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Odyssey.wood.k12.wv.usOdyssey High School Biology Vocabulary
physical, or nonliving, factor that shapes an ecosystem physical, or nonliving, part of an ecosystem the closeness of a measurement to the actual value lacking a body cavitytraits that develop as a result of an organism's experiences in the worldthe energy needed to start a reaction by exciting a stable molecule and making it a reactive moleculethe energy-requiring process of moving or pumping a substance across the plasma membrane against an electrical or concentration gradient (moving from low to high to change to suit a new purposea variation in a plant or animal that increases it chance of survival in its environmentevolutionary divergence of members of a single phyletic line purine base that pairs with thymine in DNA or uracil in RNAa small gland that produces steroid hormones, adrenaline and nonadrenaline, which helps control heart rate, blood pressure roots growing from an unusual spot, like the stemcellular process of producing energy in the form of ATP and carbon dioxide from food (glucose) and oxygen; occurs in the the mixture of gases that make up the atmospherea corticosteriod hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal glandany of the various non-vascular, plant-like organisms that usually produce energy through photosynthesisfetal membrane important in the formation of the umbilical cord and placenta in mammals; also present in eggs of reptiles and birds one of the two copies of a gene the occupies the same any substance that can cause an allergycycling between haploid and diploid stages of life cycle; occurs in plants, fungi, and plant-like protists tiny air sacs at the end of a ronchoile in the lungs that provides surface area for gas exchange to occurthe basic building block of proteins. structurally made up of a carboxyl group, an amine group, a hydrogen, and an R group side chain. there are 20 natural amino acids.
the thin innermost membranous sac enclosing the developing embryo of higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds and mammals).
an egg composed of shell and membranes that create a protected environment in which the embryo can develop out of the waterany of the organisms in the protozoan Amoeba genus that are microscopic, single-celled, move by forming pseudopods, and do not have a consistent shapeany of the organisms in the protozoan Amoeba genus that are microscopic, single-celled, move by forming pseudopods, and do not have a consistent shapeany cold-blooded vertebrate typically living on land but breeding in water; aquatic larvae undergo metamorphosis into adult formcellular process of metabolizing food(glucose) without oxygen to form energy(ATP) and lactic acid; also known as fermentationstage of mitosis or meiosis where the sister chromatids begin to separate and begin move to the opposite poles of the the structure of an animal or plant or of any of its partsa vascular plant whose sex organs are enclosed by flowers and seeds are enclosed by an ovary (fruit)the eukaryotic cells that make up animal tissues. Animal cells segmented worms: earthworms; lugworms; leechesworms with cylindrical bodies segmented both internally and externallyone of a pair of mobile appendages on the head of e.g. insects and crustaceans; typically sensitive to touch and tastethe male sex organ of spore-producing plants; produces antherozoids; equivalent to the anther in flowersany of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune responsegroup of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codonany substance that stimulates an immune response in the relating to, living in or growing in watera group of bacteria that share more similarities with eukaryotes than with common bacteria; also known to have alternative ways to obtain energy and like living in alternative environmentsmicroorganisms of the Archaea domain including methane- producing, red halophilic, and acidophilic forms a female sex organ occurring in mosses, ferns, and most gymnospermsinvertebrate having jointed limbs and a segmented body with an exoskeleton made of chitinselection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organismschanging a species so that certain desirable traits are represented in the new generations; used to breed domestic dogsto reproduce by cell division, spore formation, fission, or budding without the union of individuals or gametesa lung disorder characterized by wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath caused by constriction of airways a lack of symmetrythe narrowing of the walls of the arteries caused by deposits of fatty substances especially cholesterolthe mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth or some other celestial body. It is held by the force of gravity and forms carious layers at different heights.
the basic building block of elements. Atoms are indivisible by chemical means and are composed of protons, neutrons, and electronsadenosine triphosphate; energy molecule of living things that is produced from food by respirationany chamber that is connected to other chambers or passageways (especially one of the two upper chambers of the heart).
an organism that is capable of synthesizing its own organic food molecules from only carbon dioxide, simple inorganic nitrogen, and light or ATPa long nerve process that carries nerve impulses away from the cell bodya lymphocyte derived from bone marrow that provides humoral immunity; it recognizes free antigen molecules in solution and matures into plasma cells that secrete immunoglobulin (antibodies) that inactivate the antigens a term used to describe rod-shaped bacteriaa prokaryotic microorganism without a cell membrane or nucleus. Bacteria usually reproduce by fission or spores and a virus that infects bacteriathe process of nitrogen bases pairing up when forming DNA molecules or during replication; adenine pairs with thymine (base A pairs with base T) and guanine pairs with cytosine (base G pairs with base C) form of reproductive isolation in which two populations have difference in courtship rituals or other types of behavior that prevent them from interbreedingthe muscle at the front of the upper arm that bends the elbow. The biceps has two points of attachment to the bone at one an organism that is divided into two equal partsa type of asexual reproduction in which a cell divides into genetically identical cellsa species name made up of two words: a genus and a speciesthe diversity of an environment shown by number of different a threatened or endangered location that is highly diversifiedorganic molecules, like proteins and nucleic acids, that are caused by or relating to a living organism biological influence on organisms within an ecosystemthe ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; class of gastropods known as clams and oysters any diploid cells that are part of the body that are not gametesan organ of the nervous system made up of neurons and other tissues that processes information, controls autonomic function, directs movement, and learnsthe bodily process of inhalation and exhalation; the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalationeither of the two main branches of the trachea leading to the lungsnon-flowering plants of the division Bryophyta including mosses and liverwortsa modified bud consisting of a thickened globular underground stem serving as a reproductive structurethyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bonethe act of checking or adjusting (by comparison with a standard) the accuracy of a measuring instrumentdark reactions, or light-independent reactions, of photosynthesis that use the ATP from the light reactions to convert carbon dioxide into sugar; occur in the chloroplaststhe smallest of blood vessels that connects arterioles to venules and is the sight of gas and nutrient exchange the viral protein coat that covers the virus’ genetic materiala chemical compound such as sugars or starches that is made up of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygenthe sixth element in the periodic table. carbon has six protons and is a major part of organic molecules and living things. the chemical symbol for carbon is Cflow of carbon between all living and non-living things on the group of organs and tissues responsible for transport and delivery of blood, nutrients, oxygen, wastes, and other the maximum population an area can supportelastic tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate embryos and other structures such as joints, respiratory passages, and earsa substance that lowers the activation energy of a reaction, allowing the reaction to proceed faster or more easily. the catalyst itself is not affected by the reaction.
a change to a substance that lowers the activation energy of a reaction, allowing the reaction to proceed faster or more easily. the catalyst itself is not affected by the reaction.
the smallest functional unit of a living organism that is bound by a semipermeable membrane and contains various the central part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleusthe process of cell growth, replication of genetic material, and cell division; divided into 4 parts: G1, S, G2, and mitosisthe cellular structure that surrounds the cell separating the inside of the cell from the external environment. the cell membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell. Many proteins are embedded in the cell membrane. Also, known as the process of producing new cells from parent cellsthe theory that cells are the basic building block of all living thingsthe rigid, outer structure of plant cells that gives the cells shape and strengthprocess cells use to produce carbon dioxide and energy in the form of ATP from food and oxygenthe portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cordone of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells; produces spindle fibers during cell division the area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attachedsmall region of cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus; contains the centrioles and serves to organize the microtubules.
concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of octopi, squid, cuttlefish and pearly nautilus.
the large, highly developed upper portion of the brain the green photosynthetic pigment found in plant chloroplastsa division of photosynthetic marine algae that store food as a plant organelle that contains chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesisany animal of the phylum Chordata having a notochord or spinal columnoutermost membranous sac enclosing the embryo in higher vertebratesthe complex of DNA and proteins that condenses to form chromsomes in mitosisany event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism.
DNA-containing structures in the nucleus that contains the cell’s genesprotozoan that uses hair-like microtubles for moving and feedingthe organs and tissues involved in circulating blood and lymph a tree diagram used to illustrate phylogenetic relationshipsthe systematic process of arranging things into groups or categoriesthe final stage of succession in an ecological community where a population can remain stablethe act of make identical copies of a DNA strand or organism using genetic engineeringradially symmetrical animals having saclike bodies with only one opening and tentacles with stinging structures; they occur a term used to describe sphere-shaped bacteriawhen both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism; example is human blood typesa series of three consecutive mRNA nucleotides that together code for a specific amino acid or stop/starts protein synthesis fluid filled body cavity lined with mesoderma relationship between two organisms where one benefits from but does not harm the othermost recent ancestor or species from which two different more than one population working together in an areaa situation where two or more organisms battle for a limited resourcea judgment or decision, usually about the hypothesis, that is made based on the outcome of an experiment
fusion of usually similar gametes with ultimate union of their
nuclei and sexual reproduction that occurs in most fungi and
in some algae (as green algae) b: temporary cytoplasmic
union with exchange of nuclear material that is the usual
sexual process in ciliated protozoans any tissue made up of various cells and fibers that supports, the careful use, management, protection, and preservation of a resourcean organism that can not produce its own food and must feed a substance that contaminatesa cytoplasmic vesicle in unicellular organism that collects excess water from the cell then contracts to expel the water from the cella comparative standard in an experiment by which variables are judgedthe evolutionary tendency of unrelated organisms in the same or similar environments to independently develop similar adaptations or traitsa situation where two or more organisms work together for mutual benefitthe layer of tissue external to the vascular tissue and internal to the corky or epidermal tissues of a green plant that carries watermoving one substance across a membrane while simultaneously moving another substance across that membrane; may be active or passivea thin waxy film on the surface of most plants that waterproofs that planta part (sometimes a root or leaf or bud) removed from a plant to propagate a new plant through rooting or graftingphotosynthetic bacteria that were previously classified as blue-green algae division of cytoplasm, often called cleavage, occurs after mitosischemical reactions of photosynthesis that use the ATP from the light reactions to convert carbon dioxide into sugar; also known as the Calvin Cycle or light-independent reactions, occur in the chloroplasts and do not require light information gathered, evidence from observation a cell formed by the division or budding of another cellthe ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per yearan organism that recycles organic matter back into the food the process of decay caused by bacterial or fungal actiona type of genetic mutation where one or more nucleotide bases is missing or deleted from a nucleic acid. the branching extensions of a neuron’s cell body that conduct blood lacking oxygen5-carbon sugar lacking an oxygen at the 2 position; part of to reduce significantly to the point that availability is in danger a characteristic that appears in recent parts of a lineage, but the inner layer of skin; also known as dermisan outer protective layer of cells that helps defend against injury and invasion by foreign organisms. Also known as the epidermisan arid land ecosystem with a warm climate, little rainfall, and sparse vegetationthe separation of substances in solution by means of their unequal diffusion through semipermeable membranesany of the single-celled algae that live in water and have a hard silica shella key for identifying organisms based on a series of choices between alternative charactersthe movement of a substance across a membrane following the electrical or concentration gradient (from high concentration to low concentration); does not require energy; also known as passive transport.
the organ system responsible for ingestion, digestion, absorption, and excretion of foodan order of marine planktonic protozoans that have flagella and a cellulose coveringa body cell having two haploid sets of homologous chromosomesa condition of a living animal or plant that alters or impairs normal functioning and usually exhibited by diagnostic signs and symptomsthe evolutionary tendency of organisms with a common ancestor to develop different adaptations or traits and become to be made up of many different and unique partsthe abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is the blueprint for life, is bundled into chromosomes found in the nucleus of cells and is made up of nucleotides joined together to form a complex double helix structurethe process of duplicating DNA using each strand of the double helix to create new complimentary strands; yields two DNA molecules each having one old strand and one new virus that codes DNA into RNA and then back into DNA virus with DNA as its genetic materialthe highest taxonomic category ranking above kingdom. Also, known as a superkingdoman allele that is expressed and suppresses the other recessive allelemarine invertebrates with tube feet and five-part radially symmetrical bodiesthe progressive development of a community from it’s initial stage until a climax community is establishedan ecological unit made up of an environment and the an elementary particle with negative chargethe last phase of cellular respiration in the mitochondria where electrons are transferred from carbohydrates to oxygen and ATP is produceda chemical substance made up of a single type of atom that can not be divided into simpler parts by chemical means. elements make up the periodic tablean unborn animal in the early stages of growth and the scientific study of embryos and their developmenta lung disorder characterized by shortness of breath caused by enlargement of the alveoli and loss of lung elasticityany of the glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstreamthe process of the cell bringing something from the environment in and surrounding it with the plasma membraneorganelle system of membranes within cells that transport material around the cell; two types: rough and smooththeory that eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiosis among the passing of energy from the sun throughout an ecosystema graphical method of illustrating the number and energy in the area in which something exists or lives.
complex protein that begins chemical reactions in living cells complex protein that begins chemical reactions in living cells a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowingmembranous tissue covering internal organs and other the complete destruction of every trace of something a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomachamino acids that humans must consume in their diet because they can not be synthesized by the body; essential amino acids include: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine, valine and phenylalanine the thirteen vitamins required for proper nutritiona female steroid hormone secreted by the ovaries that stimulates the development of female sex characteristics and promotes growth and maintenance of the female reproductive the philosophical study of moral values and rulesa major group of prokaryotes that includes microorganisms with simple, undifferentiated cells and rigid cell walls that are considered true bacteriaa genus of the green, single-celled algae that live in freshwater and move using a flagellumany of the green, single-celled algae that live in freshwater and move using a flagellumdomain of all organisms whose cells have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi, and animalshigher order organisms made up one or more cells with visible nuclei and organelles; examples are plants, animals, protists, classification of cell that includes nuclei the change in a population’s gene pool over generationsthe process of changing or developing through natural the bodily process of discharging waste matter.
system used to remove wastes from the body; includes urinary systemis the process of the cell sending out something throughout test done by scientist to see if a hypothesis or idea is truethe diffusion of a substance across the cell membrane with the help of a carrier. Facilitated diffusion does not require energyan organic lipid that is usually solid at room temperature. Fats are triglycerides formed from a glycerol molecule and three fatty acid moleculescellular process of metabolizing food(glucose) without oxygen to form energy(ATP) and lactic acid; also known as anaerobic respirationpart of a root system in which roots branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger than the restthe process whereby fluids pass through a filter or a filtering mediumthe initial level of a consumer; the consumer that eats the good physical condition; being in shape or in conditionwithout rigidity, to be soft or weak. In plants, occurs when water is lost from the cell and the cell loses shape a long, tail-like cellular structure that allows for movementa usually nonphotosynthetic free-living protozoan with whiplike appendages; some are pathogens of humans and other animals.
a model used to explain the structure of the cell membrane and that the phospholipids and proteins in the membrane are the process of forming a protein’s complex structure.
a series of producers and consumers in an ecosystem and how energy or food flows between thema group of interrelated food chains, producers and consumers in an ecosystem and how energy or food flows between thema groups of interrelated food chains, producers and consumers in an ecosystem and how energy or food flows between thema large land ecosystem with many large trees and significant undergrowth that usually has a moderate to cool climate and receives ample rainfalla mutation that shifts the reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide oxygen in its molecular form, O2a functioning ecological unit of a population and its environment that occurs in freshwaterany of various tailless stout-bodied amphibians with long hind limbs for leaping; semiaquatic and terrestrial speciesfollicle stimulating hormone – a pituitary hormone that stimulates follicle growth in the ovaries and sperm formation in the testeshaploid male or female germ cells that combine in sexual reproduction to form a new diploid offspringthe haploid form of an organism with alternation of generations that begins with a spore and produces a diploid snails and slugs and their relatives.
group of archaeocytes surrounded by a tough layer of spicules; produced by some spongesportion of DNA on a chromosome that is responsible for the expression and inheritance of a specific trait all the genes that exist within the members of a populationprocess of duplicating DNA. One DNA molecule produces two new molecules each containing one new strand and one old strand from the original moleculea segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is the nucleic acids contained inside the virus the genetic makeup of an organismthe form of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated physically by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains, or stretches of waterany of the 3 layers of cells differentiated in embryos following gastrulation.
opening for organ in aquatic animals specialized for the an increase in atmospheric and oceanic temperatures due pollution and the greenhouse effectfirst process in cellular respiration that converts glucose to pyruvate and produces ATPorganelle system of membranes within cells associated with sorting, modification, packaging, and transport of cell products that come from the endoplasmic reticulumpart of the evolutionary theory that states species evolve slowly and continuously over long periods of geological time the act of grafting something onto something elsea large land ecosystem with few trees that is populated by grasses and small plantsdirectional growth of a plant organ in response to gravity. Shoots exhibit negative gravitropism and grow upward. Roots exhibit positive gravitropism and grow downwardany of the gases that produce the greenhouse effect by absorbing solar radiation reflected back from the Earth tissue of plants; examples include cortex and pithone of a pair of cells that surround the stomata and control the rate of gas and water exchangethe part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anusa vascular plant that produces naked seeds that are not enclosed in an ovarythe type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occursa small tubular cavity containing the root of a hair; small muscles and sebaceous glands are associated with them.
sex cell having a single set of homologous chromosomes; haploid human cells have 23 unpaired chromosomes phototropism wherein sunlight is the stimulusthe red, iron-containing pigment of red blood cells that carry oxygen and aids in carbon dioxide transport in respiration any animal that feeds chiefly on grass and other plantsan organism that requires complex organic food molecules from autotrophs or other heterotrophs. Heterotrophs are incapable of producing their own food.
an organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition.
having different alleles or genes for a trait; also known as hybridthe ability of an organism to maintain stability, also known as equilibrium. Temperature regulation is an example of homeostasispair of chromosome with the same alleles or genes arranged in same order or positionanatomical structures that perform similar functions in different species and evolved from a common ancestorhaving identical alleles or genes for a trait; also known as purebred a biomolecule produced and released into the blood by one cell to produce an effect by binding to a receptor on another cellthe first element in the periodic table. Hydrogen has one proton, is the simplest element, is a major part of organic molecules and living things and is an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas.
type of chemical bond used to hold DNA nucleotides together; allows DNA molecule to be “unzipped” for replicationcondition where the solution surrounding a cell has a higher concentration than the concentration inside the cell; cause cells to shrink as water moves out of the cell by osmosislong structural threads that together make up the mycelium of a fungusbrain structure that acts as a control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperaturean idea that is formed and tested to explain a problem or predict an outcomecondition where the solution surrounding a cell has a lower concentration than the concentration inside the cell; cause cells to swell as water moves into the cell by osmosisany period of time during which glaciers covered a large part the electrical discharge that travels along a nerve fiberwhen one allele is not completely dominant over another; a conclusion drawn from evidencethe nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by to take in for digestioninternal portion of the mitochondrial membrane that encloses the mitochondrial matrix; has many proteins that are important for mitochondrial functiona type of genetic mutation where one or more nucleotide base is added into the normal nucleic acid strand. incapable of being dissolvedhormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas;regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates to be mutually dependent of each otherthe space between inner membrane and outer membrane in the mitochondriathe 3 stages of the cell cycle that occur between mitotic a kind of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversedcondition where the solution surrounding a cell has the same concentration as the inside of the cell; do not change the size of cells because osmotic flow in and out of the cell is equal of animals having no jaw.
the appearance, size, number, arrangement, and structure of the chromosomes in a somatic cella urinary organ that collects urine and discharges it to the bladder through the ureterthe taxonomic category ranking below domain and above phylumthe process in cellular respiration that converts pyruvate to carbon dioxide and produces ATP; also known as the citric acid cyclea functioning ecological unit of a population and its environment that occurs on landa symbiotic growth on a rock or solid surface that is made up of a fungus and an algachemical reactions in photosynthesis that use light energy to convert water to oxygen and produce ATP for use in the dark reactions; occur in the thylakoid; also known as light sensory organelle in protist; used to detect lightan ecological characteristic that tends to restrict population growthinsoluble organic molecules such as fats, oils, waxes made mostly of fatty acidsair-breathing fish having an elongated body and fleshy paired fins; certain species construct mucus-lined mud coverings in which to survive droughteither of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates; serves to remove carbon dioxide and provide oxygen to the blood.
the interconnected system of spaces and vessels between body tissues and organs by which lymph circulates throughout the bodythe reproductive cycle of a virus where the virus infects a cell and incorporates it’s own viral DNA into the cell’s DNA so that the viral DNA is replicated and transmitted to the daughter cellsorganelle containing powerful digestive enzymes used to break down cell wastes, food, or engulfed particlesthe reproductive cycle of a virus wherein the virus infects a cell, uses the cell to reproduce and assemble new viruses, and then causes cell death/lysis to release the new virionsvery large, complex molecule usually made up of protein, milk-secreting organ of female mammals.
event in which many types of living things ecome extinct at the same timearea inside the inner membrane; contains many of the enzymes and substances needed for cellular respirationthe average of all the values in a dataset calculated by adding all the values of each term in the set and dividing the total number of termsthe middle value in an ordered set of number in a data set. if there is an even number of terms in the set, the median is the average of the two middle numbersmotile stage of the life cycle of a cnidarian that has a bell- shaped bodyfirst part of meiosis that occurs after DNA replication in which the cell divides but the chromosomes do notsecond cell division of meiosis in which the 2 diploid cells produced in meiosis I divide to produce 4 haploid cellsdeveloping cells in the tips of growing stems and roots that a layer of chlorophyll-containing cellsset of chemical reactions through which organisms builds up or breaks down material as it goes through lifethe marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animalsthe stage of mitosis or meiosis where the chromatids align in the center of the cell between the spindle poles too small to be seen except under a microscoperod-shaped organelle, in all cells, that produces energy for the cell through respirationrod-shaped organelle, in all cells, that produces energy for the cell through respirationprocess of cell division where one cell divides to produce two daughter wells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell; consists of 4 stages: prophase, metaphase, the value in a dataset that occurs most oftena wooly or hair-like fungus that grows on the surface of damp or decaying mattersmallest particle of a substance that has all the properties of the substance and is made up of one or more atomsgenetic cross that consists of mating one organism that is homozygous dominant for a trait and one organism that is homozygous recessive for a trait; yield all heterozygous offspring with the dominant phenotype in the F1 generation. The F2 generation has a 3:1 ratio of heterozygous to homozygous recessive offspring.
single chemical molecules that can join together to form a polymera single sugar molecule that can not be broken into smaller, simpler sugarsa neuron that transmits nerve impulses from the CNS to the opening of the digestive system through which food entersabbreviation for messenger ribonucleic acid; is a single stranded RNA produced in transcription and used in translation as a template to produce proteinsprotective secretion of the mucous membranes; in the gut it lubricates the passage of food and protects the epithelial cells; in the nose and throat and lungs it can make it difficult for bacteria to penetrate the body through the epithelium consisting of many cells.
three or more alleles of the same gene; an example is human animal tissue consisting predominantly of contractile cellstissue that controls the internal movement of materials in the body, as well as external movementskeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle that are responsible for movement, posture, and heat productiona change in an organism’s DNA or mRNA codons. Mutations may have positive or negative results. Mutations in the gametes can be passed on to offspring.
a relationship between two organisms where both organisms the mass hyphae that forms parts of the thallus of a fungus symbiotic association of plant roots and fungi a fatty substance that covers the axon of some nerve cellsa process in nature where traits and organisms that are best adapted to the environment survive and reproduceunsegmented worms with elongated rounded body pointed at both ends; mostly free-living but some are parasiticbody system made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that sends, receives and interprets stimuli to and from the a nerve cell that is the basic unit of nervous tissuenucleotide bases adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil; otherwise known as purines or pyrimidinesin a nerve cell, a gap in the myelin sheath between which nerve impulses passa mistake in meiosis in which the homologous chromosomes do not separateplants that do not have tissues or vessels to carry sap, water, nutrients, or mineralsa flexible rodlike structure that forms the supporting axis of the body in the lowest chordates and lowest vertebrates and in embryos of higher vertebratesthe basic building block of DNA and RNA. Structurally made up of a nucleotide base, a sugar molecule, and a phosphate a small, round protein part of the nucleus where RNA is madethe basic structural group of nucleic acids made up of a ribose sugar, a nitrogen base, and a phosphatethe central part of the cell that controls the cell and contains genetic material (DNA). The nucleus has 3 parts: the nuclear envelope, the chromatin, and the nucleolusa judgment or decision, usually about the hypothesis, that is made based on the outcome of an experiment the product of reproductiona bodily structure made up of cells and tissues that performs a specific functiona group of organs that function together to perform a bodily functiona group of organs that function together to perform a bodily functiona specialized cell structure that performs a specific function such as the nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, etc.
a fertilizer that is derived from animal or vegetable mattermolecule usually composed of carbon atoms in rings or chains, to which other atoms like hydrogen, oxygen, and a living beingthe arrangement of cells, tissues, and organs into functional groups necessary to carry out bodily functionsthe diffusion of water across a cell membrane from the area of low solute concentration (high water concentration) to the area of high solute concentration (low water concentration); does not require energyoutside part of a chloroplast’s double membrane system; freely permeable to the flow of substances in and out of the chloroplastplant cell: eukaryotic cells that make up plant tissues; have cell walls and chloroplasts, but lack centriolesthe eighth element in the periodic table. Oxygen has 8 protons, is a pale blue liquid or an odorless and colorless gas that makes up 20% of atmospheric air; a key part of organic molecules and has the chemical symbol "O."the process by which oxygen is released into the atmosphere by photosynthetic organisms and is taken up by aerobic organisms while carbon dioxide is released to be taken up for photosynthesisa tall layer of column shaped mesophyll cells, under the top a freshwater protozoan that is oval shaped and ciliateda relationship between two organisms in which one harms and benefits from the otherthe movement of a substance across a membrane following the electrical or concentration gradient (from high concentration to low concentration); does not require energy; a measure of acidity or alkalinity on a scale of 0-14 where 0 is acidic, 14 is basic, and 7 is neutral.
a cell that engulfs and digests debris and invading microorganismsany state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoningthe observable appearance of an organism based upon its genotypea tissue in some plants’ vascular systems that includes sieve tubes and elongated parenchyma cells and functions in movement, support, storage and food transport PO4 group that is part of nucleic acidthe basic two-layer structure of phospholipids that form the cell membranethe process plants use to make carbohydrates and oxygen from water and from carbon dioxide in the air in the presence a family tree showing the evolutionary history of an organism a hair-like structure on the surface of a prokaryotic cellthe master gland of the endocrine system located at the base of the braineukaryotic cells that make up plant tissues; have cell walls a young or small plant.
a colorless, watery fluid made up blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended.
a circular piece of viral or bacterial DNA often used in genetic engineering to transport new genes into cells. Plasmids can replicate on their own or be added into a host’s DNAsevere shrinkage of the plasma membrane and internal contents of the cell caused by excess water loss from a plant celltiny bits of protoplasm found in vertebrate blood; essential for blood clotting flatwormsa type of genetic mutation where a single base is changed, inserted, or deletedyellow, powdery grains that contain the male reproductive transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant an insect that carries pollen from one flower to another waste matter that contaminates the water or air or soil the contamination of the environment by man-made wastesa naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomersone of two forms that coelenterates take (e.g. a hydra or coral) that is usually sedentary and has a hollow cylindrical body usually with a ring of tentacles around the mouthan organic molecule made up of several amino acids joined a large carbohydrate polymer of many monosaccharidesa group of interbreeding plants or animals of the same species that occupy a community or areagroups of interbreeding plants or animals of the same species that occupy a community or areathe ability of a measurement to be reproduced with the same outcomethe development of a community in an environment where no the steps or instructions of a processan autotrophic organism that is a source of food for consumersan autotrophic organism that is a source of food for heterotrophssubstances that are produced from reactants through a chemical reactiona female steroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum to stimulate endometrial growth. Progesterone is also secreted by the placenta during pregnancy to prevent rejection of the embryo/fetusa single celled microorganism, like bacteria, that lacks a visible nuclei or membrane-bound organellesthe beginning of mitosis or meiosis where the chromosomes condense to form two sister chromatids, the nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear, and the mitotic spindle developsa complex organic molecule made up of many amino acids joined by peptide bondsthe proteins that enclose the genetic material of a virus. The process in cell that produces proteins from DNAa diverse kingdom of eukaryotes that includes protozoans, most algae, and some fungia stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electrona body cavity between the endoderm tissue and the mesoderm tissue that is somewhat lined with mesoderm the parathyroid hormone; used to maintain body's calcium levelsa theory of evolution holding that evolutionary change in the fossil record came in fits and starts rather than in a steady process of slow changesquare table used in genetic crosses to calculate the genotypic and phenotypic ratiosa group of nitrogen bases, specifically adenine and guanine in both DNA and RNAa group of nitrogen bases, specifically thymine and cytosine in a statement to gain information by asking or inquiring similar to spokes of tire or how pizza is sliceda body plan that can be separated along any part, through the central axis, into equal partsthe outer and slightly shorter of the two bones of the human forearmthe difference between the largest and smallest value of a substances that enter a chemical reaction a cell or tissue that receives a stimulus proteins on the cell membraneallele that is suppressed by a dominant and not expressed; to be expressed, a recessive allele must be paired with another to reuse or reprocess something for reuse hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen and give blood an automatic, instinctive and unlearned reaction to a stimulus the process of generating offspringseparation of species or populations so that they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspringany cold-blooded vertebrate of the class reptilia including tortoises, turtles, snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles and something valuable or useful that is available for utilizationthe cellular process of producing energy in the form of ATP and carbon dioxide from food(glucose) and oxygen. Respiration occurs in the mitochondria. the rate at which a person inhales and exhales; usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health the group of organs and tissues responsible for respiration a single, specific reaction to stimulusany of various slender filaments that function as roots in mosses and ferns and fungi a horizontal plant stem with shoots above and roots below serving as a reproductive structurea horizontal plant stem with shoots above and roots below serving as a reproductive structurea division of marine algae that are multicelluar and usually red in colorfive-carbon sugar with an oxygen at the 2 position; part of RNA nucleotidesform of RNA found in all cells that helps decode mRNA and interacts with tRNA in translation; also known as rRNAtwo subunits of mRNA; located on rough ER or free floating in cellabbreviation for ribonucleic acid; differs from DNA because it virus that codes RNA into DNA before replication with host the network of roots a plant developsrough looking part of the endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosomes on its surface; ribosomes cause the rough looking appearancea horizontal branch from the base of plant that produces new plants from buds at its tipsany of various typically terrestrial amphibians that resemble lizards and that return to water only to breeda clear liquid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the mouth; moistens the mouth and starts the digestion of starchesThe sequence of events that occurs after a community is disturbedthe second level of a consumer; the consumer that eats the first-order consumera mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an embryo and its food source and having a protective coat or testaplants that have a vascular structure to transport water and to divide or split uphaving the body divided into successive metameres or separation of alleles that occurs in meiosisa way to improve the next generation by allowing only those individual organisms with desired characteristicsorgans or part of an organ that is sensitive to stimulus such as a nerve that transmits impulses from sensory organs to the CNSX or Y chromosome; XX is female genotype; XY is male gene which is located on the X or Y chromosomewhere haploid male or female germ cells that combine to form a new diploid offspringhard outer covering or case of certain organisms such as arthropods and turtlesthe plant stem, leaves, flowers and other structures that are usually found above groundtubular cells in the phloem that are stacked to form sieve tubesa phloem cell that is joined end to end to similar cells to form a continuous sieve tubethe diffusion of a substance across the cell membrane without the help of a carrier. Simple diffusion does not require energy two identical parts of a duplicated chromosomestriated, voluntary muscle that is used for movement and is usually attached to bonean internal network of bones and tissue that supports and gives shape to an organisma portion of the digestive system found between the stomach and colon that secretes digestive enzymes and absorbs smooth looking part of the endoplasmic reticulum that does having the ability of being dissolved in some solvent a taxonomic category referring to organisms that can reproduce with one another, have similar characteristics, and have a common gene poolviral surface proteins that participate in binding and entry into host cellsa cord of nerve tissue that runs down the spine from the brain then sends nerves out into the body and communicates a term used to describe spiral-shaped bacteriaa large dark-red oval organ on the left side of the body between the stomach and the diaphragm; produces cells involved in immune responsesan acronym for Sulfur, Phosphorus, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, the key elements that compose living thingsloose tissue beneath the palisade layer of a leaf with a lot of air space between the cellsa dormant cell or reproductive body produced by plants, fungi, and some microorganisms that can produce a new individual alone or by combining with another sporethe diploid form of an organism with alternation of generations that begins with a zygote and produces a haploid spore something that excites an organism into changing to suit a new purposea horizontal branch from the base of plant that produces new plants from buds at its tipsa portion of the digestive system found between the esophagus and the small intestine that secretes digestive enzymes and acids to break down food into smaller, absorbable partsa small opening in the bottom of a leaf that allows carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf colorless protein matrix of the chloroplast that holds the grana an event in which one thing is replaced with anotherthe progressive development of a community from it’s initial stage until a climax community is established proteins found on the surface on the viral envelope any of the glands in the skin that secrete perspiration any of the glands in the skin that secrete perspiration a close relationship between two unrelated organisms a cooperative relationship between two unlike organisms balance or similarity in body structures of organismsa gap between two neurons that a neurotransmitter crosses to carry a nerve impulselymphocytes that act to defend the body against disease by connecting foreign antigens to receptors on the surface of main root of a plant growing straight downward from the stema system of classifying organisms based on their structural, genetic, and evolutionary relationshipsdrops of the clear salty saline solution secreted by the lacrimal glandshard projections attached to the jaw that are used for tearing and chewing foodfinal phase of mitosis where the spindle disappears and the nuclear membrane reforms around each new set of chromosomes a measurement of heata tough, fibrous band of connective tissue that connects a muscle to bonepart of a belief or doctrine believed to be true by all members of the group or professionof or relating to, or characteristic of, the planet Earth or its inhabitantsa male steroid hormone secreted by the testes that stimulates the development of male sex characteristics and promotes growth and maintenance of the male reproductive system a plant or fungal body that is not differentiated into separate a plant's reaction to a touchthe third level of a consumer; the consumer that eats the second-order consumerheart with right and left atrium, but only one ventricle; occurs in amphibians and most reptilespart of chloroplast that contains chlorophyll; site of photosynthesis; stacked to form granummembrane of a thylakoid; site of the light reactions in pyrimidine base that pairs with adenine and is found in DNA located near the base of the necktwo lobbed glands that release hormones that are important for cell metabolism and normal growth and developmenthormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cellspart of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and functiona group of related cells that are joined together to form organs and structures of living organismsany of various tailless stout-bodied amphibians with long hind limbs for leaping; semiaquatic and terrestrial speciesa long, tubular, pitted xylem cell that carries water and has the process of producing mRNA from a DNA templatethe ribosomal process of translating mRNA to produce the process of passing a virus from one host to another the release of water vapor from the leaves of plants any skeletal muscle having three origins the abbreviation for transfer ribonucleic acid, the small RNA molecule that delivers amino acids to the ribosome for addition to the growing polypeptide chain a step in the food chain or food webcuplike suctions structure attached to radial canals of endinoderms, used for walking and opening shellsa fleshy underground stem or root serving for reproductive and food storagea rolling, mossy, marshy land ecosystem that has few trees to be swollen or distended. In plants, occurs when water is absorbed into the cell and the cell swells; this is “normal” to a pyrimidine base that pairs with adenine and is found in RNAto deliver a drug product intended to produce or increase immunity to an infectious diseasea cavity or vesicle in the cytoplasm of a cell that usually stores food or waterfactors or characteristics that are measured or observed in an experimentdifferences in the structure or characteristics of a single organism compared to the other members of a population or speciesplants that have tissues or vessels to carry sap, water, nutrients or mineralstissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plantsa chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteriesindividual parts of the backbone that surround and protect the animals with a backbonexylem cells that form part of a continuous tube through which water can go back and fortha small part of a functional structure that indicates shared ancestrya submicroscopic, ineffective organism made up of a protein coat covering genetic material that is only capable of reproducing in a living host cell either of two pair of folds of mucous membrane projecting into the larynxthe clear, odorless, tasteless molecule of hydrogen and oxygen that is a universal solvent and required for lifethe distribution and flow of Earth’s water through vapor, liquid, and ice phasesan area where water covers the soil or is present or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the yearblood cells that engulf and digest bacteria and fungi; an important part of the body's defense systema tissue in some plants’ vascular system that includes vessels, tracheids, or both and functions in water/mineral conduction, support and food storagenutritive material of an ovum stored for the nutrition of an embryo (especially the yellow mass of a bird or reptile egg)membranous structure enclosing the yolk of eggs in birds reptiles marsupials and some fishes; circulates nutrients to the developing embryoa flagellated protist that engulfs its food and is not
Human rights considerations with regard to pandemic influenza The last decade has seen a number of major health scares around potential outbreaks of some form of pandemic influenza. The development of responses to HIV/ AIDS established new standards in the way people were treated, including confidentiality, informed consent to testing and so on. Older, more coercive public health