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Reported Speech - statements
These classnotes are not designed to be studied, but to be used for reference (to solve doubts),
so a lot of information is repeated for easy access to all the relevant information in each section.
Pay special attention to the words in colour, which signal changes in reported speech.
================================================================================================== I'm hungry.
Sorry?
I said: "I'm hungry".
DIRECT SPEECH
This is exactly what I said (literal words).
I said (that) I'm hungry.
REPORTED SPEECH
I'm telling you again what I've just said When the subject is the same, there are no changes in the pronouns or possessives.
We usually omit "that" after the introductory verb.
================================================================================================== I'm hungry. (literal words)
What did he say?
He says: "I'm hungry".
DIRECT SPEECH
This is exactly what he said (literal words).
He says he's hungry.
REPORTED SPEECH
I'm telling you what he has just said (some wordsmay not be literal).
I'm sure my friend is coming with me. (literal words)
What did he say?
He said: "I'm sure my friend is coming with me".
DIRECT SPEECH
This is exactly what hesaid (literal words).
He says he is sure his friend is coming with him.
REPORTED SPEECH
I'm telling you what hehas just said (somewords may not beliteral).
When the subject is different, all pronouns and possessives change to refer to the same person.
When the introductory verb (says) is in the present (or it refers to something that has just been said),
the verb tenses do not change.
================================================================================================== "I'm hungry." (literal words)
DIRECT SPEECH (This is exactly what he said.)
REPORTED SPEECH (I'm telling you NOW what he said THEN.)
He said he was hungry.
When the subject is different, all pronouns and possessives change to refer to the same person.
When the introductory verb (said/told/asked) is in the past, the verb tenses change:
- present changes into past
- past changes into past perfect
- future changes into conditional
================================================================================================== "I am watching TV."
DIRECT SPEECH
"I usually watch a lot of TV."
He said he was watching TV.
REPORTED SPEECH
He said he usually watched a lot of TV.
_______|____________________________________|___ When the introductory verb (said/told/asked) is in the past, the verb tenses change:
- present changes into past
- past changes into past perfect
- future changes into conditional
When the subject is different, all pronouns and possessives change to refer to the same person.
================================================================================================== "I read that book recently."
_____________________________________________|_________|___ "I have read that book."
_______________________________________________________|___ "I had read that book years before I started secondary school."
__|_____________________________|______________________|___
years before
She said she had read that book.
She said she had read that book recently.
She said she had read that book years before she started secondary school.
__|_____________________________|______________________|___________________|__ When the introductory verb (said/told/asked) is in the past, the verb tenses change:
- present changes into past
- past changes into past perfect
- future changes into conditional
When the subject is different, all pronouns and possessives change to refer to the same person.
================================================================================================== "I will see you soon, Susan."
He told Susan he would see her soon.
_________________|__________|___________________________|___ "I wouldn't eat that."
He said he wouldn't eat that.
_________________|__________|___________________________|___ When the introductory verb is "told", not "said", it must be followed by the indirect object (the person
someone told something to).
When the introductory verb (said/told/asked) is in the past, the verb tenses change:
- present changes into past
- past changes into past perfect
- future changes into conditional
When the subject is different, all pronouns and possessives change to refer to the same person.
================================================================================================== "I came home
"I'm doing my homework
"I will watch a film with you
an hour ago."
at the moment."
in half an hour."
_____|_______________________|__________________________|________ in the past
in the present
in the future
He said he had come home
He said he was doing
He told us he would watch a film
an hour before.
his homework at that moment.
with us half an hour later.
_____|_______________________|_________________________|__________________|___ in the past
IN THE PAST
in the future IN THE PRESENT
of the past
of the past
When the introductory verb is "told", not "said", it must be followed by the indirect object (the person
some told something to).
When the introductory verb (said/told/asked) is in the past, the verb tenses change:
- present changes into past
- past changes into past perfect
- future changes into conditional

When the subject is different, all pronouns and possessives change to refer to the same person.
When the introductory verb (told) is in the past, many time expressions change.
================================================================================================== "This boy left these things for you here an hour ago."
____________|____________________________ He told me that boy had left those things for me there an hour before.
_____________|___________________________________________|___ (I'm telling you here
NOW, HERE what he said there.)
When the introductory verb (said/told/asked) is in the past, the verb tenses change:
- present changes into past
- past changes into past perfect
- future changes into conditional
When the subject is different, all pronouns and possessives change to refer to the same person.
When the introductory verb (told) is in the past, many time expressions change.
When the place is different, demonstratives and adverbs of place change.
================================================================================================== ten minutes ago
in five minutes
ten minutes before
five minutes later
________|_________|__________|__________________________|___ the day before yesterday yesterday
tomorrow
the day after tomorrow /
/ two days ago
in two days / in two days' time
_____|_______________________|_________|___________|________________|__ two days before
the day before that day the following day
two days later
_____|_______________________|_________|___________|________________|________|__ two weeks ago
last week
this week
next week
in two weeks
_____|___________________|_______________|_______________|________________|__ the week before
two weeks before / the previous week
that week
the following week two weeks later
_____|___________________|_______________|_______________|________________|____|__ When the introductory verb (said/told/asked) is in the past, many time expressions change.
================================================================================================== Reported Speech - questions
"When did you come home?"
"Have you done your homework?
_____|___________|____
in the past
He asked me when I had come home.
She asked me if I had done my homework.
_________________|____________________________________|___ "Who is coming with us?
_______|_______________|__ (present continuous to talk about plans) in the future
They asked who was coming with them.
When we report questions, we use the introductory verb "asked", and the structure is not interrogative:
we put first the subject, then the verb, and we use no question mark.
If it is a wh- question, the reported sentence starts with the same wh- word.
If it is a yes/no question, the reported sentence is preceded by "if / whether".

When the introductory verb (said/told/asked) is in the past, the verb tenses change:
- present changes into past
- past changes into past perfect
- future changes into conditional
When the subject is different, all pronouns and possessives change to refer to the same person.
================================================================================================== Reported Speech - directives
Pass me the salt, please.
____|________________
THEN
He asked her to pass him the salt.
____|________________________|_
THEN
Open fire!
____|________________
THEN
The sergeant ordered us to open fire.
____|________________________|_
THEN
Let's go to the cinema.
Shall we go to the cinema?
How about going to the cinema?
Why don't you go to the cinema?
____|________________
THEN
He suggested going to the cinema.
He suggested we went to the cinema.
____|________________________|_
THEN
Would you like some biscuits?____|________________ THEN She offered me some biscuits.
She asked me if I would like some biscuits.
____|________________________|_
THEN
Would you like to come to the cinema with us?
____|________________
THEN
They invited me to come to the cinema with them.
They asked me if I would like to come to the cinema with them.
____|________________________|_
THEN
Shall I buy the newspaper?
He asked if he should buy the newspaper?
____|________________
THEN
He offered/volunteered to buy the newspaper.
He asked if he should buy the newspaper.
____|________________________|_
THEN
Don't touch that!
____|________________
THEN
He warned me not to touch that.
____|________________________|_
THEN
Why don't you take an aspirin?
I would take an aspirin (if I were you).
____|________________
THEN
He advised me to take an aspirin.
He said he would take an aspirin (if he were me).
____|________________________|_
THEN
================================================================================================== Reported Speech - other modal verbs
What shall I do?
____|________________
THEN
He asked me what he should do.
____|________________________|_
THEN
Will you marry me?
____|________________
THEN
He asked her to marry him.
He asked her if she would marry him.
____|________________________|_
THEN
It may rain tomorrow.
____|_________|________
THEN
He said it might rain the following day.
____|_________________|_________________|_
THEN
I must study for tomorrow's exam.
____|_______________|________
THEN
He said he had to study for the following day's exam.
____|______________________|______________________|_
THEN

Source: http://olmo.pntic.mec.es/~pmai0016/european_section/classnotes/reported_speech_tutorial2.pdf

Evolutionary history and mode of the amylase multigene family in drosophila

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Reynolds HW, Janowitz B, Homan, R, Johnson L. The value of contraception to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Sex Transm Diseases 2006; 33(2): [Epub ahead of print]. Objective: To highlight the value of preventing unintended pregnancies among HIV-infected women as a strategy to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Study design: Cost-effectiveness analyses were performed to compare two scenario

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