LLactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children Jon A. Vanderhoof, MD, David B. Whitney, MD, Dean L. Antonson, MD, Terri L. Hanner, RN,James V. Lupo, PhD, and Rosemary J. Young, RN, MS Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of Lac- tion.3,4 Disruption of the microbial flora tobacillus casei sps. rhamnosus (Lactobacillus GG)
P3m.pnb.ac.idSOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 DEALING WITH STUDENTS HAVING DISCIPLINE PROBLEMS
Ni Wayan Sadiani
Tourism Department and Engineering Department, Bali State Polytechnic Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Bali. Telp. +62 361 701981 ABSTRACT. The success of an educational institution depends highly on discipline. It is a
believed value, awareness and willingness to comply with the set rules. Some institutions that
pay serious attention and implement strict discipline are successful to educate better students.
However, for others the importance of discipline is not automatically followed by the practice
of implementing it by teachers. Matters contribute to this are the ignorance of the teachers or
teachers who are uncommitted, un-skillful and having no expertise to deal with discipline
issues. If this is not immediately dealt with, discipline problems will become immense and
difficult to be managed. As increasing problem students encountered in teaching as parts of
develop society make teaching quite challenging job especially to deal with students’
misbehavior. The study reveals that students’ discipline problems are mostly caused by
numerous factors namely: teachers’ permissiveness on time, unpreparedness, lack of role
models, lack of control, lack of attention, unfairness, and lack of communication. This paper,
then, offers some strategies and alternatives to enhance teachers’ skill dealing with various
discipline problems in and outside of the classroom to make teaching more interesting and
fun not only for teachers but also for students to create better quality graduates.
KEYWORDS: Teacher, students, disciplines
Teachers are professional trained to teach academic subject and their training is extensive. Unfortunately, they are not trained extensively to understand and implement usable professional and personal strategic attitudes, position, and action which are effective in getting a child who is not behaving in acceptable ways to do so, so that we can teach – and a Creating an effective learning environment involves organizing classroom activities, instructions, and the physical classroom to provide for effective use of time, to create a happy, productive learning environment, and to minimize behavior problems and disruptions.
Discipline refers to method used to prevent behavior problems or to respond to existing behavior problems so as to reduce their occurrence in the future.
Perhaps more than any other obstacles in teaching, discipline problem cause teachers to be less effective than they could be. They can make them give up and quit on some kids.
Discipline problems can cause them to make rules for the majority to control the minority.
They can cause them to be mean, sarcastic and hateful towards some students – and may be towards the whole class. That’s why discipline problems are so important. In truth, if they didn’t affect teachers in such destructive ways, they wouldn’t hold on much significant. But SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 they do. Even one discipline problem can affect them in a negative way. That’s why their need to learn and understand more about discipline and behavior is so virtually important Local education practitioners stressed that discipline and good modeling is the key success of an education. Discipline is the loyalty to the believed values, including doing certain work under someone responsibility. Discipline is an awareness and willingness to comply with social rules and norms. Discipline is the key success to achieve better future.
This is translated from what has been said by Drs. Dewa Merta Sudina, MM. from STISIP Margarana Tabanan. This 1977 candidate of national discipline personnel further saying that today everyone is blaming each other. Higher education is blaming SMA and SMA is blaming SMP, and so on. In fact discipline issues start from family education. In fact discipline is given from very early start from family, when the children have no contact with the outside world. Therefore, when the discipline education is given during adulthood, it will be difficult because they have been contaminated with the outside environment. Moreover, many examples of undisciplinaries exhibited by those who have power. For example, there is It is said that the discipline indicators are numerous. Among them are purpose and ability, modeling and leadership, gratuity, fairness, direct control, punishment, firmness, and social relationship. From the objective side, it must be idealistic and challenging, leader must be able to become example on attitude and good deed. If relating to gratuity, it is good to give satisfaction and love so discipline will be able to improve. It is not less important when referred to bureaucratization, it seems that direct control does not work at all.
Control on attitude, behavior, moral, and work performance and so forth is needed badly. It is not enough to talk about but to implement in real life. Mainly, without discipline it is impossible to develop this country. Therefore, it is expected that all community component that have children at school or university keep giving control at home. The success of children starts from home. They only spend their time at school for few hours. Most of their time is at home. Whatever busy parents, it is expected not to forget giving attention to their children.
Other speaker, Dewa Ayu Hendrawati, also from STISIPO Margarana Tabanan, has said that this time school children are in the crisis of discipline and modeling. There is no model exist to be followed. The current leaders are far from becoming good example. Therefore, students tend to find example and model from television and internet.
Besides having started at home, discipline and modeling must be taught early since the children start their play group even baby school. Implementation of discipline attitude can be started from students, teachers, and other education components. Culture of cleanliness, SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 clean on oneself, clean in heart, clean in environment, and work culture, get used to work hard and seriously, and follow the rules (Bali Post, 13 December 2011).
There is no magic or charisma that makes a teacher an effective classroom manager.
Setting up a classroom learning environment is a matter of knowing a set of techniques that any teacher can learn and apply. In the past, an effective learning environment has often been seen as an issue of dealing with individual student misbehaviors. Current thinking emphasizes management of the class as a whole in such a way as to make individual misbehavior rare Teachers who present interesting, well organized lesson, who use incentive for learning effectively, who accommodate their instruction to students’ level of preparation, and who plan and manage their own time effectively will have fewer discipline problems to deal with. Still, every teacher, no matter how effective, will encounter discipline problems sometimes. Slavin (1986:388) advised the following means of handling these problems when 1. Engaged time or time on –task: the number of minutes actually spent learning, is the time measure that is most frequently found to contribute to learning. In other words, the most important aspect of time is the one that is under the direct control of the teacher: the organization and use of time in the classroom.
2. Using allocated time for instruction: this is the time during which students have an opportunity to learn. When the teacher is lecturing, students can learn by paying attention. When students have written assignments or other tasks, they can learn by doing them. A discussion follows of some common ways in which allocated time can 3. Preventing lost time: making good use of classroom time is less a matter of squeezing out a few more minutes or hours of instruction each year than of communicating to students that learning is an important business that is worth their time and effort. If a teacher finds excuses not to teach, students may learn that learning is not a serious 4. Preventing late starts and early finishes: A crisp, on-time start to a lesson is important for setting a purposive tone to instruction. If student s know that a teacher does not start on time, they may be lackadaisical about getting to class on time; this attitude makes future on-time start increasingly difficult. Teachers can also shortchange students if they stop teaching before the end of the period. This is less damaging than a ragged or SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 late start but it is still worth avoiding by planning more instruction than you think you will need, in case you finish the lesson early.
5. Preventing interruptions: one important source of lost allocated time for instruction is interruptions. Anything the teachers can delay doing until after a lesson should be delayed. For example, if the teacher has started a lesson and a student walks in late, the teacher should go on with the lesson and deal with the tardiness later.
6. Handling routine procedures: Some teachers spend too much time on simple classroom routines. For example, some teachers check students by calling them one by one. Other procedures must also become routine for students. They must know, for example, when they may go to restroom and not ask to do this thing in other times.
Minimizing time spend on discipline: Whenever possible, which is almost always, disciplinary statements or actions should not interrupt the flow of the lesson. A sharp glance, silently moving close to an offending student, or a hand signal, such as putting finger to lips to remind students to be silent, are usually effective for the kind of minor behavior problem that teachers must constantly deal with, and they allow the lesson to 8. Using engaged time effectively: Engaged time or time on task is the time individual students actually spend during assigned. Allocated time and engaged time differ in that allocated time refers to the opportunity for the entire class to engage in learning activities and engaged time may different from each student, depending on a student’s attentiveness and willingness to work.
9. Teaching engaging lesson: Part of this strategy is to emphasize active, rapidly paced instruction with varies modes of presentation and frequent opportunities for students’ participation and to de emphasize independent seatwork, especially unsupervised seatwork. Research has constantly shown that student engagement is much higher when the teacher is teaching than during individual seatwork (Evertson & Harris, 1992).
10. Maintaining momentum: Maintaining momentum during a lesson is a key to keeping task engagement high. Momentum refers to the avoidance of interruptions or slowdown. In a class that maintains good momentum, students always have something to do, and once started working, are not interrupted.
11. Maintaining smoothness of instruction: Smoothness refers to continued focus on a meaningful sequence of instruction. Smooth instruction avoids jumping without transition from topic to topic or from the lesson to other activities, which produces “jarring breaks in the activity flow” (Kounin,1970).
SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 12. Managing transitions: Transitions are the seams of class management at which classroom order is most likely to come apart. Therefore, when making a transition, the teacher should give a clear signal to which the students have been taught to respond; Before the transition is made, students must be certain about what they are to do when the signal is given; Make transition all at once. Students should be trained to make transition all at once, rather than one student at a time (Charles, 1989).
13. Maintaining Group focus during lessons: Maintaining group focus is the use of classroom organization strategies and questioning techniques that ensure that all students in the class stay involved in the lesson, even when only one student is called 14. Maintaining group focus during seatwork: During times when students are doing seatwork and the teacher is available to work with them, it is important to monitor the seatwork activities and to informally check individual students’ work.
15.Withitness: It describes teachers’ actions that indicate awareness of students’ behavior at all times. Kunin (1970) calls this awareness “having eye in the back of one’s head”.
Teachers who are with-it can respond immediately to student misbehavior and know 16. Overlapping: It refers to the teachers’ ability to attend to interruptions or behavior problems while continuing a lesson or other instructional activity.
In addition, DeBruyn (1983:20) states that a teacher must never forget that all behavior has purpose. The students who behave in acceptable ways do so for a reason.
Likewise, the students who behave in unacceptable ways do so for a reason. If teachers would spend as much time with the reasons for misbehavior as we do with punishments for misbehavior, more discipline problems would be resolved.
He, then, presents nineteen broad generalizations about discipline. If we keep these in mind, as we handle discipline problems, it can alter our strategic attitude, position, and action (168).
1. Never think that, because you are having trouble with a student, he or she is a discipline problem throughout the school. This assumption may, in many instances, not be true. Often, what is a discipline problem for one teacher may not be for another teacher. Remember this fact every time you encounter a discipline problem. You may be surprised that one or many of your colleagues aren’t experiencing any difficulty with your worst discipline problem. Therefore, ask what colleagues are doing – and follow their suggestions. Likewise, realize that there is usually one place, with one SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 teacher, class, or member of the non-certified staff, where appropriate behavior is the 2. Handling discipline is a personal matter. The student must be treated personally, but a teacher can’t take the misbehavior personally. That’s why discipline problems cannot be handled publically. They must be handled privately. And effective solution requires your professional involvement and expertise rather than your personal reaction.
3. All discipline problems require time and a willing attitude about giving time. If you are beating kids out the door at night, don’t complain about having continuous discipline problems with the same kids. You will have them. If you are avoiding a relationship with these students rather than building one, neither student attitude will 4. Discipline problems are best handled by the individual teacher in his or her classroom. After all, here is where the problem lies – and here is where the two people who know the whole scope of the problem meet. And it is these two people, teacher and student, who must work together again. Until you have had a private conference and given you best effort to resolve the problem, don’t send kids to the office. And if you don’t send students to the office, don’t dictate to administrators what they should do. Rather, have administrators utilize their skills and give them room to operate. They can’t be put in a position where solving one problem creates another.
5. We are going to make mistake in handling students when they misbehave. When we do, “I’m sorry” can be the first part of our adjustment strategy. Remember, the behavior you present to students is the behavior you’ll get from them. If you can’t say, “I’m sorry” following a mistake, your students won’t be able to say it either.
6. Many times teacher reaction to student misbehavior multiplies the teacher’s problem.
Never forget, you are the professional in the classroom. Therefore, you must react professionally. To be successful, it is just possible that you’ll have to “bite your tongue” to keep from responding to misbehavior in ways that might be regarded by others as worse than the student’s misbehavior.
7. Our attitude about ourselves affects student behavior. It takes a mature adult with a good self-concept to handle a roomful of students – as well as the misbehavior which occurs there. If you look down on yourself, on teaching, or on the work of the school, then how you will handle discipline problems will be altered. Then, the stage is set for failure rather than success in handling misbehavior.
SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 8. Student behavior may be a reflection of teacher behavior. Remember kids can’t respond favorably in problem situations unless you do. Like it or not, this is a reality of living. Therefore, if you are not getting a response you want, check yourself out.
You may find that your words are not putting out the fire, btu fueling it.
9. Our failure to keep things in perspective causes discipline problems. We are teaching in imperfect world, in an imperfect school, in an imperfect classroom, to imperfect students. And, we are imperfect too. Therefore, imperfection, not perfection, is the condition in a school. Sometimes, it is forgetting this reality that gives both our approach and our action in discipline situations little chance for success from the 10. Never forget, children with problems at school usually have more severe problems at home. That’s s why school and home must work together. These children need our help and we need theirs. Remember, all is not well for the child having problems at school. Therefore, when you have a problem, call parents. And don’t wait – or a bigger problem may result before cooperative efforts can begin.
11. Always keep one thing in mind when handling discipline problems. I’ll help your balance, perspective, peace of mind, and action if you do. Students with discipline problems often dislike themselves and are usually disliked by other students. Remember, people who do not behave appropriately do not lead happy lives. And everyone has to have someone in order to enjoy the fruits of living. These kids need you. With you they can change. Without you, more inappropriate behavior is the 12. Keep in mind that all teacher discipline must promote student self-discipline. If it doesn’t, we can only expect to work on the same problem with the same students every day. Therefore, slow down. Then, spend as much time with persuasive teaching as you do with strict enforcement and you will find kids responding in positive and 13. As you approach discipline problem, keep one probability in mind. Students with discipline problems have few, if any, meaningful conversations or relationships with any adults. You must change this reality to change behavior. Therefore, if you assume the role of boss or immovable authority, or a uncaring stance, you may widen the gap.
Remember, these kids don’t know how to deal with an adult relationship because they don’t have any. Unless you take them in, therefore, you unintentionally shut them out.
SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 14. Whether we like it or not, children regarded as discipline problems are ‘rejected’ by the adult world. If we want to change their behavior in the classroom, changing this reality is a first step. Remember, inclusion rather than exclusion is a necessity to change inappropriate behavior to appropriate behavior. You cannot reject students and change their behavior no matter how you feel. If you do, they will fight you whether 15. Students having adjustment problem usually have a large void in their personal lives.
Usually, this void is other people. Herein lies your power and effectiveness in changing inappropriate behavior to appropriate behavior. Humans are social beings.
We are not loners. Until you can get students who are discipline problems involved with others, you can’t get them to accept responsibility towards others.
16. How a teacher handles a discipline problem does affect that teacher’s relationship with all of his or her students. Remember, the class watches – and makes judgments – regarding how you handle misbehaving students. And other students can identify with classmates when they are in trouble. They can imagine you treating them as you are treating their classmates. Therefore, don’t let your handling of discipline problems destroy your relationship with other students.
17. Regardless of your feeling, the human condition seems to reflect, ”If you like me, I like you. “It also reflects, “ If you don’t like me, I don’t like you.” Therefore, if a child believes that a teacher likes him or her, the child will act differently, but may be towards that one teacher. Remember this fact and you may begin to change the behavior of your worst discipline problem.
18. Make no mistake. Teacher who are approachable have fewer discipline problems.
Remember, if you look down on problems, you automatically look down on the people who have them. Too, an open door policy does not mean you are approachable. Lots of teachers talk about their “door always being open” – until someone comes in.
19. Generally speaking, people act as they think you think they will act. That’s why high expectations are a requirement for changing behavior. Never forget this truth of learning. It applies to learning appropriate behavior. If you lower your expectations for some kids, you’ll probably get the behavior you expect.
Through long observation on discipline as a teacher, the above mention problems did significantly happen at Bali State Polytechnic. Though students’ discipline has been shaped and introduced since students’ first day at campus through campus students orientation, yet SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 afterward less control undertaken to maintain and improve this discipline condition. Since discipline is an on-going process, once it is not seriously attended it may become a serious, As far as the observation is concerned, there are some fundamental discipline problems that happen at Bali State Polytechnic that need to be seriously solved. They are, to 1. Schedule is not standard. Since there is no one standard schedule we seem to ignore punctuality because almost each teacher has their own negotiated time with students.
2. Late start and early finish. It has become a custom that to start and finish the class on
time is strange. This belief is practiced by both teachers and students. Since time is bargainable then there will be uniformity. Everyone interprets their own time. When this happens there will be no discipline and quality.
3. Lack of planning. Often time that not until the end of the semester teachers have been running out of material to teach hence letting students to leave earlier or to study by themselves. Since some are doing this then students will think that to have free time is right and they will get used to it and bring it to work place.
4. Lack of teacher-students relationship. When the class is finished relationship ends.
Therefore, when students do un-disciplinary problem outside class time nobody cares, so that problem gets more seriously.
5. Teachers’ ignorant. When the class dismisses, it seems that students are entering totally different world. They seem to be able to do whatever they want to without the attention of the attentive teachers. Since less controlled is practiced, this is where discipline problems start to influent students’ behavior bit by bit.
Having put forward those discipline problems at Bali State Polytechnic, In general, Charles (1999) stressed out that group and individual classroom behavior is greatly influenced by how students perceive the teacher. Students assign many different roles to teachers and expect teachers to present many different images. Sometimes teachers have little choice about those roles, but normally they have some control over which they will accept and how they will carry them out. These teacher roles and images include the following (22).
1. Representatives of society. Teachers are seen to reflect values, moral attitudes, and thinking patterns typical of the community.
2. Judges. Teachers are supposed to judge students’ behavior, character, work and SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 3. Sources of knowledge. Teachers are seen as the primary source of knowledge, a resource from which students can obtain information.
4. Helpers in learning. Teachers are expected to help students learn by giving directions, furnishing information, removing obstacles to learning, facilitating problem solving, 5. Referees. Students expect teachers to arbitrate and make decisions when class disputes 6. Detectives. Teachers are to oversee security in the classroom, discover wrongdoing, identify guilty students, and impose penalties.
7. Models. Teachers are to model the best in customs, manners, values, and belief, which students may or may not elect to imitate.
8. Caretakers. Teachers are to reduce anxiety by maintaining standards of behavior, regular schedules, and safe environment.
9. Ego Supporters. Teachers are to support student egos by building student self- confidence and bettering student self-images.
10. Group Leaders. Teachers are expected to lead the class in such a way that harmony 11. Surrogate Parents. Teachers are to be like parents in providing protection, approval, 12. Target for Hostility. When student hostility cannot be appropriately expressed to other adults, it can be displaced with relative safety onto teachers.
13. Friends and Confidants. Teachers can be talked with and confided in.
14. Objects of Affection. Teachers are to be ideal people, worthy of esteem, affection, and Further, Kelly (2012) argued that classroom discipline and management causes the most fear and consternation in new teachers. However, classroom management is a skill that is not only learned but practiced and refined and readapted daily. Here are ten tips that can lead to successful classroom management and discipline. These tips can help you cut down on discipline problems and leave you with fewer interruptions and disruptions.
1. It’s easier and get easier. Many teachers make the mistake of starting the school year with a poor discipline plan. Students quickly assess the situation in each class and realize what they will be allowed to get away with. Once you set a precedent of allowing a lot of disruptions, it can be very hard to start better classroom management and discipline techniques. However, it is never tough to get easier as the year goes on.
SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 2. Fairness is key. Students have a distinct sense of what is and what is not fair. You must act fairly for all students if you expect to be respected. If you don’t treat all students equitably, you will be labeled as unfair students will not be keen to follow your rules. Make sure that if your best student does something wrong, they too get 3. Deal with disruptions with as little interruption as possible. classroom disruptions, it is imperative that you deal with them immediately and with as little interruption of your classroom momentum as possible. If students are talking amongst themselves and you are having a classroom discussion, ask one of them a question to try to get them back on track. If you have to stop the flow of your lesson to deal with disruptions, then you are robbing students who want to learn of their 4. Avoid confrontation in front of students. Whenever there is confrontation in class there is a winner and a loser. Obviously as the teacher, you need to keep order and discipline in your class. However, it is much better to deal with discipline issues privately than cause a student to ‘lose face’ in front of their friends. It is not a good idea to make an example out of a disciplinary issue. Even though, other students might get the point, you might have lost any chance to actually teaching that student 5. Stop disruption with a little humor. Sometimes all it takes is for everyone to have a good laugh to get things back in track in a classroom. Many times, however, teachers confused good humor with sarcasm. While humor can quickly diffuse a situation, sarcasm may harm your relationship with students involved. Use your best judgment but realize that what some people think as funny others find to be offensive.
6. Keep high expectation in your class. Expect that your students will behave, not that they will disrupt. Reinforce this with the way you speak to your students. When you begin the day, tell your students your expectations. For example you might say, ”During this whole group discussion, I expect you to raise your hand and be recognized before you start speaking. I also expect you to respect each other’s opinions and listen to what each person has to say”.
7. Over plan. Free time is something teachers should avoid. By allowing students time just to talk each day, you are setting a precedent about how you view academics and your subject. To avoid this, overplan. Write additional activities into your lesson plans just in case your main lesson runs short. When you have too much to cover, you SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 will never run out of lesson and you will avoid free time. You can also fill up any left 8. Be consistent. One of the worst things you can do as a teacher is to not enforce your rules consistently. If one day you ignore misbehaviors and the next day you jump on someone for the smallest infraction, your students will quickly lose respect of you.
Your students have the right to expect you to basically be the same every day.
Moodiness is not allowed. Once you lose your students’ respect, you also lose their attention and their desire to please you.
9. Make rules understandable. You need to be selective in your class rules (no one can follow 180 rules consistently). You also need to make them clear. Students should understand what is and what is not acceptable. Further, you should make sure that the consequences of breaking your rules are also and known beforehand.
10. Start fresh every day. This tip does not mean that you discount all previous infractions, example: if they have three tardies then today means four. However, it does mean that you should start teaching your class each day with the expectation that the students will behave. Don’t assume that because Julie has disrupted your class everyday for a week, she will disrupt it today. By doing this, you will not be treating Julie any differently and thereby setting her up tp disrupt again (like a self -fulfilling In a different version, Melissa Kelly (2012) also describes that discipline problems are listed as the major concern for most new teachers. What can teachers expect and how can they effectively handle discipline problems?. Classroom management combined with an effective discipline plan is the key. This step by step look at classroom discipline will help you see some important steps in dealing with discipline problems that may arise in your classroom. Here’s her tips of how to deal with discipline problems with examples of 1. Begin each class period with a positive attitude and high expectation. If you expect your students to misbehave or you approach them negatively, you will get misbehavior. This is an often overlooked aspect of classroom management.
2. Come to class with prepared lessons for the day. In fact, over plan with your lessons.
Make sure to have all your materials and methods ready to go. Reducing downtime will help maintain discipline in your classroom.
3. Work on making transitions between parts of lessons smooth. In other words, as you move from whole group discussion to independent work, try to minimize the SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 disruption to the class. Have your papers ready to go or your assignment already written on the board. Many disruptions occur during transitional times during lessons.
4. Watch your students as they come to class. Look for sign of possible problems before class even begins. For example, if you notice for heated discussion or problem before class starts, try to deal with the problem then. Allow the students a few moments to talk with you or with each other before you start your lesson to try and work things out. Separate them if necessary and try to gain agreement that during your class period at least they will drop whatever issue they have.
5. Have a posted discipline plan that you follow consistently for effective classroom management. Depending on severity of the offense, this should allow students a warning or two before punishment begins. Your plan should be easy to follow and also should cause a minimum of disruption in your class. For example, your discipline plan might be – First Offense: Verbal Warning, Second Offense: Detention with teacher, Third Offense: Referral.
6. Meet disruptions that raise in your class with in kind measures. In other words, don’t elevate disruptions above their current level. Your discipline plan should provide for this, however, sometimes your own personal issues can get in the way. For example, if two students are talking in the back of the room and your first step in the plan is to give your students a verbal warning, don’t stop your instruction to begin yelling at the students. Instead, have a set policy that simply saying a student’s name is enough of a clue for them to get back on task. Another technique is to ask one of them a question.
7. Try to use humor to diffuse situations before thing get out of hand. Note: Know your students. The following example would be used with students you know would not elevate the situation to another level. For example, if you tell your students to open their books to page 51 and three students are busy talking do not immediately yell at them. Instead, smile, say their names, and ask them kindly if they could please wait until later to finish their conversation because you would really like to hear how it ends and you have to get this class finished. This will probably get a few laughs but 8. If a student becomes verbally confrontational with you, remain calm and remove them from the situation as quickly as possible. Do not get into yelling matches with your students. There will always a winner and a loser which sets up a power struggle that could continue throughout the year. Further, do not bring the rest of the class into the situation by involving them in the discipline or the writing of referral.
SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 9. If a student becomes physical, remember the safety of the other students is paramount. Remain as calm as possible; you demeanor can sometime diffuse the situation. You should have a plan for dealing with a violence that you discuss with students early in the year. You should use the call button for assistance. You could also have a student designated to get help from another teacher. Send the other students from the room if it appears they could get hurt. If the fight is between two students, follow your school‘s rules concerning teacher’s involvement as many want teachers to stay out of fights until help arrives.
10. Keep an anecdotal record of major issues that arise in your class. This might be necessary if you are asked for a history of classroom disruptions or other 11. Let it go to the end of the day. Classroom management and disruption issues should be left in the class so that you can have some down time to recharge before coming In addition, to strengthen the above models, Melissa Kelly (2012) also suggests some practical and useful tips to deal with discipline problems as follows: 1. Recognize the warning signs of disruption. Obviously this comes with practice of classroom management. However, some signs are fairly obvious.
2. Sarcasm should be used sparingly if at all. If you do use it, make sure you know the student who you are using it with well. Many students do not have the capacity to know that sarcasm is not meant to be taken literally. Further, other students could find your sarcasm as inflammatory which would defeat your purpose of greater classroom 3. Consistency and fairness are essential for effective classroom management. If you ignore disruptions one day and come down hard on them the next, you will not be seen as consistent. You will lose respect and disruptions probably increase. Further, if you are not fair in your punishments, making sure to treat all students fairly then students will quickly realize this and lose respect for you. You should also start each day fresh, not holding disruptions against students and instead expecting them to 4. It’s easier to get easier. Start the year very strict so that students see that you are willing to do what it takes to have your classroom under control. They will understand that you expect learning to occur in your room. You can always let up as SOSHUM JURNAL SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA, VOL. 2, NO. 3, NOPEMBER 2012 5. Classroom rules must be easy to understand and manageable. Make sure that you don’t have such a large number of rules that your students cannot consistently follow CONCLUSION
The above discussion has provided many concrete ways teachers can make a difference each day in the morale of the school and students. Being teachers, we must be able to become role models for students in terms of discipline. And to improve students’ discipline we must start and finish the class on if not in time, we must plan more so we are not lacking of material to the end of the semester even during daily meeting, we must take good care of students needed or not, we must always pay close attention to students in and out of the classroom and finally we must regard discipline problem as negative side yet it must be there to be properly handled to produce more qualified graduates.
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[Or, The ethical implications of SQL.]Our paper on the genetic causes of bipolar disorder finally came out last week. has repeatedly said things like ‘we really couldn’t have done it withoutyou,’ though, to tell ya the truth, I have only a limited grasp of the paper’s results, andhave been unable to read it through, due to my lack of background in the world ofgenetics and biology in gener