in many cases. This technique is so gentle that you will most
probably ask the chiropractor, “Did you do anything?” because you will not feel the
adjustment. In the majority of cases patients feel a ‘warm feeling’ immediately after
the adjustment. I think this is arterial release at the level of the atlas. The healing
process has begun! Specific post x-ray analysis will confirm the realignment of the
atlas w.r.t. the skull and the leveling of the atlas w.r.t. the ground. On this website
under ‘Upper Cervical Techniques’ and ‘Atlas Orthogonal’ you will find a brief movie
of Dr. Sweat’s AO adjustment under video fluoroscopy. Make no mistake - this
My first adjustment by the only Atlas Orthogonist in Australia, Joe Ierano in Camden
NSW [see www.chiropracticierano.com.au] was just as amazing as my very first
adjustment. The only remaining symptoms I now experience, I am certain are due to
having had the TMJ surgery, which I now regret. My jaw joint noises are persisting
including clicking, cracking, crunching and grinding and my feet hurt during and after
eating. If I do not eat for a couple of days and rest my jaw, I have few symptoms.
The doctor who performed the TMJ surgical reconstruction unbeknown to me ground4mm off my right jaw condyle. Now my jaw is permanently misaligned. There is asignificant link between the atlas vertebra and the TMJs, one, which is often, My own experiences certainly helped me to uncover the amazing work being done by‘specific’ upper cervical chiropractors around the World. It’s not hard to find thesewonderful people. As a direct result of my research and my contact with thesechiropractors I have now personally helped over 100 people experience either 100% recovery or at the very least have significant health improvements.
This atlas problem is very common. I used to think that about 30%-40% of peoplehave it. Now I think it’s more like 70%. Just because you don’t have much wrongwith you doesn’t mean you don’t have an atlas subluxation. It’s very easy to detectand the signs and symptoms are usually consistent. The mechanism of injury isusually a head knock although it doesn't have to be as severe as mine. As mentionedpreviously, it can be from falling out of bed, walking into a door or something evenless traumatic. It can even be from the birthing process. Usually it’s from an incidentsuch as falling off a bike, a horse or, the more insidious injuries, as a result of caraccidents. Anyone who has ever been in a car accident, especially if theyexperienced whiplash, regardless of the presence of any pain, should visit a specific,gentle upper cervical chiropractor. If the skull is shifted on the atlas, it may stay in that position until it is 'helped' back to where it should be. In theory it's that simple! The consequences for those people, who do not seek treatment, are numerous. Overtime there is a loss of your their natural neck curve (cervical lordosis) and you mightacquire disc bulges. This is due to the altered weight bearing on the UpC spine.
Eventually the discs may disintegrate and the vertebra may even fuse. This takesmany years. Once this happens you are in a real mess. Doctors regularly pass offminor loss of neck curve, as OK, but in truth I think that they are wrong. Any loss ofneck curve (lordosis) however minor could be associated with the possible loss ofrelationship between the skull and the atlas and thus this should be investigated.
There are about 17 or so signs and symptoms, which I have come to know, indicate a possible atlas problem. I have listed these on my website.
The symptoms, conditions & diseases, which this atlas adjustment appears to help tofix or improve, are numerous and will surprise you. I say 'help to fix', because whilstthe adjustment is the key factor involved in the healing process, it’s your own bodywhich in the end does the healing. Cranial nerves and spinal nerves, which wereonce working at say 70% due to muscular compression and traction, now, work tofull capacity. Arterial flow under compression now returns to normal. This is notdifficult to understand. Why doctors don't see it I don't know. There are enoughanecdotal stories, case studies and scientific evidence to justify thorough This is not a hard jump to make for anyone. I believe that if funds were put towardsresearching this, the results would be immediately evident and would enable us toeliminate many illnesses. This is where I intend to place my focus. My objective is toestablish credible research into the atlas phenomenon and the effects of upper cervical chiropractic on a wide range of illnesses.
My last word to people who are ill, but have been unsuccessful in getting results,despite seeking help from countless physicians: If you haven't been to see a specificupper cervical (UpC) chiropractor, then you may just be bypassing exactly the one thing that will get you better. If you are sick and just cannot seem to get well, ask yourself this question: “Is my head on straight?” Because more than likely, it is not!
Guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care
International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 2012; 16: 77–84 REVIEW ARTICLE Guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, obsessive – compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care BORWIN BANDELOW 1 , LEO SHER 2 , ROBERTAS BUNEVICIUS 3 , ERIC HOLLANDER 2 , SIEGFRIED KASPER 4 , JOSEPH ZOHAR 5 , HANS-J Ü RGEN M Ö LLER 6