Science through the Centuries
In this lesson, students participate in an historical activity Students will know:
demonstrating how current research builds on prior • Social concerns influence scientific research.
understanding, and how scientific priorities are influenced by the social and health concerns of the time. This is a “jigsaw” • Scientific advancements build off prior knowledge gained activity in which students are first divided into four different time period groups (1700s, 1800s, 1900s, and 2000s) to Students will be able to:
discuss social concerns and medical technology of the time. Each time period is seen through the eyes of four individual • Explain how basic research leads to cures and treatments characters: a citizen, a medical practitioner, a person
with Type I Diabetes, and a scientist. The students then
• Give examples of how serendipity plays a part in science.
regroup by character roles to compare themes over time.
Lastly, students are introduced to translational research
and see that, in many cases, basic research and the resulting application to human health are many decades apart.
Student Handout 3.1—Science through Two class periods of 55 minutes each.
3.1—Science through the Centuries Student Handout 3.2—Homework: Ask • Scientific and educational priorities are influenced by the Teacher Resource 3.1—Science through social and health concerns of the time.
the Centuries Cards (see Teacher • The history of science shows that curiosity-driven basic research paves the way for heath treatments and medical 1 copy is needed for a class with up to 16 advances, even though there may be decades between the students; 2 copies are needed for a class basic research and its resulting application to human health. • Translational research is the process of connecting basic research (“bench” science) to applied research
Science through the Centuries Slide SetSerendipity—making fortunate discoveries by accident—
plays a part in the scientific process.
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2. Divide the class into four or eight groups. Each group will represent a different century: the 1700s, 1800s, 1900s, and Activities
2000s. Assign a century to each group. For larger classes, Students meet in time period groups.
two groups can represent the same time period. [Note: Divide the class into four groups for a class up with
up to 16 students. For a class with up to 32 students, 3. Tell students that they will be looking at four representative Introduction of translational research.
people, or characters, from each time period (a citizen,
a medical practitioner, a scientist, and a person with
The timing for this lesson is flexible. It is suggested that diabetes). Through these people, four themes will be
students complete the jigsaw portion on Day One, and • Who pays for education? Who is educated during this time period? How is scientific research funded? • Which diseases are prevalent during this time? How is science addressing those diseases? A common student misconception is that medicines, cures, and treatments can be discovered and made available in a • How do scientific discoveries build off previous work? • How is the specific disease example of diabetes Students may think that science is marching on towards identified and treated during this time period? “truth.” Although this lesson shows a rather linear 4. For each group, hand out the Science through the progression of scientific thought, make sure that students Centuries cards, found on Teacher Resource 3.1, know that scientific knowledge, in any given era, can be changed and replaced in the following era.
5. Make sure that students know that, though the cards may represent real people or historical figures and are historically accurate, the first person statements were fictionalized.
• Make copies of Student Handout 3.1—Science through 6. Allow time for students to read the information on their the Centuries and Student Handout 3.2—Homework: Ask group’s cards and discuss it with their group members.
7. The first batch of slides in the Science through the • To show the PowerPoint slide set, prepare the computer Centuries Slide Set contains select pictures from each time and projection unit. Download the Science through the period. Share these slides with students.
Optional: If time permits, have each time period group
• Copy the cards found on Teacher Resource 3.1—Science research everyday aspects of life from their time period. What through the Centuries Cards. It is helpful, but not necessary, does a typical house look like? What amenities are included to copy each century onto a different color paper. Make one (i.e., electricity or plumbing)? What do people wear? copy for a class with up to 16 students or two copies for a class with up to 32 students. Cut up the cards.
8. Have each student in the group choose a character to represent (the citizen, the medical practitioner, the
scientist, or the person with diabetes) for the next section.
Part II: Character Groupings
Part I: Time Period Groupings
9. Reorganize groups so that all of the citizens across all time
1. Tell students that they will be participating in an activity periods are in one group, all the medical practitioners
that explores how social concerns have influenced scientific are in one group, all the scientists are in one group, and
knowledge and research over the last few centuries. Students all the people with diabetes are in one group. For larger
will also map connections between current scientific classes, teachers can have two groups for each character.
discoveries and scientific knowledge from years past.
Northwest Association for Biomedical Research | SOCIAL NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
10. Pass out copies of Student Handout 3.1—Science through while holding on to her end. (She is connected to a number the Centuries, one per student.
of people. For example, she is connected to all the people 11. Tell students that each character group will focus on a theme: with diabetes who came before her and paved the way for research; she is connected to the medical practitioner of Citizens: Who pays for education? Who is educated
her time; she has benefitted from work done by Jonas Salk, during this time period? How is scientific research funded? • Medical Practitioners: Which diseases are prevalent
The person she tosses the yarn to (Jonas Salk, for during this time? How is science addressing those diseases? example) should hold on to a piece of the yarn and then • Scientists: How do scientific discoveries build off
pass the ball of yarn on to someone else he is connected to, such as Louis Pasteur. With some creativity, all the people in the circle can eventually be linked by the yarn, • Person with Diabetes: How is diabetes identified and
creating an interconnected web. This web represents how treated during this time period?
citizens’ needs can drive scientific research, how research 12. Allow time for students to share each individual’s can spur new medical practices, how medical practices biographical information within their character group. can benefit citizens and patients, and how patients value Students should share in chronological order. As each character shares, the other students in the group should 18. Students may return to their seats.
fill out the row representing the character on Student Handout 3.1—Science through the Centuries.
13. After the characters have shared, have each group identify any trends over time they observe. These trends can be
Part IV: What Does the Future Hold?
written down in the space provided on the handout.
[Note: Field test teachers report that this discussion may
Part III: Class Sharing and Interconnections
take a lot of time. Please dedicate as much (or as little) time to this section as you have available, leaving enough 14. Select one student representing the citizen from
class time for instruction about translational research and each time period to come to the front of the room and summarize the information on his or her card. Students should present in chronological order. The second batch 19. Ask students, “What do you think the future holds?” or of slides in the Science through the Centuries Slide Set “What trends from the past may predict future directions?” contains the information from the cards.
If students have a difficult time envisioning the future, a corollary question is, “How do films and television shows 15. Students not presenting should fill out the corresponding portray the future? What are some of the social and section of Student Handout 3.1—Science through the scientific trends other people envision?” Centuries either individually or as a class. Suggested answers and discussion prompts can be found on Possible Answers to Some possible future social/educational trends include:
Student Handout 3.1—Science through the Centuries.
• Life expectancy is predicted to increase for both men 16. After the citizens have presented, invite the medical
practitioners to present in the same way. Repeat the
• Health care advances may become too expensive for sequence with the scientists and then people with
• Climate changes may stress national economies 17. Optional: When all sixteen characters have presented,
and cause more people to move from rural areas, have them stand in a circle facing each other. Hand a ball of yarn to the student representing Aubrey Mathwig • Education will likely be more technology based, and ask the question: “Who is Aubrey connected to?” or though funding is always going to be a challenge. If not addressed, educational disparities may increase Aubrey should explain why/how she is connected to one based on disparate access to resources globally.
other person in the circle and toss the yarn to that person Northwest Association for Biomedical Research SOCIAL NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH | 45
Some possible scientific and health-related trends include:
Applied research relates to human health care
• An aging population means an increase in chronic disease. applications in the form of treatments or cures of human diseases. This is often done by for-profit companies.
• Cancer cases are expected to double in most countries during the next 25 years, but earlier The process of connecting basic research to applied medicine or detection and treatment may allow people to live with treatment is called translational research. This is sometimes
described as “From Bench to Bedside”—from the scientist’s laboratory bench to the physician’s bedside care of a patient. • As the genetic component of disease becomes known, health care will become more personalized and increasingly rely on genetic tests and genetic counseling. “…the concerted effort to discover new drugs without supporting basic research is like ‘trying to construct a • DNA microchips containing a person’s full genome skyscraper without fully understanding the properties of might become a common part of an individual’s medical file. These chips can help assess individual risks for developing different cancers as well as heart Part VI: Serendipity and Collaboration
• Medical research may increasingly rely on large databases containing the genomes of different populations. 23. Define for students the word serendipity: making
• Medical sensors located under the skin may fortunate discoveries by accident, as when people discover continually monitor the health of an individual and valuable things they were not actually looking for. Ask communicate wirelessly with databases and health students for examples of serendipity in science. (Two examples can be found in the Note to Teacher section at the end of this lesson.) One of the most famous examples • Stem cells might be used to create genetically of serendipity in science is Alexander Fleming’s “accidental” identical replacement organs for transplant patients, discovery that penicillin mold kills bacteria. 24. Collaboration and Revision: Highlight the ways in which
scientists have built upon and revised each other’s work even 20. Explain that the path of scientific advancement is full of if it is not explicitly described in the cards. Point out that missteps, dead ends, and errors. Yet, over time, it has the health treatments and cures do not occur independently capacity to correct itself. With this in mind, ask students from other scientific research but may owe their success what they think we believe today that future generations to years, if not decades, of prior work by other scientists. Science is a collaborative endeavor, even over time.
Part V: Translational Research
21. Tell students that scientists conducting curiosity-driven 25. Return with students to the 1700s and read for them research into the fundamental nature of science often this quote from a satirist of the time who described set the foundation for discoveries that lead to actual cures or treatments for disease in later years. In many “…a Sot, that has spent £2000 in Microscopes, to find out cases, the basic research and the application to
the nature of Eels in Vinegar, Mites in Cheese, and the Blue of human health were many decades apart.
Plums which he has subtly found out to be living creatures.” 22. Tell students that scientific research is sometimes put into Without an understanding that Hooke’s early work would directly (and indirectly) contribute to Pasteur’s germ theory, • Basic research furthers general scientific understanding
Fleming’s discovery of antibiotics, and many other scientific of how the natural world works. This is quite often advancements, basic research at the time may seem unconnected to subsequent important cures and treatments.
Northwest Association for Biomedical Research | SOCIAL NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
26. Share with students this quote attributed to Isaac Newton had disappeared. Drs. Leslie Gay and Paul Carliner tested the and ask how it pertains to today’s lesson: drug on other patients who suffered from travel sickness, and “If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders all were completely freed of discomfort, provided the drug was taken just before beginning the potentially nauseating journey. A large-scale clinical trial involving a troopship with 27. Have students retrieve their Unit Graphic Organizer more than 1,300 soldiers crossing the rough North Atlantic handouts and look at the second column, titled “Role for twelve days (Operation Seasickness) decidedly proved of Science and Society.” Ask students, “What are the the drug’s value in preventing and relieving motion sickness. structures, systems, or ways in which society influences Dramamine is still used today, available over the counter.” what science is done or how it is paid for?” Students should From: Meyers, M. A. (2007). Happy accidents: Serendipity brainstorm and write down phrases such as: in modern medical breakthroughs. New York, NY: Arcade • Social needs (i.e., diseases of the time) influence “The long-awaited breakthrough [in learning how to freeze and • Society funds education and research it values.
thaw tissues] was a lucky accident. In 1947, a British scientist 28. Ask students if they have anything to add to other named Christopher Polge was searching for ways to freeze, columns. Suggest that students add “serendipity” to the store, and revive chicken sperm, a potential boon to farmers. “Research Process” column. To the “Translational Research” Polge tried immersing the fowl gametes in a fructose solution, which didn’t work very well—until one day, mysteriously, it did. Analysis of the curiously effective solution revealed that its label • Basic science may lead to new cures and treatments.
had somehow been switched. The bottle actually contained 29. Lastly, look at the last column, “Being a Scientifically glycerol, not fructose. Glycerol seemed to be such an effective Literate Citizen.” Ask students how their understanding of cryoprotectant that it’s still employed in biobanks for preserving the role of science and society impacts them as members of blood cells and fluids like saliva and urine. ” society. Discuss their responsibility to be scientifically literate From: Silberman, S. (2010, May 24). Libraries of flesh: The sorry in their role as a members of society and add those
state of human tissue storage. Wired Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/magazine/2010/05/ff_biobanks/all/ Student Handout 3.2—Homework: Ask Your Elders can be assigned as homework. In this activity, students interview a Applied research: Research that relates to human health
person in their mid-fifties or older to learn about changes in care in the form of treatments or cures of human diseases. medical care and/or treatments during that person’s lifetime.
Applied research is often conducted by for-profit companies.
Basic research: Research that furthers general scientific
understanding of how the natural world works. This is often academic research.
Students can explore an interactive, historical timeline of medical discoveries created by the New England Journal of Medicine.
Serendipity: The phenomenon of making fortunate
discoveries by accident, or discovering valuable things History of Medical Discoveries
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1114819 Translational research: The process of connecting basic
research to applied medicine or treatment; sometimes described as “From Bench to Bedside.” There are many examples of serendipity in science—here are two:
“At the Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1947, two allergists gave a new antihistamine, Dramamine, to a patient suffering from hives. Some weeks later, she was pleased to report to her doctors that the car sickness she had suffered from all her life Northwest Association for Biomedical Research SOCIAL NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH | 47
Sattley, M. (2008). The history of diabetes. Retrieved from http://www.diabeteshealth.com/read/2008/12/17/715/the- Campbell, D. (2009, June 24). Possible cure found for Crohn’s disease. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.
guardian.co.uk/society/2009/jun/24/crohns-disease-cure Scotsman.com (2011, May 7). Revolutionary cell transplant ends mother’s 32-year battle with diabetes. Retrieved Cox, L. (2009, December 14). We will live longer in 2050, from http://www.scotsman.com/news/Revolutionary-cell- study predicts. ABC News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.
go.com/Health/ActiveAging/humans-live-longer-2050-scientists-predict/story?id=9330511 Smith, B. and Smith, K. Discovery of cells and the development of cell theory. Retrieved from http://www.
Davis, L. (2009). Ten science stories that changed our decade. Retrieved from http://io9.com/5430073/ten-science-stories-that-changed-our-decade United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011). [Graph with estimated and Defeat Diabetes Foundation, Inc. (2013, April 5). History projected world population 1950-2100]. World Population of Diabetes in Timeline. Retrieved from http://www.
Prospects: The 2010 Revision, New York. Retrieved from defeatdiabetes.org/about_diabetes/text.asp?id=Diabetes_Timeline http://esa.un.org/wpp/Analytical-Figures/htm/fig_1.htm Forsyth, K., Brooks, A., Hodges, L., Carrico, J., and Hilton, University of Washington School of Medicine. Tumor Vaccine J. Causes of death. From a presentation to PHI 350 (Death, Group Directory. Retrieved from http://depts.washington.edu/ Dying and the Quality of Life), University of Kentucky. tumorvac/directory/principal-invesitagors/disis-mary-l-nora Retrieved from http://www.uky.edu/Classes/PHI/350/cod.htm Waggoner, B. (2001, January 20). Robert Hooke (1635-1703). Gee, E.M. (2013). Life expectancy. In Encyclopedia of death Retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/hooke.html and dying. Retrieved from http://www.deathreference.com/Ke-Ma/Life-Expectancy.html World Health Organization. (2011). The top 10 causes of death (Media Centre Fact Sheet #310). Retrieved from http:// A. Jogalekar (2011, July 8). Lost in translation [Web log www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/index.html comment]. Retrieved from http://www.scilogs.eu/en/blog/lindaunobel/2011-07-08/lost-in-translation 1700-1900 The miracle of life and death appears smaller. and smaller. In Access Excellence. Retrieved from http://www.
Kirby, M. (2002). Fifty years of diabetes management in accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/1750-1900.php primary care. British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, 2 (6), 457-461. Retrieved from https://secure.sherbornegibbs.
A history of education in America. In AllSands. Retrieved from http://www.allsands.com/potluck4/educationhistor_zlr_gn.htm Lambert, T. (2012). A history of medicine. In Everyday life History of Diabetes – My Big Fat Greek Wedding? Retrieved through the ages. Retrieved from http://www.localhistories.
from http://www.diabeteswellbeing.com/history-diabetes.html NNDB Mapper. Retrieved from http://www.nndb.com Lowy, S. Douglas R. Lowy: Advancing the field of cancer research. Retrieved from https://www.amherst.edu/campaign/amherstlives/amherstlives/douglas_lowy Riley, J. C. (2005). Estimates of regional and global life expectancy, 1800–2001. Population and Development Review, 31: 537–543. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.
wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00083.x/pdf Sanders, L.J. (2002). From Thebes to Toronto and the 21st century: An incredible journey. Diabetes Spectrum, 15 (1), 56-60. Retrieved from http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/15/1/56.full Northwest Association for Biomedical Research | SOCIAL NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Science through the Centuries
Name____________________________________________________________ Date_______________ Period_______________ Summary:
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Northwest Association for Biomedical Research | SOCIAL NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Homework: Ask Your Elders
Name____________________________________________________________ Date_______________ Period_______________ Instructions: Find a person in their mid-fifties or older to interview. This can be a relative, neighbor, friend, or acquaintance.
Tell the person you are interviewing that you will be asking questions about changes she has seen in medical care or medical
treatment in her lifetime.
1. Did you or a family member have a memorable illness when you were young? What was it, and how was it treated? 2. Where there any diseases that “everyone got” or seemed very prevalent? What were they, and how where they treated? 3. Describe a typical visit to the doctor’s office. How often did you go? Did you see one doctor or many doctors? How 4. Describe a typical visit to the doctor’s office today. Do these visits differ from those in your youth? Northwest Association for Biomedical Research SOCIAL NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH | 51
5. What types of treatments or cures were common for different diseases in your youth? 6. Do you have any other thoughts on this subject? [Students: Please take notes on any discussion on a separate piece of
Northwest Association for Biomedical Research | SOCIAL NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Possible Answers for STUDENT HANDOUT 3.1
Science through the Centuries
Education is still privately By the end of the 1900s, education (freely available is provided in most male, most often farmers, paid for through public reading and writing skills. ground as more people Boys are better educated higher education. Future Summary:
Education becomes more and more accessible to the common person as public schools, funded by taxpayers, become available. Society supports an educated citizenry.
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become less of a concern other chronic diseases for cures and treatments. to chronic diseases such root cause of disease (i.e., discoveries (cell theory, germ theory, antiseptics, during this time. prior research to improve As scientists better still a global problem, and emerging conditions Infectious diseases are like HIV/AIDS create a need for research in these many researchers work areas.
Fewer people die from infectious diseases and more people begin to die from to chronic diseases in developed countries. (This section also shows how the prevalent theories of the time influence diagnosis and treatment. For example, physicians who believe illness is caused by an imbalance in the four humors would not acknowledge the existence of germs as the cause of illness.) Scientific research priorities shift to reflect needs.
Northwest Association for Biomedical Research | SOCIAL NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Robert Hooke depended Louis Pasteur relied Pasteur. The microscope building on the findings microscope. Though not was building on the mentioned in the lesson, technological work Hooke also reviewed the of Robert Hooke and Summary:
Though a scientist may not know how his research will be applied in the future, new scientific knowledge and technological developments often propel the research process forward.
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How is diabetes not have been diagnosed diagnosed. In this case, the patient had access to is established, and medical care, but without treatments, though name but no meaningful knowing the underlying diabetes. Effects of the delivery mechanisms how the pancreas stops producing enough insulin Summary:
As the medical/research community learned more about the underlying cause of diabetes, targeted treatments could be developed. The life expectancy of people with diabetes has increased.
Northwest Association for Biomedical Research | SOCIAL NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Science through the Centuries Cards
My name is Mary Walker and I am a typical citizen of the 1700s. I am 16 years old. I have two
older sisters, a younger brother, and two siblings who died as babies. Most people are farmers, and
many boys go to school, at least for a few years. I was taught some at home, but many of my friends
don’t know how to read or write. If my brother wants more school, he’ll have to go into the ministry
because the church supports most education. This isn’t likely, though, because somebody will have to
take over the family farm.
My name is Isaac Dawson and I practice medicine. Many people in our community (about one in three)
die as infants or toddlers. If you live to be a teenager, you have a good chance of living to be as old as
50 or 60. Most of my patients die of smallpox, cholera, bubonic plague, scarlet fever, or tuberculosis. I
believe that illness is caused by bad air or an imbalance of blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile in
the body. I use treatments that have been around for thousands of years, such as herbs, suction cups,
and “bleeding” to cure disease.
My name is Robert Hooke. I was educated at home in England by my father, a churchman, and sent
away to school at the age of 13. I am an old man now, but I’ve seen lots of scientific advancements. Our
lens grinding techniques are now good enough to make two important research tools: telescopes and
microscopes. Using a microscope, I was able to see very small things such as plant “cells.” The public
doesn’t always understand my work, though, and I have been publicly ridiculed for spending so much
money on microscopes just to see “mites in cheese.” I think this is important work that may change
science and medicine!
My name is Elizabeth Snell and I am 27 years old. My husband is a farmer. I’ve had eight children,
though only four are living now – one boy and three girls. One baby died before he was a week old, and
I lost two children to smallpox when it spread through our village this year. My second son, though, that
was the strangest thing. William was always hungry and we could hardly get enough food to feed him,
but he stayed so skinny. He complained all the time of being tired and one day couldn’t get out of bed. Maybe his body had too much black bile, I don’t know. One evening we couldn’t wake him up and by morning he was gone.
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My name is Samuel Christian and I am a typical citizen of the 1800s. I am an old man at the age of 52.
I am a farmer, but our family’s land was not big enough to support everybody, so my younger brothers
and their families moved to the city years ago to work in a factory. They are making a living, but I hear
that they all live crammed together in one small apartment. I can read and write some, but it’s mostly
the landowners and wealthy people who are truly “educated” since they are the only people who can
afford it. I’ve heard that free public elementary education might be available for all American children
soon—now that more people are moving to cities, some people think that free education will create
good citizens, unite society, and prevent crime and poverty.
My name is Joseph Lister, and I am a well-educated surgeon. Most people of this time die from
diseases such as smallpox, cholera, scarlet fever, or tuberculosis. As a surgeon, I see a lot of women and
babies die from infections after childbirth. I have heard of Louis Pasteur’s work with “germs” and think
they could be the cause of infection, not chemical changes due to “bad air” as most people think. Right
now, many of the surgeons I work with don’t even wash their tools or hands between surgeries. I’m now
working on an antiseptic to kill germs on surgical tools, which may reduce infections from operations.
Thanks to microscopes, one of my colleagues has discovered that both tuberculosis and cholera are
caused by small living things—bacteria.
[Note: The popular antiseptic mouthwash Listerine is named after Joseph Lister.]
My name is Louis Pasteur and I am the son of a French tanner. My wife and I had five children, but
three of them died of typhoid. After that heartache, I have dedicated my life to curing disease, and I
would like to thank my university, which often gave me financial support for my studies. Many people
still think that disease is caused by bad air, but I have proven that disease is caused by microscopic
organisms. I’m calling them “germs.” I think these germs are also responsible for spoiling milk and beer.
I’m now working on a vaccination for rabies and for anthrax, which kill many domestic animals. Without
microscopes and people like Robert Hooke who pioneered them, I wouldn’t be able to do this work.
[Note: The process of pasteurizing milk is named after Louis Pasteur.]
Hello, I am Mary Roberts and I am 14 years old. My father is a banker. My mother mostly entertains,
but lately she hasn’t even been doing that. That’s because my eight year old sister got sick. The doctor
came a couple of months ago and he said she has the diabetes. Since then, they have tried giving her
opium and bleeding her with leeches. Now, the doctor won’t let my mother feed her hardly anything
– just some broth and black coffee. I’m not allowed to go in her room any more but I peeked in this
morning. She doesn’t look good! Her eyes are closed and she is real skinny.
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My name is Pearl McKinley and I am a citizen of the 1900s. I’m 96 now and I’ve seen a lot of changes!
I grew up on a small family farm, but now most people rely on manufacturing jobs. Think of all the
things that have been invented in my lifetime: television, credit cards, cell phones, dishwashers, contact
lenses, ball point pens, frozen pizza, cars, microwave ovens, CDs, computers, fast food…the list goes
on and on. When I was born, only about six percent of the population graduated from high school.
Now, about 85 percent do! More and more people go to college now, too. Every child in the U.S. can
get a free education now, at least through high school, because public schools are supported by the
My name is Alexander Fleming and I am a medical doctor. It’s not uncommon now for people to live
until their mid-70s or later, at least in developed countries. During World War I, I saw how easily deep
wounds became infected, even though we used sterilization techniques developed by Joseph Lister
and others. After the war, I began looking for antibacterial agents that would lead to a treatment. After
accidentally leaving bacteria cultures to mold, I noticed that the colonies closest to the mold had been
destroyed. This led to the discovery of penicillin which has become an early antibiotic and eventually led to
treatments for scarlet fever, cholera, tuberculosis, bubonic plague, and other diseases. I, Alexander Fleming,
will die of a heart attack as will many others. Chronic diseases involving the heart and respiratory systems
will take their toll as people live longer. Cancer will also affect people all over the world.
My name is Jonas Salk. and I was born to immigrants who were determined that I would have a good
education. I went to public schools and was the first in my family to go to college. I attended a college
in New York for students from working class, immigrant families, then on to medical school. During
work on a project funded by a foundation (known as the March of Dimes), my research team and I
developed the first effective vaccine against polio. Other researchers developed vaccines for smallpox,
measles, mumps, rubella, and many other diseases reducing deaths and disfigurement drastically
during this time period. We are all building on the early vaccine work of Louis Pasteur and others.
My name is James Walker. I am 25 years old. I was diagnosed with diabetes when I was 16 years old,
in 1948. Doctors now know that diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin, so I watch what I eat and use
insulin to control my blood sugar, which is really difficult. I have to give myself insulin shots several times
a day; then the needle and syringe need to be washed and sterilized in boiling water. It’s a big needle,
too! I even have to sharpen it regularly. The only way to really know my blood sugar levels is to go to the hospital. Once I got a sore on my foot that turned into an ulcer, and I didn’t even know it! The doctor said if I had waited any longer to see him I might have lost my foot. At least I’m not allergic to the insulin I use; I’ve read about some people who are. Northwest Association for Biomedical Research SOCIAL NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH | 59
My name is Andrew Hayes and I am a typical citizen of the 2000s. In the U.S. now, most workers
provide some sort of service like health care, education, business, or retail. In developing countries,
many people farm, though other types of jobs are becoming more common as developed countries
move industries overseas. In the U.S., most people graduate from government-supported public high
school, and the majority go on to college or trade school, too, though they may have to pay for part
or all of it. Online education is becoming more popular and people now get a lot of their information
through technology.
My name is Dr. Douglas Lowy. Our global life expectancy is about 67 years, though it is not uncommon
for people in developed countries to live into their nineties. After studying art history and French and
getting my medical degree, I began a career in basic science research at the National Cancer Institute
(NCI). My work eventually led to two vaccines for cervical cancer. I am familiar with the work of Dr.
Nora Disis
, who is also working with cancer vaccines. All my work is federally funded through the NCI.
As people are living longer, chronic diseases are the source of many health issues. Worldwide, the top
health-related causes of death are heart disease and stroke, respiratory infections, pulmonary disease,
diarrheal disease, and HIV/AIDS. Diabetes is the ninth cause of death globally. More health concerns are
related to diet and access to healthy foods and clean water.
My name is Dr. Nora Disis and I am a medical doctor and researcher interested in women’s health,
specifically breast and ovarian cancer. I discovered a tumor antigen which led me to develop cancer
vaccines. In the past, vaccines made by famous researchers like Jonas Salk (1900s) fought infectious
diseases like smallpox and polio, so my work using vaccines against cancer is pretty new! I work with the
Tumor Vaccine Group in Seattle and rely on research grants from the U.S. government along with many
other funding sources.
My name is Aubrey Mathwig. I am 25 years old and have Type I Diabetes. I was diagnosed a few
years ago when I was drinking two gallons of water every day but was extremely thirsty at all hours.
I also was losing weight rapidly and was exhausted all the time. Things in my life have changed since
then. First, I have to monitor my blood sugar throughout the day, every day, which can get tedious.
I also have to give myself a shot of insulin each time before I eat, and once before bed. I have to be
prepared at all times by traveling with insulin, needles, etc., along with a fast-acting carbohydrate in
case my blood sugar gets low. Even with this disease, my future is bright as long as I consistently keep
on top of my blood sugar levels and take good care of myself.
Northwest Association for Biomedical Research | SOCIAL NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Source: https://www.nwabr.org/sites/default/files/3Science_through_Centuries_SNoSR_0.pdf


TO: Pharmacies, Physicians, Physician Assistants, Nurse Practitioners, Oral Surgeons, Optometrists, Dentists, FQHCs, RHCs, Mental Health Service Providers and Nursing Homes RE: Pharmacy/Preferred Drug Program Updates Effective July 1, 2013, the Alabama Medicaid Agency will: 1. Make changes to its current policy regarding compound prescriptions and reimbursement for bulk produ

Interpretation du genotype

September 2013- Version n°23 ANRS - AC 11: RESISTANCE GROUP GENOTYPE INTERPRETATION: NUCLEOSIDE AND NUCLEOTIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS Mutations associated with resistance Mutations associated with « possible resistance » • T215Y/F • T215A/C/D/E/G/H/I/L/N/S/V [1, 2, 3, 4] • At least 3 mutations among: M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215A/C/D/E/G/H/I/L/N

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