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GIS for Regional Sustainable Development
Changping ZHANG, Professor, Toyo University Researcher, Subject 1-1, Center for Sustainable Development Studies My research deals with approaches to urbanization and urban spatial analysis using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in China and developing countries. In this preface, I would like briefly to introduce GIS for sustainable development to the readers of our newsletter.
Globalization is improving economic and political conditions in China and other developing countries. People are able to move from place to place, from city to city, from rural areas to the city more easily than ever before, in search of improved living conditions, employment opportunities and education. All of this movement or migration of people has brought myriad changes such as an increase of city populations, lack of residential space, environmental deterioration and great demands on all Traditionally, administrative documents have been saved A sample of global map (from JGSI website)
in paper maps, and paper records in Chinese state and local governments. These static record keeping and data systems project. Global digital map is basic geographic information become outdated and inaccurate almost immediately.
covering whole land areas on the earth with eight map During the past decade, new and improving technologies layers such as administrative boundaries, drainage, and methodologies have made this administrative work transportation, population centers, elevation, vegetation, much more efficient. High capacity yet lower cost computers, land use and land cover. Under this international powerful software, the Internet, GIS, GPS and remote corporation, data are produced mainly by national mapping sensing data are all helping to make this possible. To organizations participating in the global mapping project.
monitor and update the infrastructure, environment, and We can be confident that the global digital map will settlements, Chinese governments and private companies contribute to the application of GIS in developing countries have developed several governmental GIS such as Geographical Information Sharing System, National Social As mentioned above, the greatest challenge for regional and Economic Statistical GIS and so on and introduced sustainable development is to harness the scientific them into administrative work and projects. But the advances of the information technology and geographic development of digital mapping has still been the bottleneck information revolutions. GIS clearly has much to offer to for the application of GIS in China.
sustainable development studies that deal with the Since 1992, the Japanese Geographic Survey Institute challenges of the regional and urban environment and it has (JGSI) has called for cooperation among the national become an essential tool for many who deal with urban mapping organizations around world to promote global planning, transport logistics, community development, mapping activities, which will contribute to global environmental hazards, health care, and so on. GIS environmental conservation and sustainable development.
technology is increasingly playing a facilitating role for The International Steering Committee for Global Mapping improved decision-making. For sustainable development we (ISCGM) was established in 1996. ISCGM aims to complete need to assess the long term effects and impacts as well as the development of a global map for the whole land area of the short term benefits and make decisions that do not have the globe by 2007. After completion, the digital map data long-term negative effects. GIS is as an important tool to are to be updated at intervals of approximately five years.
support decisions, and it can be expected that more and At present, 151 nations and 16 regions are involved in the more people will use it in their work and studies.
A Study on Structural Reform in Public Utilities and a Comparative Study of Railway
Reform in Japan and Europe
Masamichi HORI, Professor, Toyo University Researcher, Subject 1-2, Center for Sustainable Development Studies The characteristics of public service have changed according to the changes in social circumstances and innovation. In order to deal with these various changes, the purpose of railway reform is to establish a railway system that supplies a flexible service. In view of this situation, a vertical separation structure (i.e. the separation of infrastructure and operation) is possibly a partial solution to the problems related to post-deregulation railway construction and management. I intend to compare present railway reforms in Japan and the EU and analyze them from the point of deregulation, incentive regulation and The aim of the EU was to establish a common market to allow the free movement of goods, as well as to improve the European transportation network. Driven by EU transport ICE (Inter City Express) at Frankfurt am Main Central Station
policy, this movement has been brought about by a (Photograph by Shigeki Ozawa)
recognition of the need for liberalization of the European We see a variety of structural reforms in the public utility transport market, which could lead to efficient and effective industry these days, and structural separations in the transport systems. However, since the integration of the industry deserve special attention. The purpose of EU, structural changes in the European market have separating structures is to create a system that encourages exposed the railways to fierce competition from other a response to market forces. The function of structural transport systems. In order to boost railway competitiveness, separation is to confirm the boundary between a firm and a the EU introduced a new management system under EU market. In separating structures, the allocation of power or control matter. I examine the determinants of the boundary This policy ordered EU member states to implement the of the firm especially in relation to allocation of power and separation of infrastructure and operation in order to lead control, and also in separating structures business domains to open access in railway markets. In this freer market, are divided into two activities : competitive activity and non- rights of access were conferred to existing operators of competitive activity. Namely the production of services can international transport services, but recognition of equal be divided into the private service as competitive activity conditions and status need to be established for all and the public service as in-competitive activity. The private operators in the market. I aim to give a broad overview of service should be depended on market mechanism and the European railway policy and the railway market in the EU public service need the regulation of the government and member states with particular focus on Directive 91/440.
financial support from the government. In this case, the public obligation of the government is an important factor in forming an organization or a structure in the public utilities industry. Although structural reform has generally been evaluated based on efficiency measures, it is crucial to consider policies based on fairness and equity. Incidentally, the railway management form has changed according to the change of the market conditions. The structural changes in the transport market have manifested themselves in the form of growth in automobile and air transportation and a gradual decline in rail transportation.
In an effort to revive the railways, which have lost out under market competition, Japanese National Railways underwent privatization reforms in 1987. A public corporation, which was adopted by the fallen railway operation, was established in order to operate the railway more efficiently. However the railway’s management failed to accomplish its original target. In the present railway Freightliner Express at München Freight Station
reform in Japan and Europe the public field and commercial (Photograph by Shigeki Ozawa)
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service for Poverty Reduction
Kenji YOSHINAGA, Professor, Toyo University Researcher, Subject 2, Center for Sustainable Development Studies Over the past two years, the author has studied the issues ABS (access and benefit and sharing) for the flow of genetic of biodiversity and ecosystems as a part of a research theme resources to the user domain, the same rule it is not applied on agricultural and rural development. The brief note below to other flow of biodiversity and ecosystems to public introduces some of the research outcomes about this theme: domain. People in the public domain tend to be “free riders” on the provision of ecosystem services though they are Biodiversity is a part of the ecosystems in which human- direct beneficiaries. Values of biodiversity and ecosystem beings co-exist. Changes in biodiversity cause serious and services are, in many cases, classified as “non-use values” often negative impacts on ecosystems, not to mention that cannot be evaluated in the market. The “reversed flow” human well-being. Ecosystems play functional roles which of payment from public domain to supply domain should be can provide important services for human well-being. These established in order to use and preserve biodiversity in a include the three functions of provision, regulation and sustainable way. To this end, appropriate actions should be culture. The provision functions provide services such as taken to internalize those values into policies and food and fuel, freshwater and genetic resources; regulation institutional arrangements at both national and international functions include climate regulation, disease control and flood control; and cultural functions include spiritual and Scarce biodiversity and ecosystems often exist in developing religious benefits, recreation and cultural heritage. People countries and their rural areas where the majority of the enjoy benefits from a variety of ecosystem services that poor live. The poor have heavily depended on biodiversity serve the public good and which are closely related to and ecosystems and cultivated intrinsic traditional components of human well-being such as security, basic knowledge for their livelihoods. The uses of biodiversity and materials for a better life, health and better social services of ecosystems should be integrated in pro-poor relationships. These help people to secure rights of freedom policies such as Poverty Reduction Strategic Papers (PRSPs) which could contribute to the achievement of Millennium As shown in the figure below, ecosystem services flow from Development Goals (MDGs). Public awareness is another supply domains (developing countries or rural areas) to user action taken to make the public domain recognize the values domains (developed countries and multinational corporations) and importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services, a or the public domain (the general public) often without due first but important step toward their sustainable use and payment or compensation. Although the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) describes a fair and equitable Flow of Ecosystem Service and Benefit
Report of the Inviting Researcher in 2007
Ai My TRAN, Senior Staff, Center for Social Work and Community Development Research and Consultancy (Ho Chi Minh City) Inviting Foreign Researcher, Center for Sustainable Development Studies dealing with household solid waste collection in Ho Chi Minh City on 14th November, and on 20th November she participated in an experience sharing of micro-credit program for housing upgrading in Ayutthaya (Thailand) and land use in urban planning of Tokyo outskirt with Prof.
On her last day in Japan, on the 29th November the researcher was fortunate to attend a special presentation “The Netherlands and Europe Innovation on Water and Energy” made by his Excellency Mr. Matthijs van Bonzel, Ambassador of the Royal Netherlands in Japan. This lecture was provided to Toyo University students in Engineering in the courtesy of great relationship between the two royal families Japanese and The Netherlands. The Netherlands Ms Ai My TRAN
or Holland is shaped by water, threaten by water but has Ms. Tran Ai My is a senior staff of the Centre for Social constructed dikes to protect from water, has wind mills on work and Community development Research and land to use water as energy. With new challenges of global Consultancy (SDRC) located in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
warming the Netherlands has come with smart solutions, She was invited by the Center for sustainable Development new technology wind mills planted in oceans/ seas. This is Studies of Toyo University to participate into the Seminar costly but serves long-term goal to meet present needs in on Sustainability studies in Vietnam. Her contribution was renewable energy and save resources for future generations.
on the sharing of the community participation approach in The final note of the presentation was the Ambassador’s Environment sanitation and Urban upgrading as practiced welcome and high appreciation of Japanese investment with in Vietnam, and in particular in Ho Chi Minh City. She clean technology and renewable energy in the Netherlands. used the case of the Tan Hoa – Lo Gom Canal sanitation and Urban upgrading project (1999 – 2006) to illustrate the The seminar which took place at Hakusan campus gathered community participation experiences and its outcomes. an audience of larger aura: academic researchers, scientific development practisioners. Prof. Kitawaski updated the work During her 19 day stay in Japan, Ms. Ai My got involved and projects of the Center for Sustainable Development into several activities observing Japanese lifestyle in urban Studies and introduced the 3 main presentations on and rural areas, Japanese transport and commerce Vietnam development issues related to environment industries. Exchange with post-graduate students in education and action (by Mr. Araishi of Bridge Asia Japan), regional planning from 4 countries (Japan, Cambodia, Iraq urban upgrading and household resettlement (by the and Zambia) of Toyo University was on various aspects visiting researcher) , and ideas for “Michi no eki” planning ranging from environmental education to primary school along the main transportation roads to boost local rural students in Vietnam and Japan, housing for low-income residents in Japan and Thailand, transport facilities and services of Japan. The students’ familiarity with Japanese customs thanks to their somehow extended stay in the country was helpful to the visiting researcher as she could learn while sharing experiences with them and also during the visits to local places with them and the CeSDeE Academic and formal workshops took place at Itakura campus and Hakusan campus of Toyo University. At Itakura campus, the researcher delivered a special lecture Usually, in Vietnam the name of the person is called by the given name preceded by his/her gender and age or professionalheading. Special Lecture at Itakura Campus, Toyo University
tourism is promoted and the rich heritage from past dynasties as well as painful loss of human beings during the war were kept vivid in museums and monuments to commemorate the ancient, to share with those who survive the difficult periods and to teach present and future generations. Sustainable development could only grow from lessons, and with roots of the past.
On 27th of November, the visit to Ashio Copper mine under the guidance of Prof. Kaneko was a striking lesson of environment issues and mining development work. Copper extraction and refinery factories has not only brought wealth to the nation but also serious negative impact on the workers’ health and on the environment. From its beginning in early 17th century to late mid 20th century, Ashio copper Special Lecture at Itakura Campus, Toyo University
mines underwent many periods of modernization in mining work and health safety measures for the workers, however economics in Vietnam (by Prof. Kaneko). Many participants the damage on environment – such as deforestation, river water in the seminar has worked in Vietnam, therefore their poisoning is still on its recovery process with deep planting questions were pertinent and the answers clarified details of trees and dam construction for lesser soil erosion. The and enabled accurate knowledge of current situation in visiting researcher herself was completely astounded of the Vietnam. The researcher herself could see the strong point human force in its devastation but also of their ingenuity in working with children on environmental awareness and and perseverance in the reconstruction and conservation of action for better behavior change and stronger impact on the nature for the benefits of mankind. The Ashio history adults. The community participation approach as illustrated provides good lessons on sustainable development issues. in the Tan Hoa Lo Gom project was not new in its conceptual ideology but new in the practice of a distinct Three weeks of intense and interactive learning in closed team of social workers aside teams of local administrators, air-conditioned conference rooms and in open air, on the architects, planners and builders to facilitate effective field, in the streets, on tramways trains,… all single consultation meetings with the project-affected households activities in Japan had a strong impact for the researcher and informed decision making of options offered to PAH who found these opportunities for learning and sharing on thus ensuring sense of responsibility over and efficiency of basis of synchronizing events but leaving self-control, self- the project activities leading to sustainability firs level of adjustment and self-realization of a world of peaceful co- the project results. Use of the main road advantages to existence which respects individualism but requires boost and re-activate rural economics was a sparkling idea symbiosis. The open research center for Sustainable for further studies in mapping the resources, developing the Development Studies has demonstrated the “open” attitude potentialities as well as in feasibility and sustainability of to include different realms and disciplines working for inclusion and initiatives to enhance quality of life together with scientific innovations. The visiting researcher The attendance to the 18th Annual Conference of the anticipated to continue collaborative studies in awareness Japanese Society for International Development, held at raising and people participation in basic services delivery Okinawa University on the 24th and 25th November 2007 (health, clean water, housing, appropriate technology) for was a challenging but well rewarded event for the visiting lecturer. During the two day conference, the researcher faced the challenge what to choose to attend since most of the papers are in Japanese, and the rare English papers were scheduled to take place concurrently. Eventually, she attended English and Japanese presentation papers dealing with technology transfer to developing countries, alternative to actually used UN Human development index (HDI), education budgeting. Papers on community experiences such as water sanitation, intergenerational poverty as well as care of people with disabilities were the most interesting issues for her. The conference was nonetheless very fruitful because the visiting researcher could update the academic, economic and social concepts from scientific illustrations of experiences from different countries in the world. Besides the Conference, with the guidance of Prof. Kitawaki, she could also learn the history of Okinawa island, and its development after World War II and during the 70’s. Eco- Open Seminar
Report on the 2nd Open Seminar
Research Associate, Center for Sustainable Development Studies Open seminars are a new initiative that we started in 2007. They are aimed at introducing the activities of theCenter for Sustainable Development Studies (CeSDeS) atToyo University to those in the public who are interested incontemporary global issue surrounding regional development.
The 2nd Open Seminar was held at the Second Hakusan Campus of Toyo University in Tokyo on Saturday November17. The title of this seminar was “The Approach for theUrban-Rural Coexistence in Vietnam”. We invited somelecturers with professional knowledge on communitydevelopment activities in Vietnam.
The seminar started at 14:00, and was attended by 21 people including CeSDeS researchers, students, university of the project and assessed the socio-economic support lecturers, and others interested in community development in Vietnam. Professor Hidetoshi Kitawaki, the director of Following Ms Tran, Mr. Masahiro Araishi, the executive the CeSDeS and the Dean of the Graduate School of secretary of Bridge Asia Japan (BAJ) provided us with Regional Development Studies, Toyo University, moderated another lecture, titled “From Environmental Improvement Activity to Community Development: The case of an NGO At the beginning of the seminar, Professor Kitawaki gave project in Vietnam”. BAJ is a nongovernment organization an introduction to the CeSDeS. He spoke about the activities working for the empowerment of socially disadvantaged of the center since it was inaugurated as an Open Research people worldwide. Mr. Araishi informed us about the unique Center subsidized by the Ministry of Education, Culture, project of BAJ, which aims to improve the urban environment Sports, Science and Technology in 2001.
After the introduction, Ms Ai My Tran, a senior staff member The last lecture was delivered by Professor Akira Kaneko, of the Social Development Research and Consultancy group a team leader of the CeSDes and a professor of the Faculty in Ho Chi Minh City, presented a lecture titled “Towards of Regional Development Studies, Toyo University. The title Sustainability: the Community Development Approach in an of his lecture was “A Study on Major Infrastructure Urban Upgrading project in Ho Chi Minh City”. Ms Tran Development to Contribute Community Based Regional was a foreign guest researcher at the CeSDes in 2007. She Development”. He gave us some insights into to the visited Japan from November 12 to 30, 2007. In her lecture, implementation of cooperative projects for infrastructure she discussed her experiences concerning a recent construction and regional promotion, which have already development project called “The Tan Hoa-Lo Gom Canal Sanitation and Urban Upgrading”. This project was a Following the presentations, participants exchanged views bilateral project between the Belgian Government and the concerning community development in Vietnam. The Vietnamese Government conducted from 1998 to 2006. She seminar concluded at 17:30 and the contribution of the was the team leader of a multi-disciplinary evaluation team Announcement from the Secretariat
The Center will hold its international workshop at the The following are new members of the Center as visiting University of Information Technology (UIT), Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, on February 27, .Dr. Bernadetta Kwintiana Ane (Parahyangan Catholic 2008. It is co-organized with UIT and aims to discuss sustainable development in the Vietnam Mekong Delta.
.Ms. Yasmin Suriansyah (Parahyangan Catholic University) Please contact us through E-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org) .Dr. Nguyen Phi Khu (UIT, Vietnam National University) Center for Sustainable Development Studies, Toyo University 1-1-1 Izumino, Itakura-machi, Ohra-gun, Gunma, 374-0193, Japan
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