the bulletin
As an independent organisation, the Broadcasting Standards Commission considers the portrayal of violence, sexual conduct and matters of taste and decency in television and radio programmes and advertisements. It also provides redress for people who believe they have been unfairly treated or subjected to unwarranted infringement of privacy.
Complaints about standards and fairness
To consider and adjudicate on complaints the Commission has the power to: • require recordings of broadcast material; • hold hearings about the detail of what has been broadcast.
All the Commission’s decisions are reported in this regular bulletin.
The Commission can also require broadcasters to publish summaries of its decisions either on-air or in a newspaper or magazine and report on any action The CommissionersThe Lady Howe CBE ChairmanJane Leighton Deputy The Lady Warner Deputy Danielle BarrDavid BoultonDame Fiona Caldicott DBEStrachan Heppell CBRev. Rose Hudson-WilkinRobert Kernohan OBESusan LloydSally O’Sullivan Andrew Ketteringham 0171 233 0398Shivaun Meehan Complaints about fairness (unjust or unfair treatment or the unwarranted infringement of privacy) can only be made by those people directly affected by the broadcast. In considering the facts of the case, the Commission always studies written exchanges of evidence and usually holds a hearing with both the complainant and the broadcasters present.
Copies of full adjudications on all the following complaints - whether upheld or not - are
available from The Broadcasting Standards Commission, 7 The Sanctuary, London SW1P 3JS.
Please enclose a stamped addressed envelope.
Sky 1, 5 April 1997
The Commission has upheld a complaint by Kevin The Commission found that, in view of the fact that Hughes & Co., (Solicitors) on behalf of JH (a minor) JH was a minor, that his identity was not disguised in the submitted on 20 November 1997, about Coppers, broadcast, and in the absence of any consent by his guardians, BSkyB unwarrantably infringed his privacy.
The programme included an incident involving a group The Commission found that, from the shots of JH in of teenagers who were stopped and questioned by two handcuffs, viewers may have thought that he had been One of the teenagers, JH, then 15 years old, on behalf of whom the complaint was made, was shown in handcuffsbeing put into and driven away in a police vehicle. An explanation was given by one of the officers that JH wasunder the influence of alcohol and was being taken to alocal police station to be reunited with his parents.
JH’s solicitors complained that their client’s face was notdisguised and that the failure to do so was unfair and anunwarranted infringement of his privacy.
Undercover Britain:
Inside Quarantine
Weekend Watchdog
Travel Promotions Ltdtrading as Voyages Jules Verne Complaints about standards (violence, sex, or issues of taste and decency such as bad language or the treatment of disasters) can be made by anyone who has seen or heard the broadcast. In reaching a decision to uphold or not uphold a complaint, the code and research into public attitudes are considered alongside the material and its context.
In certain circumstances the Commission may also hold a hearing. Standards complaints are considered by a Standards Panel in the first instance, and can be referred to the Standards Committee.
Mark Radcliffe
The Comedy Store Special
A listener complained about sexual innuendo.
Two viewers complained about the use of bad language.
The BBC said that since Mark Radcliffe introduced the Channel 5 said that the programme had been scheduled comic ‘Fat Harry White’ spot as a regular feature of his in its established late-night comedy slot and had been programme, the double-entendre of this spoof disc-jockey preceded by a clear warning. A combination of sensible had proved popular with most listeners. It believed the scheduling and an unambiguous warning would have humour of this slot was consistent with a long tradition alerted viewers who might have taken offence. Regular of bawdy British comedy. It was broadcast when most viewers would have been neither surprised nor offended.
children would be at school and was aimed primarily at In the context of the routine, the more severe words were older teenagers and young adults. Only regular listeners, used expressively and for comedic emphasis, not familiar with Harry’s unusual view of DIY, would have been likely to detect the double meanings.
The Standards Committee watched the programme and A Standards Panel listened to the programme. took into account the broadcaster’s statement, including It considered that the item, both in its duration and the points about scheduling and warnings. However, in its detail, had exceeded acceptable boundaries. the routine had used a word which the Commission’s own research consistently rated as extreme and in theCommittee’s view, the context had not justified its use.
Byker Grove
BBC 1, 10 and 12 November 1998, 1710-1735 The ComplaintSix viewers complained of inappropriate sexual content Twenty viewers complained about the use of badlanguage in these programmes; there were also concerns about the depiction of drug abuse and violence.
The BBC said that Children’s BBC catered for childrenacross the age range, including teenagers. Programmes became more suitable for older age groups as the The BBC said that this was the latest in a long line of afternoon progressed. Award-winning drama, such as drama series dealing with the tougher side of police work Byker Grove, now in its tenth series, had established and extremes of police life. The BBC’s general policy on a reputation for constructive and realistic drama, with broadcasting strong language is that it should not be storylines which mirrored the experience of older gratuitous, but should serve some legitimate purpose, such children and young teenagers, including the growth as conveying emotion in drama, or giving the flavour of the environment which forms its setting. The remarkabledegree of realism in this series provided unusually strong These episodes of Byker Grove had reflected the pressures justification for the use of such language.
on young people to embark on a sexual relationship, and showed how in this case the pair reached the The drug abuse by a recently-arrived WPC was used to conclusion, with apparent relief, that they were not show her struggling to cope with new responsibilities emotionally ready. The broadcaster went on to say that while maintaining old friends; in these circumstances they rejected any implication that the storyline had there was no danger of impressionable viewers adopting encouraged under-age sexual activity. It had been clear and direct without being unduly explicit, expressing theimportance of contraception and the need to seek advice.
In recognition that the series would not appeal to allviewers it was scheduled post Watershed, on BBC2, a network with a reputation for innovative drama.
A Standards Panel watched both episodes, involving astory in which a foster brother and sister contemplate Clear warnings were provided before transmission.
making their relationship a sexual one, as a result of theboy being teased for being a virgin. At first, the girl resisted but she visited a doctor for advice. She then A Standards Panel viewed these programmes. told her foster brother she had changed her mind and It acknowledged the ambition of the series and the produced a packet of condoms. But in discussion they fact that BBC2 has a remit to produce challenging concluded that they were not ready for the relationship.
drama but took the view that both the intensity of The Panel acknowledged the arguments put forward by the bad language and some of the themes of the series the broadcaster, but took the view that the nature of had been inappropriate for transmission immediately the storyline and its detail had been too explicit for after the Watershed. The complaints were upheld broadcast at a time when younger children were likely to be in the audience. It concluded, therefore, that it hadbeen inappropriate for broadcast at that time. The complaints were upheld on the grounds of scheduling.
Coronation Street
Gossi the Dog
A viewer complained about the amount of sexual A viewer complained about animal cruelty being used as innuendo in this episode, at a time when children were Teletext said that the Digitiser section prided itself on Granada said that scenes depicting an underwear party its irreverent and ‘off-the-wall’ humour and decisions were intentionally raucous, to reflect what might happen about what might offend could sometimes be difficult.
in real life. However, they had been mindful of the need However, on this occasion, it felt that the borderline had to be sensitive to family viewing and comments with been overstepped and the frame was quickly removed reference to sexual relationships were consequently vague. Nothing had been included which could beregarded as crass or could cause embarrassment to adults A Standards Panel noted the Teletext page in question.
It agreed that a reference to the beating of a dog, albeit fictional, would have been likely to have caused offence.
A Standards Panel viewed this episode of the long established soap opera. It took the view that the scenescomplained of had gone beyond the boundaries of acceptability for an audience likely to consist of bothadults and children. The complaint was upheld onscheduling.
16 August 1998, 0600-0925
The ComplaintA viewer complained about distressing shots of the relevance to the peace process that GMTV had been aftermath of the bombing in Omagh, Northern Ireland, duty bound to change its normal schedule. They being shown immediately after programmes and realised in retrospect that it would have been preferable advertisements aimed at children, with no warning given if the presenter had given a warning of the distressing nature of the pictures to follow before the commercialbreak. They regretted that this had not happened and GMTV said that, as a provider of news and currentaffairs during weekdays and as a children’s breakfast broadcaster at weekends, they were fully aware of the A Standards Panel viewed the programme. It noted need to safeguard very young viewers in the early GMTV’s apology for not giving a warning before the morning. On the Sunday in question, they had had to start of this special programme. In the Panel’s view, a balance their responsibilities to very different groups of warning should have been given in view of the distressing viewers. Because of the nature of the breaking story in nature of the report, especially since the programme and Omagh, they had changed their normal format so that advertisements immediately before this had been aimed there had been uninterrupted children’s programming up at children. The complaint was upheld.
to 0900. At that point they had broadcast a specialGMTV programme to bring the audience up to date with developments in Omagh. The exceptional circumstancesresulting from this story had been of such tragedy and Vice - the Sex Trade
ITV, 16 & 23 November 1998, 2100-2200
The ComplaintSixteen viewers complained about the 16 November facts and the experiences of a group of prostitutes who edition, the majority of whom objected to the content of were prepared to talk openly and honestly. Many of the the programme as a whole which they believed to be extreme practices within the trade were ignored entirely graphic and overstepped the mark of decency. Several as being inappropriate for broadcast at 2100 and all complainants objected in particular to the portrayal of an serious uses of swearing were eschewed. Nevertheless the ‘erotic milkmaid’ and her client who acted out his series did cover the dangers of death, attack, infection fantasy of being treated as a baby. Others complained and social exclusion. The series demonstrated a complete about the open discussion of prostitution, a scene of a lack of prurience or any sense of exploitation.
woman giving a man sexual satisfaction, the promotionof a man’s guidebook to massage parlours, and LWT went on to say that it had been anxious to make comments made by an unmarried, pregnant, teenage an honest series which would not upset viewers, although prostitute who believed she was safe as long as she did it recognised many would inevitably find the subject distasteful at any time. It believed the series wasdownbeat, non-exploitative and unremittingly serious.
Seven viewers objected to the edition broadcast on 23 November. One complainant was particularly concerned about scenes in a brothel in Amsterdam, A Standards Panel watched the programmes. It took and another believed that the programme should have the view that, given the degree of explicitness about been transmitted much later in the evening.
various sexual practices, both editions had beenscheduled inappropriately, immediately after the Watershed. Furthermore, in the edition of 16 November, London Weekend Television explained that these were the Panel considered that the scenes in which a prostitute the first two editions of a series of three documentaries was shown placing an incontinence pad on a naked man exploring prostitution, looking at prostitutes, their clients and then breastfeeding him had been degrading and and those who try to control the trade. All episodes exploitative, and had exceeded acceptable boundaries.
were preceded by a clear warning as to their adult nature. Given the timing of the programmes, thebroadcaster had deliberately avoided anything which might have been seen as titillating and concentrated on The Cool Zone
Breakfast Show
A listener complained about bad language in the lyrics of A listener complained about a sexual reference.
Radio XL said that the presenter had claimed that he had Silk FM said that the wrong version of the song had been been quoting from a newspaper. He had, nonetheless, put into the computer which played the records during this show, and because the show had been unmanned,they had not been aware of this unfortunate error at the time. They apologised for any offence caused.
A Standards Panel listened to the item and noted theaction taken by the station against the presenter. It considered that the reference was inappropriate for A Standards Panel listened to the song. It noted the broadcast at this time of day. The complaint was upheld.
broadcaster’s apology. It considered that the versionplayed should not have been broadcast without a warning as to its content. The complaint was upheld.
Coronation Street
A viewer complained about scenes of graphic violence.
Three viewers complained that images of a young womanfrozen to death in a freezer were shown during family Central Television explained that careful consideration had been given to the scenes of violence in the programme, and they were signposted both before and shortly after the Granada Television explained that, as with all drama opening titles. The atmosphere in the prison prior to the serials, death scenes were not unusual on Coronation murder was an indication of what was about to ensue. Street and the body was usually shown. In this instance, In the stabbing scene, the camera moved away quickly to the producer requested edits to keep this scene very brief.
reaction shots, and in the ensuing mob attack the mob was It was comprehensively signposted by the fact that seen (rather than the victim) indistinctly on a black and viewers had witnessed the character finding herself white television monitor. The murder in the cell was locked in the freezer in the previous episode.
treated with similar care. The camera moved to the rearwhen a hostage’s throat was slit.
The broadcaster went on to say that Coronation Streetwas a realistic drama and this meant that sometimes The broadcaster added that the programme had been difficult or painful issues were addressed, but they always preceded by a warning to the effect that it contained tried to handle them with sensitivity.
A Standards Panel watched this episode of the The Standards Committee watched the programme long-running soap opera. It took the view that the and took into account the warning which preceded it. images of the dead woman, shown at the very start of It noted that two scenes of violence, including the the programme, had strayed beyond the boundaries of graphic use of a knife, were shown shortly after the acceptability for broadcast when children were likely to Watershed. In the Committee’s view, the scenes were of a be watching. The complaints were upheld.
particularly explicit and frightening nature, and wentbeyond acceptable boundaries when broadcast so soon after the Watershed. The complaint was upheld.
This Morning
ITV, 16 October 1998, 1015-1220
The ComplaintA viewer complained about nudity and simulated sex.
him up pretending that he would throw him in the water. Later, while standing behind the presenter the man had put his arm around him. The broadcaster believed that Granada Television said that the item had occurred the item had been genial and had not been prurient.
during the week of the programme’s tenth anniversaryand had included the programme’s weatherman being presented with flowers and champagne for his A Standards Panel watched the programme. It noted that contribution to the series. One of the people who had the broadcaster had not intended the man to appear on the presented the gifts had achieved some notoriety by programme naked. It considered, however, that while the streaking on the programme four years earlier. He had man’s actions had not been sexually explicit, the level of been due to reappear in his underpants but had removed nudity had been unacceptable for the time of transmission.
all his clothes, although he had kept his genitals covered. The Panel concluded that the item had exceeded acceptableboundaries. The complaint was upheld.
Granada denied that the man had simulated sex with theprogramme’s weatherman and said that he had picked Fetishes
Desperately Seeking Something
A viewer complained about scenes of implied intercourse.
Channel 4 explained that Desperately Seeking Something Channel 4 explained that the documentary was filmed was a well-established and critically acclaimed series mainly within a legal establishment in New York where commissioned and broadcast as part of its output of patrons pay to have their desires and fetishes satisfied. religious programmes. It featured a wide range of It was both astonishing and revealing, and took a non- censorious look at this area of activity in order to obtaina deeper understanding of it. By interviewing the punters This particular programme looked at some of the and dominatrices, it debunked myths and shone a light beliefs and faiths which can be found in the Hawaiian on sexual behaviour which is frequently misunderstood Islands, from the traditional religion of Huna to the and easily dismissed as simply unnatural and debased.
more recently introduced New Age cults and otherunconventional beliefs. The reporter visited a spiritual Channel 4 went on to add that the film was edited to retreat which offered training in meditation and Oceanic exclude more extreme versions of pain and to make it Tantra where various Tantric techniques were taught in suitable for a late night broadcast. Whilst it included order to achieve greater spiritual and physical union.
images which might frequently be found in materialotherwise deemed to be pornographic, the scenes did not Some scenes early in the report portrayed a number of render the film obscene or indecent. A clear warning couples sitting in a swimming pool embracing but about its content was also given before transmission.
otherwise virtually motionless. They were not havingpenetrative sexual intercourse and there was nothing visually identifiable or any discernible movement to The full Commission watched the programme, noting the various scenes depicted. It took into account thebroadcaster’s statement, the time at which the The broadcaster went on to say that, in view of the time programme was transmitted and the warning which of the programme’s transmission, these scenes were preceded it. It also acknowledged that factual carefully considered to ensure that they were presented programmes can play a valuable role in exploring and with tact and discretion. There were no shots of breasts explaining unusual and potentially disturbing forms of or genitals at any point in the programme. In addition, sexual expression. They can shock as well as illuminate.
the commentary and interviews with those who ran theretreat were not sexually explicit.
But the Commission took the view that, in theprogramme in question, the graphic and prolonged detail of some of the sequences went beyond the informative A Standards Panel watched the programme. It took and, together with the tone of the commentary, had the view that the theme, the sexual positions and the the effect of turning the audience into voyeurs of discussion were inappropriate for a programme demeaning and degrading behaviour. It concluded broadcast well before the Watershed. It was also likely that the programme had gone beyond acceptable limits to have exceeded the expectations of those anticipating for transmission on a free-to-air terrestrial service. a more traditional religious programme. The complaint Tommy Boyd
Two viewers complained about the sexual content A listener complained about the presenter’s treatment of a video accompanying Montel Jordan’s song, ‘I Can Talk Radio said that the Tommy Boyd programme London Weekend Television said that CD:UK tried to invited listeners to take part in a discussion on the give a flavour of all the different popular music charts chosen subject of the day. The conversation was often and included album tracks and American hits not yet robust, with the presenter taking a non-orthodox stance released in the UK, of which this was one. The song was to encourage lateral thinking. The show was well an enormous hit in the United States in the week that the established and listeners were either already aware of his programme was broadcast and considerable time had been spent editing the video to remove any shots thatwere likely to be unsuitable for the time of transmission The discussion on travellers had set out to provide a view that was generally unpopular, supporting the travellers’ lifestyle in order to challenge people’s LWT said that the song’s lyrics were typical of the New perceptions and prejudices. The caller was unable to Swing Rap genre, which was becoming increasingly provide a reasoned argument for her view. Boyd gave popular. It felt that younger viewers would not have her ample opportunity to put her viewpoint and she understood the sexual references in the lyrics and that the also had plenty of opportunity to leave the discussion presenters’ comments about the edited material were earlier. The exchange was not good-natured, but the caller was nevertheless treated fairly within thetransparent parameters of the programme.
The BSC’s FindingA Standards Panel watched the programme. It considered that the overtly sexual content of the song’s lyrics A Standards Panel listened to the programme and combined with the suggestive sexual imagery of the noted the comments of the presenter. The Panel accompanying video were inappropriate for the time of acknowledged that this programme had established a broadcast and likely audience. The Panel considered that reputation for its robust approach to issues, but it the video had exceeded acceptable boundaries for considered that the caller’s treatment by the presenter on broadcast when young children were likely to be this occasion had breached acceptable boundaries due watching. The complaints were upheld.
to his dwelling on, and comments concerning, her personal life. The complaint was upheld.
The End of the Week Show
ITV, 11 September 1998, 2300-0005
A viewer complained about the sexual and tasteless The Standards Committee viewed the programme, a review of the previous series. It took the view that the cumulative effect of the collection of extracts of a sexual and tasteless nature took the programme beyond Despite repeated requests to London Weekend Television, acceptable boundaries. The complaint was upheld.
it failed to supply a statement within a reasonable time inresponse to this complaint. The Commission therefore decided, exceptionally, to come to a decision on thecomplaint without a statement.
Cutting Edge: The Rise and Rise of Viagra
Channel 4, 9 September 1998, 2100- 2200
The ComplaintThree viewers complained about excessively graphic discussion of sexual behaviour. Two of these viewers A Standards Panel viewed the programme. It noted that also complained about the encouragement of drug abuse.
the programme had not contained any explicit shots ofsexual activity and it considered most of the discussions had not been over-explicit. It took the view that the Channel 4 said that The Rise and Rise of Viagra had advantages and disadvantages of Viagra had been been a serious and timely look at the new impotence presented in a balanced way and that the programme drug, Viagra, broadcast a week before it was due to be had given proper warning about its use without medical licensed in Europe. The programme had looked at the supervision. The Panel believed that, for the most part, drug’s impact in the USA and its likely impact in the UK the programme had been serious and responsible and through the personal stories of couples and individuals that its content would have been unlikely to have exceeded the expectations of the majority of viewers.
A different documentary had originally been scheduled in However, the Panel noted that the sequence involving this slot but had been removed from the schedules Seth had been much more explicit than others and had approximately a week before broadcast. The change of failed to warn of the dangers of using Viagra together programme had been publicised quite widely and viewers with illegal drugs. The Commission considered this had been told of the change just before the programme.
to have been irresponsible. The complaints were upheldin part.
The programme had not been explicit or pornographic.
It had consisted entirely of people describing their experiences of Viagra. Except for Seth, a gay man fromSan Francisco, those who had featured had not talked ina graphic way. Many of the interviews had focused moreon the psychological aspects of impotence and its effecton relationships, not on the sexual act itself.
It had been considered important to look at therecreational use of Viagra. Seth had spoken about its use in San Francisco’s gay community and of the effectsof mixing it with illegal drugs. Seth’s description of his activities whilst on Viagra had been fairly explicit buthonest. His contribution had informed viewers of howthe drug was used recreationally in the USA and of its likely use in the UK in the future. The programmehad not condoned or encouraged this behaviour. This interview had been placed near the end of theprogramme, about forty-five minutes after the Watershed.
A warning had been given before the programme aboutits content. Eurotrash
Channel 4, 9 October 1998, 2230-2305
The ComplaintA viewer complained of sexually explicit material, the screen-tested. The report derived most of its humour denigration of women and bad language.
from sending up the young men who were screen-testingfor the ‘acting school’ and therefore neither denigrated Channel 4 said that this well-established series did not intend to be degrading to any particular group. Its intention was to take a light-hearted and sometimes A Standards Panel viewed this edition of the well- informative look at the social and sexual proclivities established programme. It considered, on balance, that it had not denigrated the female sex. This aspect of thecomplaint was not upheld. However, the Panel took the This episode featured gay Germans, a boy band and view that the graphic portrayal of sex and sexual Luca Damiano, described as the ‘crown prince of Italian references including bad language, in the feature on erotica’. This item commented on his career and showed Italian erotica went beyond acceptable limits for brief and inexplicit clips from his films, including an broadcast at this time. This aspect of the complaint was extract from a song. The item went on to describe his upheld. The complaint was upheld in part.
‘acting school’ and his endeavours to find new talent forhis films, featuring the process by which young men were Steve Penk
They Think It’s All Over
Capital Radio, 10 October 1998, 1000-1300 A listener complained about the broadcast of an offensive Six viewers complained about tasteless humour, in particular, a chant by football fans about the Englandfootballer, David Beckham.
The Broadcaster’s StatementCapital Radio pointed out that the calls were always requested by friends or relatives of the person. The The BBC said the chant of the fans, though coarse, was person called was also asked for their permission to football terrace humour. The footballer often broadcast the windup before it was aired. The calls were encountered chanting of this kind, some of which was even stronger in content. The majority of the audiencewas by now, after eight series, well aware of the male, sometimes blunt, nature of the show’s humour. The Standards Committee listened to a recording of thecall in which someone was informed he would not be receiving his digital television equipment in time for the A Standards Panel watched the programme. launch of digital television, and noted the use of bleeps.
It recognised that the chant, which was juvenile and The Committee took the view that, given the fact the laddish in its content, would not have been to everyone’s person involved had given his consent, the broadcasting taste. However, it concluded that it was unlikely to have of the call had not exceeded acceptable boundaries. exceeded the expectations of the majority of the audience to this well-known programme aimed at a late-nightadult audience. The complaints were not upheld.
The Simpsons - Halloween Special
Harry Hill
A viewer complained about the depiction of children A viewer complained about racist humour.
carrying knives and an evil spirit urging them to kill.
Channel 4 explained that Harry Hill was a well The BBC said that The Simpsons was not a children’s established comic renowned for his eccentric brand of programme. While it appreciated that some parents humour. The running joke complained of in the had particular concern about material relating to programme consisted of the comic ordering himself a Halloween, it believed that the potential to disturb had Filipino bride from a catalogue. The sketches presented been entirely dissipated by the Simpson family’s comic racial stereotypes, albeit misconceived, and the humour feistiness and refusal to be intimidated. In the scene derived from the sheer non-politically correct blatancy complained about, the depiction of the ‘confrontation’ of the way in which the characters were portrayed. between family members had made it evident that there It was not intended to be serious comment; rather, an was no danger of a violent outcome. Ultimately, the attempt to satirise some peoples’ commonly held ‘evil spirit’ had chosen to self-destruct rather than face prejudices in an amusing way, and not to condone the prospect of living with the Simpson family. The programme had included two further story-lines that had ended in similarly comic fashion. The BSC’s FindingA Standards Panel watched the programme, noting the brief references to a Filipino bride. It acknowledged the A Standards Panel watched the programme. It considered purpose of the humour, as explained in the broadcasters’ that the style and content of the cartoon series was statement, and considered that its gentle, zany style - not well-established and that this episode was in keeping delivered in a mocking sense - would have been unlikely with its reputation. It believed that the story had clearly to have caused widespread offence. The complaint was been humorous and had not intended to shock or disturb viewers. The Panel considered that the subject matter had been appropriate for the time of broadcast and that the programme had not exceeded acceptable boundaries.
The complaint was not upheld.
Mark Radcliffe
BBC Radio 1, 15 September 1998, 1400-1600
A listener complained about a satirical record A Standards Panel listened to the song and noted the which contained sexual innuendo, swearing and preceding warning. It took the view that while it was unlikely to have universal appeal, it had not strayedbeyond acceptable limits for broadcast. The complaint The BBC said that Mark Radcliffe’s alter ego, the spoofdisc-jockey, Fat Harry White, was a well established feature of his programme and the elements of innuendoand double-entendre which Harry had brought to theshow were echoed by the extensively bleeped rendition of his version of the song ‘Horny’. The presenter’sintroduction gave listeners some indication of thecontents of his version, and the song was broadcast when most children would still be at school.
Panorama - The Cruelty Connection
The Bigger Breakfast - Madison
A viewer complained about graphic scenes of torture and A viewer complained of inappropriate sexual content in a The BBC explained that the programme reported the Channel 4 said that the programme, Madison, was a growing belief by law enforcement agencies in the series focusing on the life of American high-school USA that there might be a connection between cruelty students and exploring a number of adolescent themes.
to animals and violent crime against people. It used This episode concerned a couple who, when confronted as an example a notable case in the USA in which a with unexpected pregnancy, decided to get married. man killed a small dog, some of which was captured At the stag party, a stripper arrived but although the on video. However, the programme took great care party was raucous, nothing explicit was shown, indeed not to use those sections of the video which showed the bride-groom demonstrated his commitment to the actual crime being committed. It was the cavalier attitude of the criminals to the dog which wasemphasised rather than the pain and distress it was It formed part of a schedule for young people out of caused. The pre-transmission warning provided a term time. With this in mind, careful editorial suitable recognition to viewers of the possible combined consideration had been given to the episode and cuts effect of what was shown and the description in the had been made in the sequence. But the scene was an essential part of the story to show the bridegroom’scommitment to his marriage.
The BSC’s FindingThe full Commission watched the programme, noting its serious intent in reporting a trend which is causing The Standards Committee watched the programme.
concern. In the Commission’s view, the example used - While it understood the complainant’s concerns, the in which the violence shown towards the dog was Committee concluded that the weight of the episode had brief and inexplicit - served the purpose of illustrating been to uphold responsible relationships. It concluded the possible connection between cruelty to animals and that although the scenes of the stag party had been at the violent crime against people. It was a subject of edge of acceptability for the transmission slot, they had legitimate public interest and was not presented in a not exceeded acceptable boundaries. The complaint was sensational manner. The complaint was not upheld.
Mike Roberts
Mercia FM, 12 August 1998, 1800-2200
A listener complained about the use of bad language.
A Standards Panel listened to the song. It recognised that the radio version of the record had been played and took the view that the content had not exceeded Merica FM said that the tape was Puff Daddy’s, acceptable boundaries. The complaint was not upheld.
’Come with me’, and confirmed that the version playedwas the radio edit, which contained no unacceptable Hale and Pace
Nairobi: True Terror
Five viewers complained of the use of bad language.
A viewer complained about harrowing scenes depicting One also complained about sexual innuendo.
London Weekend Television said the first sketch United Broadcasting and Entertainment said a complained of had been a parody of the style of the pre-transmission announcement warned viewers that the American film director Quentin Tarantino and his programme would show the graphic portrayal of the customary use of bad language, usually delivered in a results of the Nairobi terrorist bombing and would deadpan and unselfconscious way. The point of the therefore contain harrowing scenes which viewers might sketch had been to contrast the language with the find disturbing. In addition, at the start of the normally well-mannered context of a restaurant. programme the presenter explained that although the The sketch had come towards the end of the programme, very worst excesses of terrorist bombings were usually an hour after the Watershed, and the programme itself filtered out, this programme would let the viewers see what journalists normally see to enable them tounderstand more fully “what happens when terrorists The sketches involving sexual content had played on the take on the world, slaughtering the weak and innocent”.
traditional stereotype of children embarrassed by thethought of their parents having a physical relationship United went on to say that although it was considered and a running gag involving an Italian waiter wielding appropriate and important to portray the real human a pepper mill. The broadcaster believed the hour of impact of terrorism, great care was taken over the detail transmission, the brevity and the well-known style of the of the graphic material to be shown and the context in programme removed it of offence for those familiar with which it was presented. The programme treated the bombing from many different perspectives, includingvictims, camera crews, journalists and medical workers.
It maximised all positive aspects of the situation A Standards Panel watched the programme, noting including the unity which was brought to Nairobi, the particularly the sketch set in a restaurant in which the devotion of the rescue workers and the emotional and menu and the conversation used Tarantino style words physical rebuilding of lives. The context and justification and ‘fuck’ replaced ‘thank you’. While the Panel for the harrowing scenes in the programme rendered understood the potential for offence, especially to those them neither gratuitous, tasteless nor sensationalist.
viewers joining the programme late, it took the view that the farcical nature of the conversation reduced the potential for offence in a well-known comedy The Standards Committee watched the programme, programme for adults broadcast after the Watershed. noting that some of the images shown were, indeed, It also took the view that the sexual content of the shocking, with a level of explicitness not usually programme had not exceeded acceptable boundaries depicted by broadcasters when acts of terrorism for the time of transmission. The complaints were have occurred in the United Kingdom. Nonetheless, it acknowledged the rationale for the programme and the responsible way in which it was handled. In the Committee’s view, the use of such powerful scenes wasneither gratuitous nor sensationalist, but represented the true horror of terrorism. It therefore served animportant public interest and educative function. The Committee also considered that the clear advicegiven before and at the start of the programme wouldhave alerted viewers to its powerful and disturbingcontent. The complaint was not upheld.
Hale and Pace
Teen Spirit
A viewer complained about the dangerous and A viewer complained about the sexual content, irresponsible use of compressed air in a comedy sketch.
considering it neither educational or informative.
London Weekend Television said the sketch featured two Meridian Television said that the series took a number well-known characters in the series who normally engage of themes and looked at different classes and social in stupid and irresponsible acts. This choreographed groups, focusing on diary style excerpts from teenage life.
sequence of mayhem in a garage could best be likened to Pre-transmission, billings had given a clear indication a live action cartoon. In one part of the routine, one of that it would be about sex and the consequences of sex the character’s eyes had bulged through the use of digital special effects. The vast majority of people did not haveready access to compressed air. The BSC’s Finding.
A Standards Panel viewed the programme. It considered that the teenagers followed in the series were involved A Standards Panel viewed the programme, noting the in unusual situations and the majority of the audience sketch complained of in which a variety of silly and would have been able to recognise this and the potentially dangerous events took place including the consequences. It took the view that the content did not firing of ball bearings using compressed air. It took the exceed acceptable boundaries for a serious documentary view that the farcical nature of the scene and its cartoon- broadcast well after the Watershed. The complaint was like quality robbed it of any sense of reality. While it understood the concerns of the complainant, itconsidered that these particular acts were unlikely to encourage imitation. The complaint was not upheld.
Noah’s Ark
ITV, 9 October 1998, 2000-2100
Two viewers complained that blind people had been A Standards Panel viewed the programme. It considered portrayed in an offensive and stereotypical way.
that most viewers would have been sympathetic to thecharacters from the outset. Because they had been shown as engaging in fierce verbal battles and being very Carlton Television said that this was a gentle series about competitive in their relationship, the Panel concluded a country vet’s practice, and the story of two blind men, this would have been unlikely to have reinforced any Pete and Dave, and Dave’s guide dog, Clinton. They did negative stereotypes about blind people. The complaints not consider that the part of the plot complained of would have been seen by viewers as having stereotypedthe men’s disability or given rise to offence. Dave had turned one stereotype on its head by saying: “We mightbe blind, but we’re not stupid.” The guide dog hadbeen supplied by Guide Dogs for the Blind.
Beast Wars
The Truth About.Sex Appeal
A viewer complained about the violent content of a A viewer complained about the scheduling of this cartoon and considered it inappropriate for children.
programme, owing to its sexual content.
GMTV said the programme had been running since The broadcaster said the subject matter and treatment April without complaint. It was far removed from reality of the subject had been appropriate to the time of and had no human characters. The heroes always won transmission. The title of the programme had indicated and the villains always lost. Action generally resulted unequivocally the precise subject matter of the not in death but transformation. Any violence was brief programme and that had been supported by television and set in the science fiction context.
listings. There had also been a clear pre-transmissionwarning. Discussion and comment within the programme was light hearted and humorous. Although, A Standards Panel watched the episode. It took the at times, candid it was believed that the programme view that the violence in the cartoon was not of a fulfilled the relevant taste and decency obligations for significantly different character to that available in many similar cartoons for children and was unlikely toencourage imitation. The setting was clearly fictional and bore no relationship to everyday life. The complaint A Standards Panel viewed the programme noting that it consisted, primarily, of celebrities talking about sexappeal and their sexual relationships. The Panel concluded that the programme had not gone beyondacceptable boundaries for broadcast post-Watershed.
The complaint was not upheld.
The Glorious 12th Special
ITV, 12 July 1998, 0135-0420
A complaint was received that the name of this A Standards Panel viewed the programme. It considered programme was the same as that given to the main day that there had been no deliberate intent to cause offence.
in the Orange Order’s marching calendar, which had Whilst it would have been preferable to have avoided been associated with illegal and violent acts in this and the use of this term, most viewers would not have been aware of the possible link. The complaint was not upheld.
The Broadcaster’s StatementCarlton Television said this programme had been a preview of two major international sporting events shown on ITV later that day, the British motor racingGrand Prix and the football World Cup Final. The titlehad been intended to reflect a glorious day of sportwhich happened to be the twelfth of the month. Formost viewers it would have had connotations of anothersporting event - the opening of the grouse-shootingseason - rather than the marching season in NorthernIreland. ITV Sports had had no intention of causingoffence anywhere in the UK.
The Jerry Springer Show
You’ve Been Framed!
ITV, 21 & 24 September 1998, 1330-1415 Two viewers complained about discussions concerning Two viewers complained about different aspects of the relationships and sexual activity involving three people.
programme. One considered that showing people beinghurt was inappropriate entertainment. Both objected to scenes of children hitting each other.
London Weekend Television said that it took great careto try to ensure that the programmes’ content was both popular and acceptable to the audience, while complying Granada Television said that they operated a strict policy with the ITC Programme Code. It also took school with regard to all clips submitted to the programme, holidays into account and consciously chose more particularly those involving children. No foul play was appropriate episodes outside term time. These particular shown and the broadcaster had to be satisfied that no- episodes had been transmitted during term time. LWT said that the edition of the programme broadcast Because of the time constraints of the programme, it was on 24 September had included a discussion of sexual not always possible to show viewers the recovery. But matters and was typical of the series as a whole. The the programme team discarded any video where anyone participants had spoken honestly about their “three-in-a- bed” activities, but the discussion had not been prurientand had not gone into detail. The experiences of the The broadcaster went on to say that it was a fact that participants would have acted as a deterrent to viewers children hit each other, especially young siblings. But the and the presenter had emphasised the likely problems of reason for showing the clips was not to encourage such behaviour amongst the children who watch theprogramme, nor in the ten years the programme had been broadcast was there any evidence to support this.
A Standards Panel watched the programmes. It believedthat style and content of the programmes were well- established and considered that the subject matter of the A Standards Panel watched this episode of the long- discussions had not been inappropriate for the time of established programme in which viewers send in clips of transmission. It also took the view that the sexual unfortunate mishaps recorded on their own video content had been inexplicit and that the presentation of cameras, and usually within their own families. While it the discussions would not have encouraged viewers to understood the concerns of the complainants, the Panel imitate the participant’s behaviour. The Panel concluded accepted the broadcaster’s reassurance that the clips were that the programmes had not exceeded acceptable carefully vetted. In the Panel’s view, the short and boundaries. The complaints were not upheld.
generally light-hearted presentation had robbed thematerial of potential offence and had not encouraged imitation. The complaints were not upheld The South Bank Show
This Morning
A viewer complained of the graphic description and Six viewers complained about an item in which three couples were given Viagra to test and then to discusstheir experiences.
The Broadcaster’s StatementLondon Weekend Television said that this edition of The South Bank Show had concentrated on the work of Granada Television said the programme was broadcast in the American author, Bret Easton Ellis, widely regarded the week that Viagra had been awarded its European as one of the leading contemporary American writers licence. It was decided that the most realistic way of of fiction. His books are controversial. Care was taken prompting discussion was to hold a trial with volunteers.
in the dramatisation of his work to avoid graphic Each couple chosen had had their impotency problem violence. Each extract had been properly contextualised medically confirmed and all had been keen to try the new to illustrate points discussed with the author in his drug and discuss their problems publicly. The volunteers interview. The programme had also been scheduled later had felt that their discussion would have helped others, than usual and had been preceded by an unambiguous and after the programme had thanked the production staff and presenters for the opportunity to discuss theissue of impotency, and for the way that the discussion A Standards Panel watched the programme. It took the view that it had presented a serious examination of Granada said that the trial had been conducted properly the work of a novelist whose third book had been and the programme had also included an extended controversial because of its violent content. It considered phone-in on the issue with the programme’s resident GP, the dramatisations had suggested far more than they had Dr Steele. He had given advice to viewers and had outlined shown, and that the author had been tested about his other treatments available and where to get help.
reasons for writing in this way. In the Panel’s judgement,the content was unlikely to have exceeded the The broadcaster believed that the programme had been expectations of the majority of the audience to this late educational and informative, and despite the enthusiastic night arts programme, which had been preceded by a media coverage of Viagra, the volunteers had experienced clear warning. The complaint was not upheld.
The BSC’s FindingA Standards Panel watched the programme. It consideredthat the item about the issue of impotency had been oflegitimate public interest and had not attempted tosensationalise the impact of Viagra. It took the view that the discussion about the experiences of thevolunteers had been neither explicit nor gratuitous. The Panel considered that the programme, with the helpof the resident GP, had presented the issue in a factualmanner and had not exceeded acceptable boundaries. The complaints were not upheld The Chippendales: a Secret History
The Jerry Springer Show
A viewer complained about sexually explicit content and Five viewers complained about sexually suggestive scenes, an interview with a contract killer, which he considered two women who covered themselves in ice cream and sensationalised and glamorised the link between chocolate, respectively, and invited men to remove the substance; a man who offered to do housework in thenude, posing in a thong; and a man who invited women Granada Television said that Roy Colon gave his firsttelevision interview about his relationship with the Chippendale’s creator and the part he played in the London Weekend Television explained that the stock-in- murder of the group’s choreographer. His testament was trade of the programme is well established as being crucial to the narrative. Colon had been charged with outrageous. Many of those appearing in the programme various crimes and had been sentenced to seven years’ give the impression of being show business hopefuls.
imprisonment, although this was reduced in the light of The episode in question, ‘Wild Ways to Make a Living’, his subsequent co-operation with the authorities. was edited carefully before transmission to ensure itcontained no nudity and nothing sexually explicit.
The programme was illustrated with archive footage of Rather than being titillating, the tenor of the scenes was the Chippendales, which contained no more than partial humorous and good natured, with the presenter male nudity. The Chippendales’ activities could be viewed supporting the intention of the participants’ friends to as sensational and glamorous but it was difficult to see discourage them from pursuing such careers.
how such qualities applied to a documentary account ofthe downfall of their creator and his criminal activities.
This was a late night documentary for an adult audience, A Standards Panel watched the programme, noting the dealing with the rise of a remarkable phenomenon over scenes complained of. It acknowledged that the style of 20 years and concentrating on the two principal these programmes was now well known, but that their personalities involved. The story, not widely known, content needed to be considered carefully given the time of transmission. There was no nudity in the programme,with the various participants dressed in underwear, nor were any of the scenes sexually explicit. The Panel took A Standards Panel noted that the Commission had the view that, on balance, the humour associated with previously reached a Finding which did not uphold a the scenes did much to rob them of offence, and that the complaint relating to the sexual content of this programme was unlikely to have exceeded the programme. In considering the question of the expectations of the majority of the audience. The glamorisation of crime, it was of the opinion that the interviews had helped to inform this examination of thedarker side of the Chippendales’ history and were unlikely to have exceeded the expectations of themajority of the audience. The complaint was not upheld.
The complaints summarised below were not upheld and no statement was required from the broadcaster. Complaints may not be upheld because the content was considered likely to be within the expectations of the audience for the type of programme; or the programme was appropriately labelled or scheduled, or the content was deemed acceptable within the context in which it was broadcast.
Coronation Street
The 11 O’Clock Show
Tommy Boyd
Coronation Street
Advertisement for Nintendo
The Jerry Springer Show
Channel 4 News
The Pepsi Chart
Tony Capstick
Soul Night: Soul Weekender
The Big Breakfast
Edge of Blue Heaven
A Royal Celebration
You’ve Been Framed!
North East Tonight
Coronation Street
Trail for Naked
SM:TV Live
Words with Wark
The Heaven and Earth Show
Children in Need
Trail for Naked
Loose Ends
Harry Hill
Witness: Acting Natural
Research Working Papers
Regulating for Changing Values Institute of Communication Studies; 1997 The Provision of Children’s Television in Britain: 1992-1996 Maire Messenger Davies/Beth Corbett; 1997 Bad Language - What are the Limits? Andrea Millwood Hargrave; 1998 Men Viewing ViolenceStirling Media Research Institute and Violence Research Centre, Manchester University; 1998 Sex and Sensibility Andrea Millwood Hargrave; 1999 Annual Monitoring Reports
Monitoring Report 1: 1992
Research Working Papers of the former Broadcasting Standards Council
Children, Television and MoralityDr Anne Sheppard, University of Leeds; 1990 Television and Fantasy: An Exploratory StudyCRG, Aston University; 1990 3. Morality, Television and the Pre-adolescent Research International, Young Minds; 1990 Television, Advertising and Sex Role StereotypingCRG, Aston University; 1990 Children, Television and Morality IIDr Anne Sheppard, University of Leeds; 1990 Television and Young PeopleJohn Caughie, John Logie Baird Centre, University of Glasgow; 1992 The Portrayal of Ethnic Minorities on TelevisionAndrea Millwood Hargrave, K Aisbett, M Gillespie; 1992 The Future of Children’s Television in Britain: An Enquiry for the BSCProfessor Jay Blumler; 1992 Perspectives of Women in TelevisionAndrea Millwood Hargrave, CRG, A Sreberny-Mohammadi; 1994 10. A Profile of Complainants and their Complaints 11. Perspectives of Disability in Broadcasting 12. A Review of Research on Children’s ‘Negative’ Emotional Responses to TV Andrea Millwood Hargrave, Professor J Halloran, P Gray; 1996 Please send any order and cheque to the Broadcasting Standards Commission, 7 The Sanctuary, London SW1P 3JS. A receipt will not be sent unless requested.

Source: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive/bsc/pdfs/bulletin/bulletin18.pdf


Appendices Chapter 19 Appendices APPENDIX 1: BASELINE HEALTH DATA TABLE 23: POPULATION, NUMBER OF MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS AND PHARMACIES IN THE TERRITORY OF MUNICIPAL ENTITIES IN THE SAKHALIN REGION Municipal entity Population in thousands *Number of Number of Number of outpatient pharmacies institution clinics and obstetrics *Health institutions as legal en


LICHEN PLANUS Il líchen planus è una malattia mucocutanea di origine ímmunítaria che colpisce circa l'1% della po-polazione generale. La prevalenza delle manifestazioni orali varia tra lo 0, 1 e il 2,2%. Si osserva prevalentemente in soggetti di sesso femminile (rapporto uomini/donne 2:3) in varie fasce di età a partire dai 20 anni e con una maggiore prevalenza tra i 50 e i 70 anni.

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