Asthma Induced by Isocyanates: a Model of IgE-independent Asthma Cristina E. Mapp, Piera Boschetto, Deborah Miotto, Edoardo De Rosa Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Hygiene and Occupational Medicine, University of Ferrara Abstract. Developments in the understanding of causes and natural history of asthma induced by isocyanates may allow improved preventive strat
Nutsforlife.com.auAlmonds are a versatile tree nut. They come whole, blanched,
slivered, flaked and ground, so make a useful ingredient adding
texture and taste to meals. Plus, like fruit and vegetables, almonds
are packed with vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phytochemicals
beneficial to health. Enjoying a handful of nuts (30–50g) regularly as
part of a healthy diet may reduce your risk of heart disease and type 2
diabetes and can help with weight management.1–5 So eat two serves of fruit,
five serves of veggies and a handful of nuts every day. A 30g serve of almonds is
about 20 nuts. Have you had yours today?
Health benefits of almonds
• Reduces oxidative stress – a study
Here’s why almonds, like all nuts, are a • Rich source of healthy fats – almonds
• Contains natural plant sterols6 which
reducing cholesterol reabsorption in the to the cells in our body and is believed proportion of saturated fat (7% of total fat).6 Like all other plant foods, they are • Source of plant protein particularly
amino acid arginine – almonds
• Excellent source of natural vitamin E
– almonds are high in vitamin E with a • Anti-inflammatory effects –
to nitric oxide in the body. Nitric oxide Nutrient content of
• Improves blood cholesterol – almonds
lower total and ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol cholesterol reducing effects may explain which was also low in saturated fat, and • Prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol
in the diet for a month led to a reduction For further information on the nutritional www.nutsforlife.com.au
or for specific information on almonds go to arteries. Almond skins are a rich source www.australianalmonds.com.au
of antioxidants called polyphenols,12–13 Government for R&D activities through 2012 Horticulture Australia Ltd for Nuts for Life Almonds
Almonds also .
Buying and storage tips
• Contain calcium – a 30g serve of
When choosing nuts, look for crisp, plump or freezer. Nuts can be refrigerated for up kernels. If buying them in the shell, select clean nuts free from cracks and holes. To keep nuts in the best condition, store them those that can’t eat or don’t like dairy.
in an airtight container in the refrigerator • Contain plant iron and zinc6 –
8 ways to include almonds in your diet
anyone following a vegetarian diet. Increase the absorption of plant iron ¼ Team them with dried figs for a tasty calcium-rich snack.
¼ Sprinkle flaked almonds on your breakfast cereal.
rich foods such as citrus fruit or juices.
¼ Toss a handful in your favourite stir-fry.
¼ Almond meal or ground almonds make a great flourless cake.
• Benefit digestive health – natural
¼ Try almond butter as a tasty alternative to butter or margarine on toast and crackers. almonds are a source of dietary fibre which is important for a ¼ Home-made almond biscotti – a healthy alternative to commercial sweet biscuits. ¼ Mix natural yoghurt with berries and top with chopped almonds, pepitas and ¼ Slivered almonds make a great crunchy topping for salads. has also shown that almonds may have potential as a prebiotic17 – these are References
1. Albert CM et al. Nut consumption and decreased risk of sudden cardiac death in the Physicians Health Study. Arch Intern Med, 2002;162(12):1382–7. which stimulate the growth of beneficial 2. Ellsworth JL, et al. Frequent nut intake and risk of death from coronary heart disease and all causes in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women‘s Health Study. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease 2001;11(6):372–7.
• Improve blood glucose control –
3. Hu FB, et al. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal 1998;317(7169):1341–5.
4. Fraser GE, et al. A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. Arch Intern 5. Jiang R, et al. Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Journal of the American Medical Association 2002;288(20):2554–60.
occurs after eating.15, 18, 21–23 One study 6. Nuts for Life. 2012 Nutrient Composition of Tree Nuts. Sydney: Nuts for Life; 20127. National Health & Medical Research Council. Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Department of Health & Ageing 2006. www.nrv.gov.au 8. Ros E. Nuts and novel biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1649S–56S9. Jenkins DJ, et al. Dose response of almonds on coronary heart disease risk factors: blood lipids, oxidized low- density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and pulmonary nitric oxide: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Circulation. 2002;106(11):1327–1332.
10. Jenkins DJ, et al. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. JAMA. 2003;290(4):502–510.
11. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, et al. Direct comparison of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods with a statin in hypercholesterolemic participants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(2):380–387.
12. Chen CY, et al. Effect of almond skin polyphenolics and quercetin on human LDL and apolipoprotein B-100 oxidation and conformation. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18(12):785–794. 13. Chen CY, et al. Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. J Nutr. 2005;135(6):1366–1373.
14. Li N, et al. Almond consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in male smokers. J Nutr. 15. Jenkins DJ, et al. Almonds decrease postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative damage in healthy individuals. J Nutr. 2006;136(12):2987–2992.
• Help with weight loss – although high
16. Rajaram S, et al. Effect of almond-enriched high-monounsaturated fat diet on selected markers of inflammation: a randomised, controlled, crossover study. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(6):907–12. 17. Mandalari G, et al. Potential Prebiotic Properties of Almond (Amygdalus communis L.) Seeds. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2008;74(14):4264–4270.
lead to weight gain and in fact can help 18. Josse AR, et al. Almonds and postprandial glycemia--a dose-response study. Metabolism. 2007;56(3):400–404.
19. Wien MA, et al. Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 20. USDA Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2 (2010) cited http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=15866 21. Cohen AE, et al. Almond ingestion at mealtime reduces postprandial glycemia and chronic ingestion reduces energy controlled diet, were able to lose hemoglobin A(1c) in individuals with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2011;60(9):1312–7.
22. Mori AM, et al. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2011;8(1):6. had better cholesterol levels.26 Recently 23. Li SC, et al. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2011;60(4):474–9. 24. Liu JF, et al. The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Jun 22.
25. Novotny JA et al. Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(2):296–301. 26. Foster GD, et al. A randomized trial of the effects of an almond-enriched, hypocaloric diet in the treatment of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(2):249–54.
Sử dụng thuốc trong thai kỳ FDA phân loại có 5 mức độ ảnh hưởng của dược phẩm trên thai kỳ A, B, C, D, X. Hãy nêu một số thuốc và ảnh hưởng trên thai kỳ đối với các nhóm thuốc: Pregnancy Category A Adequate and well-controlled human studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and