General dentists and hygienists are the first line of defense in the fight against periodontal disease. Studies suggest over half of the population suffer from periodontal disease. Over 70 percent of adults ages 35-45 suffer from periodontitis and over 90 percent of adults ages 55-65. Most patients do not go directly to the periodontist to seek help. Initially patients go to their general dentist-
Microsoft word - prediabetes-scoping-rev-reportv6.docEvidence Summary: Pre-Diabetes
To the Champlain Diabetes Strategy Advisory Committee Prepared by the CIHR-funded Knowledge to Action research group: Sara Khangura, Jeremy Grimshaw, David Moher
Is it clinically beneficial to screen patients for
• “The term ‘prediabetes’ is a practical and convenient term for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) Systematic Review Evidence
and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).” An AHRQ-funded systematic review failed to locate direct evidence that systematic primary • A meta-analysis of studies predicting risk for care screening for T2D, IFG, or IGT among progression from pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes (T2D) concluded that, compared to individuals with normoglycemia, annualized relative risks are: Is it clinically beneficial to treat patients for
o 12.13 for those with both IFG and IGT. [Gerstein 2007] levels for diagnosis of IFG,
Precise data on the incidence and prevalence of demonstrated that T2D can be delayed and/or pre-diabetes in Canada are not available. Estimates prevented in those with pre-diabetes: the Diabetes for 2004 were that 5 million Canadians had Prevention Program (DPP) [DPPRG 2009]; the Da pre-diabetes. This number is projected to reach Qing trial [Li 2008] and the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). [Tuomilehto 2001] This report seeks to summarize existing evidence • Several large drug trials also demonstrate on pre-diabetes to assist health service providers of improvements in patients with IFG and/or IGT [e.g. challenges in caring for the pre-diabetic population, Systematic Review Evidence
o how best to leverage primary care in the screening and treatment of pre-diabetes; RCTs concludes that treatment of IFG/IGT delays progression to T2D. [Norris 2008] populations with pre-diabetes screening/treatment interventions; Which interventions are effective in screening for
socioeconomic challenges e.g. rural versus pre-diabetes?
• There has been debate over which diagnostic test is best: fasting plasma glucose (FPG) lacks sensitivity highlighted in shaded boxes – these emphasize and specificity; oral glucose tolerance testing evidence from systematic reviews or expert (OGTT) is burdensome to patients and health systems and has poor reproducibility. There has been debate among experts as to the value of the Some of the highlighted evidence comes from the type 2 diabetes literature and is labeled as • The CDA’s 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines state “… the lack of standardization of the A1C test precludes its use in the diagnosis of diabetes.” [CDA 2008] Recent International Expert Committee
• Two Cochrane systematic reviews of non- Consensus Statement on HbA1c
and/or exercise, behavioural) to prevent T2D concluded that these interventions produce a consensus statement on the use of HbA1c in significant improvement in weight loss and the diagnosis of T2D. They conclude that: 1. The HbA1c is the diagnostic tool of
interventions. [Norris 2005, Orozco 2008] choice in diagnosing T2D.
2. The usefulness of HbA1c in diagnosing • There has been debate over whether medical pre-diabetes is questionable because “…the interventions actually prevent T2D or merely mask classification of subdiabetic hyperglycemia as the symptoms – the DPP study addressed this issue with a washout period after which the benefits 3. “The categorical clinical states pre-diabetes, IFG, and IGT fail to capture the continuum of risk and will be phased out of use as A1C Systematic Review Evidence
measurements.” [Int’l Expert Cmte 2009] A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis examined RCTs of acarbose A recent consensus statement from the American authors conclude that “There is evidence College of Endocrinology (ACE) and the American that acarbose reduces the incidence of type 2 Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) diabetes in patients with IGT. However, it is recommends primary care diabetic screening for all patients based on identified risk factors; those prevention, delay or masking of diabetes.” determined to be high-risk should then receive a diagnostic test to establish their status. A systematic review and meta-analysis of The FINDRISC Score is a widely used and RCTs of metformin in individuals at risk for validated risk assessment tool. [Lindstrom 2003] T2D concludes that “Metformin treatment in persons at risk for diabetes improves weight, Which interventions are effective in the treatment
lipid profiles, and insulin resistance, and of pre-diabetes?
As yet, there is no expert consensus on the management of pre-diabetes. [Sharma 2009] • The CDA recommends metformin or acarbose for patients with IGT. For patients with IGT and/or IFG Systematic Review Evidence
• A systematic review and meta-analysis of • As yet in the US, there are no medications approved trials of lifestyle interventions for those at by the FDA for the treatment of pre-diabetes. high-risk of developing T2D concluded that Both lifestyle and medical interventions • A Cochrane systematic review of diet-only Systematic Review Evidence
• A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the effectiveness of lifestyle examined diet-only interventions (n=2) they diabetes concluded that they are equally as effective in reducing the risk of developing • A systematic review of studies examining o Among other things, study authors recommend 1) CME programs on pre-diabetes 2) fee codes interventions for delaying and/or preventing specific to pre-diabetes 3) increased awareness T2D concluded that while intervention is of the inadequacy of FPG in the diagnosis of shown to be effective in clinical research, implementing such interventions in clinical • While generally effective for reducing IFG and IGT, lifestyle interventions are resource intensive, have limited adherence and modest success over the Is it cost-effective to screen and treat patients for
Relevant Systematic Review Evidence from
In general, there is consensus that delaying and/or the T2D literature
preventing T2D is cost-beneficial for health interventions designed to improve adherence to treatment for T2D concluded that: “Current Various analyses on the DPP dataset using different efforts to improve or facilitate adherence of models have resulted in different conclusions. This people with type 2 diabetes to treatment has spawned debate among experts as to precisely how cost-effective lifestyle interventions for effects nor harms. The question whether any pre-diabetes truly are. [Eddy 2005, Herman 2005, intervention enhances adherence to treatment effectively, thus still remains unanswered.” What are some of the challenges in screening for
and treating pre-diabetes?
• A study of mediating factors behind poor adherence Systems are not in place to implement the lifestyle to lifestyle interventions for chronic disease in a interventions that are known to be effective; meds general population found that diagnosis and may be easier for primary care physicians to knowledge of IGT improves acceptance of and adherence to a diet and exercise program. Interventions do not often produce the same impact when transferred from the ideal conditions of clinical research into the real-world conditions of • A qualitative UK study of patients recently Physician ambivalence: Canadian primary care diagnosed with pre-diabetes found the recurring theme from interviews was that of uncertainty about their diagnosis and a need for information and A 2007 series of focus groups with Canadian general/family physicians found that there is debate over the existence of pre-diabetes as a clinical Which frameworks and/or models for the
entity. There is also limited and inconsistent use of screening and treatment of pre-diabetes at a
population level have been described and/or
o Physicians expressed that screening for and trialed?
treating pre-diabetes is not generally a priority National T2D prevention programs around the world o While physicians were aware of some risk factors for pre-diabetes i.e. obesity, age, family • Finland: The FIN-D2D program is part of a large, history, they were largely unaware of other risk national initiative to prevent T2D. It is an 3- pronged, national, integrated strategy that aims o Physicians expressed skepticism over their prevention at a population level; prevention for patients’ ability or willingness to take part in high-risk individuals; and early diagnosis and lifestyle interventions for pre-diabetes. • EU: An international effort known as the IMAGE with comparable success in preventing T2D. project (Development and Implementation of a
[Greaves 2008, Penn 2009, Whittemore 2009] European Guideline and Training Standards for
Diabetes prevention). The initiative aims to meet Systematic Review Evidence
four primary objectives and implement them into A systematic review and meta-analysis of o establishment of joint European guidelines; interventions concludes: “Motivational interviewing in a scientific setting outperforms o European standards for quality control of traditional advice giving in the treatment of a UK: The NHS has developed a national initiative Which strategies could the Champlain LHIN use
entitled ‘NHS Health Check’. The programme aims to engage with and leverage primary care in the
to identify individuals with, or at risk of developing screening and treatment of pre-diabetes?
heart disease, stroke, diabetes and kidney disease. Delivered through primary care, the programme • Little work has been done on how best to translate aims to invite all adults ages 40-74 who have not the findings of effective clinical research been diagnosed with any one of the four conditions interventions for pre-diabetes into the real-world of to undergo a preventive assessment. [DOH 2009] public health and primary care. [Crandall 2008] Germany: The TUMAINI model is a framework designed to effectively translate evidence on the prevention of T2D into primary health care using • A Danish trial trained GPs in optimal management o identify those at high risk to develop T2D; of individuals with IFG/IGT; authors conclude that, o short-term intensive intervention based on self- compared with controls, the trained GPs did not o long-term intervention to maintain motivation. • The GOAL trial is a “real-world” implementation study – 3yr follow up has just been published and The International Diabetes Foundation
improvements in body mass, blood glucose and (IDF) consensus statement on the
other critical outcomes have been maintained. treatment of T2D
Three steps are proposed as a framework for • Nurse Practitioner (NP) primary care practices were randomized to deliver either a more intensive or less intensive lifestyle intervention to patients at risk for diabetes – results showed that both interventions were effective in helping patients • A large trial is underway in the Netherlands using NPs in primary care offices; patients screened as high-risk will be randomized to a cognitive behaviour program or control. Follow up will be • Motivational interviewing is a suggested technique for managing the challenge of patient ambivalence • Pilot of a primary care educational toolkit to around adherence to preventive lifestyle measures. address the information needs of pre-diabetic Studies with chronic disease populations suggest it patients and health professionals found the is effective in producing the desired behaviour and intervention to be acceptable and useful to results, and can be cost- and resource-efficient. participants. The study identified 3 key messages for health professionals and pre-diabetic patients: • The motivational interviewing model has been studied in several populations at risk for diabetes. 2. the preventability of progression to diabetes; Results indicate that it is less resource-intensive 3. the need for lifestyle change. [Evans 2007] than other lifestyle interventions for pre-diabetes Relevant Systematic Review Evidence and
Commentary from the T2D literature
• “There is little good evidence for the • A cluster-randomized trial comparing a group- effectiveness of primary care interventions based Diabetes Prevention Program intervention versus brief individual counseling – results at 12- laboratory indicators, such as glycosylated 14mos showed statistically significant reduction in weight, BMI and total cholesterol for YMCA DPP participants [Finch 2009, Ackermann 2008] brief advice from physicians with links to community resources including dietitians, nurses, exercise programs, and specialized diabetes education centres.” [Harris 2003] Systematic Review Evidence from the T2D
interventions aimed at health professionals to improve process of care and/or health significant improvement in HbA1c levels. that “Multifaceted professional interventions “… due to the clinical significance of reported improvements in A1C, further trials facilitate structured and regular review of patients were effective in improving the warranted. Prospective assessments of the process of care. The addition of patient education to these interventions and the diabetes care led to improvements in patient How could the Champlain LHIN engage with and
• A small trial of a workplace diabetes screening and leverage the community in the screening and
prevention program delivered by the occupational treatment of pre-diabetes?
health nurse showed a significant reduction in waist circumference and improvement in IGT at 24mos • A retrospective examination of occupational health Systematic Review Evidence from the T2D
records in Germany revealed that, as part of a literature
routine exam, 5% of previously-undiagnosed employees were identified as having pre-diabetes; interventions examining the effectiveness of authors conclude that integrating T2D screening into an existing occupational health program can care of people with T2D found that “There detect a significant number of individuals suffering improvements in participant knowledge and • Toronto Public Health plans to integrate diabetes prevention measures into their existing “Health Options at Work” program. [TPH Diabetes Strategy • A meta-analysis of studies examining self- found an inverse relationship between GHb levels of participants and the amount of time • A small US trial demonstrated modest improvement in the body mass of pre-diabetic patients randomized to an interactive voice response (IVR) intervention delivered via telephone. [Estabrooks 2008] How best can the Champlain LHIN ensure that
Relevant Systematic Review Evidence from
various high risk groups e.g. rural, Francophone,
the T2D literature
ethnic minority populations are reached with
screening interventions for pre-diabetes?
socially disadvantaged people with diabetes • Canadian primary care physicians need to be made found: “…evidence for the effectiveness of acutely aware of their role in and the importance of screening high-risk populations, as well as which among socially disadvantaged populations groups are at greater risk. [Ipsos-Reid 2007] and identifies key intervention features that • The QDScore is a newly validated T2D risk score that takes into account ethnicity and socioeconomic status (UK). It is shown to be accurate, does not require lab tests and can be self-administered in training, community and family outreach, • The ‘Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study’ has assessed screening performance of • Another systematic review examined studies random plasma glucose (RPG) tests for a large of interventions designed to address health cohort of individuals without known diabetes. They conclude that: “Use of age, BMI, and race/ethnicity minorities with T2D. The study concludes: in guidelines for screening to detect diabetes and “There is evidence supporting the use of pre-diabetes may be less important than evaluation interventions that target patients (primarily of RPG. RPG should be investigated further as a convenient, inexpensive screen with good providers (especially through one-on-one feedback and education), and health systems (particularly with nurse case managers and How best can the Champlain LHIN ensure that
various high risk groups e.g. rural, Francophone,
ethnic minority populations are reached with
interventions for treating pre-diabetes?
• Pre-diabetes is a significant problem in Canada and • Cultural beliefs must be considered and addressed • International experts have suggested that the term e.g. perceptions of overweight [Alberti 2007] “pre-diabetes” may outlive its usefulness as • Determination of risk-level must not rely solely on understanding of the disease evolves into a risk measures that have been shown effective in Caucasian populations; e.g. risk measurements such • Several European nations are launching ambitious as waist circumference and BMI must take into population-level initiatives specifically aimed at the account the individuals’ ethnic group [Alberti 2007] • An Israeli analysis of health records and national • While there is an ever-growing body of evidence on socioeconomic data revealed that: “Individuals the effectiveness of screening and treatment living in lower socioeconomic areas were less likely strategies for pre-diabetes in clinical research, there to have blood tests. Among tested patients, the is limited evidence on how best to transfer effective prevalence of pre-diabetes was higher in areas of interventions into the ‘real-world’ of primary care lower SES and their dietitian visits were less • There is a rich body of literature around the • Dr. Baiju Shah of the Sunnybrook Health Sciences implementation of effective interventions into Centre in Toronto has received funding for an primary care for T2D and chronic disease. exploratory study to examine diabetics of Chinese • Lessons learned in implementation research around T2D and other chronic diseases may help inform the gaps in our understanding of implementing o how well they self-manage their diabetes; effective interventions for pre-diabetes into primary o whether the ethnicity of their doctor influences their care. [CDA Research Report 2008-9] References
Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee. Canadian Diabetes Association 2008 clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada. Can J Diabetes. 2008;32(suppl 1): S1-S201. Gerstein HC, Santaguida P, Raina P, Morrison KC, Balion C, Hunt D, Yazdi H, Booker L. Annual incidence and relative risk of diabetes in people with various categories of dysglycemia: A systematic overview and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Diabetes Res Clin Prac2007; 78, 305–312. Public Health Agency of Canada. Diabetes Policy Review - Report of the Expert Panel. 2009 Accessed at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/2009/dprrep-epdrge/index-eng.php November 2009. Norris SL, Kansagara D, Bougatsos C, Fu R. Screening Adults for Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:855-868. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group, Knowler WC, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Christophi CA, Hoffman HJ, Brenneman AT, Brown-Friday JO, Goldberg R, Venditti E, Nathan DM. 10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Lancet 2009; 374:9702, 1677-1686. Li G, Zhang P, Wang J, et al. The long-term eff ect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 20-year follow-up study. Lancet 2008; 371: 1783–89. Tuomilehto J, Lindstro¨m J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Ha¨ma¨ la¨inen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keina¨nen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Louheranta A, Rastas M, Salminen V, Uusitupa M; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001 344:1343–1350 Gerstein HC, Yusuf S, Bosch J, et al. (DREAM [Diabetes Reduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication]). Effect of rosiglitazone on the frequency of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006;368:1096–105. The DREAM Trial Investigators. Rationale, design and recruitment characteristics of a large, simple international trial of diabetes prevention: the DREAM trial. Diabetologia 2004; 47:1519–1527 DOI 10.1007/s00125-004-1485-5.Yates T, Davies M, Khunti K. Preventing type 2 diabetes: can we make the evidence work? Postgrad Med J 2009;85:475–480. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2008.076166. Goldberg RB. Prevention of type 2 diabetes. Medical Clinics of North America 1998; 82:4, 805–821. 10. Chiasson J, Josse RG, Gomis R, et al. Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. Lancet 11. Torgerson JS, Hauptman J, Boldrin MN, et al. XENical in the Prevention of Diabetes in Obese Subjects (XENDOS) study: A randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Diabetes Care 2004;27:155–61. 12. Kenealy T, Elley CR, Arroll B. Screening for diabetes and prediabetes. Lancet 2007; 370, 1888-9. 13. Santaguida PL, Balion C, Hunt D, Morrison K, Gerstein H, Raina P, Booker L, Yazdi H. Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment of Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose. Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 128. (Prepared by the McMaster Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0020). AHRQ Pub. No 05-E026-1. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. August 2005. 14. The International Expert Committee. International Expert Committee Report on the Role of the A1C Assay in the Diagnosis of Diabetes. Diabetes 15. Garber AJ, Handelsman Y, Einhorn D, et al. Diagnosis and management of prediabetes in the continuum of hyperglycemia: when do the risks of diabetes begin? A consensus statement from the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Endocr Pract 2008, 14:933–946. 16. Lindstrom J, Tuomilehto J. The diabetes risk score: a practical tool to predict type 2 diabetes risk. Diabetes Care 2003; 26, 725–31. 17. Sharma MD, Garber AJ. What Is the Best Treatment for Prediabetes? Current Diabetes Reports 2009, 9:335–341. 18. Yamaoka K, Tango T. Efficacy of lifestyle education to prevent type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2005; 19. Nield L, Summerbell CD, Hooper L, Whittaker V, Moore H. Dietary advice for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD005102. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD005102.pub2. 20. Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, Gregg E, Schmid CH, Lau J. Long-term non-pharmacological weight loss interventions for adults with prediabetes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD005270. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD005270. 21. Orozco LJ, Buchleitner AM, Gimenez-Perez G, Roqué i FigulsM, Richter B,Mauricio D. Exercise or exercise and diet for preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003054. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003054.pub3. 22. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, Nathan DM; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002 346:393–403. 23. Misra A. Prevention of type 2 diabetes: the long and winding road. The Lancet. Published online October 29, 2009 DOI:10.1016/S0140- 24. van de Laar FA, Lucassen PLBJ, Akkermans RP, Van de Lisdonk EH,.De Grauw WJC. Alphaglucosidase inhibitors for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006; 4:CD005061. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD005061.pub2. 25. Salpeter SR, Buckley NS, Kahn JA, Salpeter EE. Meta-analysis: Metformin Treatment in Persons at Risk for Diabetes Mellitus. Am J Med (2008) 26. Gillies CL, Abrams KR, Lambert PC, Cooper NJ, Sutton AJ, Hsu RT, Khunti K. Pharmacological and lifestyle interventions to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2007; doi:10.1136/bmj.39063.689375.55. 27. Lauritzen T, Borch-Johnsen K, Sandbæk A. Is prevention of Type-2 diabetes feasible and efficient in primary care? A systematic PubMed review. 28. Bloomgarden ZT. American College of Endocrinology Pre-Diabetes Consensus Conference: Part Three. Diabetes Care 2008; 31:12, 2404-2409. 29. American Diabetes Association. Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2007. Diabetes Care 2008; 31:596-615. 30. Hoerger TJ, Hicks KA, Sorensen SW, Herman WH, Ratner RE, Ackermann RT, Zhang P, Engelgau MM. Cost-Effectiveness of Screening for Pre- Diabetes Among Overweight and Obese U.S. Adults. Diabetes Care 2007; 30:2874–2879. 31. Eddy D, Schlessinger L, Kahn R. Clinical Outcomes and Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies for Managing People at High Risk for Diabetes. Ann Intern 32. Herman WH, Hoerger TJ, Brandle M, Hicks K, Sorensen S, Zhang P, Hamman RF, Ackermann RT, Engelgau MM, Ratner RE for the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. The Cost-Effectiveness of Lifestyle Modification or Metformin in Preventing Type 2 Diabetes in Adults with Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:323-332. 33. Ackermann R, Hicks K, Hoerger T, Sorensen S, Zhang P, Engelgau M, Ratner R, Herman W. An Evaluation of Cost Sharing to Finance a Diet and Physical Activity Intervention to Prevent Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006; 29:6 34. Ipsos-Reid Executive Summary Report to the Public Health Agency of Canada. General Practitioners’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour concerning Prediabetes and Related Interventions for Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. March 2007. Accessed at http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/200/301/pwgsc-tpsgc/por-ef/public_health_agency_canada/2007/335-06/summary.pdf November 2009. 35. Aroda VR, Ratner R. Approach to the Patient with Prediabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93(9):3259–3265. 36. Vermeire EIJJ, Wens J, Van Royen P, Biot Y, Hearnshaw H, Lindenmeyer A. Interventions for improving adherence to treatment recommendations in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003638. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003638.pub2. 37. Toft UN, Kristoffersen LH, Aadahl M, von Huth Smith L, Pisinger C, Jørgensen T. Diet and exercise intervention in a general population - mediators of participation and adherence: the Inter99 study. European Journal of Public Health 2006; 17:5, 455–463. 38. Troughton J, Jarvis J, Skinner C, Robertson N, Khunti K, Davies M. Waiting for diabetes: Perceptions of people with pre-diabetes: A qualitative study. Patient Education and Counseling 2008; 72, 88–93. 39. Saaristo T, Peltonen M, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S, et al. National type 2 diabetes prevention programme in Finland: FIN-D2D. Int J Circumpolar 40. Schwarz PE, Schwarz J, Schuppenies A, et al. Development of a diabetes prevention management program for clinical practice. Public Health Rep 41. Department of Health. Putting Prevention First NHS Health Check: Vascular Risk Assessment and Management Best Practice Guidance. 2009 Accessed at http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/documents/digitalasset/dh_098410.pdf November 2009. 42. Schwarz PE, Gruhl U, Bornstein SR, Landgraf R, Hall M, Tuomilehto J. The European perspective on diabetes prevention: development and Implementation of A European Guideline and training standards for diabetes prevention (IMAGE). Diab Vas Dis Res 2007; 4:4, 353-357. 43. Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. International Diabetes Federation: A consensus on type 2 diabetes prevention. Diabet Med. 2007;24:451–463. 44. Biuso T, Butterworth S, Linden A. A Conceptual Framework for Targeting Prediabetes with Lifestyle, Clinical, and Behavioral Management Interventions Disease Management 2007; 10:1, 6-15. 45. Rubak S, Sandbæk A, Lauritzen T, Christensen B. Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of General 46. Roumen C, Blaak E, Corpeleijn E. Lifestyle intervention for prevention of diabetes: determinants of success for future implementation. Nutrition Reviews 2009; 67:3, 132–146 doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00181.x. 47. Greaves CJ, Middlebrooke A, O’Loughlin L, Holland S, et al. Motivational interviewing for modifying diabetes risk: a randomised controlled trial Br J Gen Pract 2008; DOI: 10.3399/bjgp08X319648. 48. Penn L, White M, Oldroy J, Walker M, Alberti KGMM, Mathers JC. Prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults with impaired glucose tolerance: the European Diabetes Prevention RCT in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. BMC Public Health 2009, 9:342 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-342. 49. Whittemore R, Melkus G, Wagner J,Dziura J, Northrup V, Grey M. Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program to Primary Care: A Pilot Study. 50. Crandall J, Knowler W, Kahn S, Marrero D, Florez J, Bray G, Haffner S, Hoskin M, Nathan D for the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. The prevention of type 2 diabetes. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2008; 4: 382–93. 51. Rasmussen S, Glümer C, Sandbaek A, Lauritzen T, Borch-Johnsen K. General effect on high-risk persons when general practitioners are trained in intensive treatment of type 2 diabetes. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 2008; 26:3,166-173. 52. Absetz P, Oldenburg B, Hankonen N, Valve R, Heinonen H, Nissinen A, Fogelholm M, Talja M, Uutela A. Type 2 diabetes prevention in the real world: three-year results of the GOAL lifestyle implementation trial. Diabetes Care 2009; 32:8, 1418-20. 53. Lakerveld J, Bot SDM, Chinapaw1 MJ, van Tulder MW, van Oppen1 P, Dekker JM, Nijpels G. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases using a cognitive behavior program aimed at lifestyle changes in people at risk: Design of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Endocrine Disorders 2008, 8:6. 54. Evans PH, Greaves C, Winder R. Fearn-Smith J, Campbell JL. Development of an educational ‘toolkit’ for health professionals and their patients with prediabetes: The WAKEUP study (Ways of Addressing Knowledge Education and Understanding in Pre-diabetes) Diabet. Med 2007; 24, 770–777. 55. Renders CM, Valk GD, Griffin SJ, Wagner EH, Eijk Van JT, Assendelft WJJ. Interventions to improve the management of diabetes in primary care, outpatient, and community settings: a systematic review. Diabetes Care 2001; 24:1821–1833. 56. Harris SB, Petrella RJ, Leadbetter W. Lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes: Relevance for clinical practice. Canadian Family Physician 2003; 57. Oberlinner C, Neumann SM, Ott MG, Zober A. Screening for pre-diabetes and diabetes in the workplace. Occupational Med 2008;58:41–45. 58. Aldana S, Barlow M, Smith R, Yanowitz F, Adams T, Loveday L, Merrill RM. Worksite Diabetes Prevention Program: Two-Year Impact on Employee Health. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses Journal. September 2006 54:9; 389-95 59. Toronto Public Health. Diabetes Prevention Strategy Update. Accessed at http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2009/hl/bgrd/backgroundfile- 60. Wubben, DP, Vivian EM. Effects of pharmacist outpatient interventions on adults with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Pharmacotherapy 61. Finch E, Kelly M, Marrero D, Ackermann R. Training YMCA Wellness Instructors to Deliver an Adapted Version of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention The Diabetes Educator 2009; 35; 224. 62. Ackermann R, Finch E, Brizendine E, Zhou H, Marrero D. Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program into the Community The DEPLOY Pilot Study. Am J Prev Med 2008;35(4):357–363. 63. Estabrooks PA, Smith-Ray RL. Piloting a behavioral intervention delivered through interactive voice response telephone messages to promote weight loss in a pre-diabetic population. Pt Educ Couns 2008; 72, 34–41. 64. Norris SL, Chowdhury FM, Van LK, Horsley T, Brownstein JN, Zhang X. et al. Effectiveness of community health workers in the care of persons with diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 2006; 23, 544-556. 65. Norris SL, Lau J, Smith SJ, Schmid CH, Engelgau MM. Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control. Diabetes Care 2002; 25:7,1159-1171. 66. Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Robson J, Sheikh A, Brindle P. Predicting risk of type 2 diabetes in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QDScore. BMJ 2009;338:b880. 67. Zeimer DC, Kolm P, Weintraub WS, Vaccarino V, Rhee MK, Caudle JM, Irving JM, Koch DD, Narayan KMN, Phillips L. Age, BMI, and Race Are Less Important Than Random Plasma Glucose in Identifying Risk of Glucose Intolerance The Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study (SIGT 5). Diabetes Care 2008; 31:884–886. 68. Alberti KG. Screening and diagnosis of prediabetes: where are we headed? Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 9 (Suppl. 1), 2007, 12–16. 69. Endevelt R, Baron-Epel O, Karpati T, Heymann AD. Does low socioeconomic status affect use of nutritional services by pre-diabetes patients? International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 2009; 22:2, 157-167. 70. Canadian Diabetes Association. The 2008-2009 Research Report. Accessed at http://www.diabetes.ca/files/about-us/research-report-2008-2009.pdf 71. Glazier RH, Bajcar J, Kennie NR, Willson K. A Systematic Review of Interventions to Improve Diabetes Care in Socially Disadvantaged Populations. Diabetes Care 2006; 29:7, 1675-1688. 72. Peek M E, Cargill A, Huang ES. Diabetes health disparities: a systematic review of health care interventions. Med Care Res Rev 2007; 64:5, 101S-
Other references consulted and of relevance to pre-diabetes
Chiasson, JL. Prevention of Type 2 diabetes: fact or fiction? Exp Op Pharmacotherapy 2007 8:18; 3147-3158. Yates T, Davies M, Khunti K. Preventing type 2 diabetes: can we make the evidence work? Postgrad Med J 2009;85:475–480.
Aekplakorn W, Bunnag P, Woodward M, Sritara P, Cheepudomwit S, Yamwong S. A risk score for predicting incident diabetes in the Thai Population. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 1872–1877. Allen P, Thompson JL, Herman CJ, Qualls C, Helitzer DL, Whyte AN, et al. Impact of periodic follow-up testing among urban American Indian women with impaired fasting glucose. Prev Chronic Dis 2008;5(3). American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Risk Test. Available from: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/prevention/diabetes-risk-test/ (accessed November 2009). Canadian Diabetes Association. Are you at risk? http://www.diabetes.ca/Files/are-you-at-risk.pdf (accessed November 2009) Christensen JO, Sandbaek A, Lauritzen T, Borch-Johnsen K. Population-based stepwise screening for unrecognised Type 2 diabetes is ineffective in general practice despite reliable algorithms. Diabetologia 2004; 47:9, 1566–1573. Griffin SJ, Little PS, Hales CN, Kinmonth AL, Wareham NJ. Diabetes risk score: towards earlier detection of type 2 diabetes in general practice. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2000; 16: 164–171. Heikes K, Eddy D, Arondekar B, Schlessinger L. Diabetes Risk Calculator: A simple tool for detecting undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes Diabetes Care 2008; 31:1040–1045. Schwarz PE, Li J, Lindstrom J, Tuomilehto J. Tools for predicting the risk of type 2 diabetes in daily practice. Horm Metab Res 2009;41:86-97. Waugh N, Scotland G, McNamee P, et al. Screening for type 2 diabetes: literature review and economic modelling. Health Technol Assess 2007; 11.
Daniel M, Green LW, Marion SA et al. Effectiveness of community-directed diabetes prevention and control in a rural Aboriginal population in British Columbia, Canada. Soc Sci Med 1999; 48, 815–832. Gucciardi E, DeMelo M, Lee RN, Grace SL. Assessment of two culturally competent diabetes education methods: Individual versus individual plus group education in Canadian Portuguese adults with type 2 diabetes. Ethnicity & Health 2007; 12:2, 163-187. Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, Hu ZX, Lin J, Xiao JZ, Cao HB, Liu PA, Jiang XG, Jiang YY, Wang JP, Zheng H, Zhang H, Bennett PH, Howard BV. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 1997 20:537–54. Simmons D, Rush E, Crook N on behalf of the Te Wai o Rona: Diabetes Prevention Strategy Team. Development and piloting of a community health worker-based intervention for the prevention of diabetes among New Zealand Maori in Te Wai o Rona: Diabetes Prevention Strategy. Public Health Nutrition: 11(12), 1318–1325 doi:10.1017/S1368980008002711.
Josse RG, McGuire AJ, Saal GB. A review of the economic evidence for acarbose in the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular events in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance Int J Clin Pract 2006; 60:7, 847–855.
Nathan DM, Davidson MB, Defronzo RA, Heine RJ, Henry RR, Pratley R, Zinman B. ADA Consensus Statement: Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Implications for care. Diabetes Care 2007; 30:3, 753-759.
por el Q ∴ H ∴ Jorge Morales Arce México Se denomina moral al conjunto de creencias, normas y circunstancias que acreditan que una persona a lo largo de su vida logre ser una buena persona, su grupo social determinará si el comportamiento es correcto es decir, si se orienta al bien o al mal lo correcto o lo incorrecto de sus acciones. Son las reglas o normas por las que s