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Ask the students to think about their favourite Number 1. A little chocolate each day is good for dish and explain what the ingredients are and, if your health. Chocolate contains antioxidants which possible, how to make it to the class. Extend the help to protect the body against cancer. It also discussion to typical dishes from their country or contains several minerals and some protein. In fact, one bar of chocolate contains more protein than a banana, so this statement is true.
Number 2. White chocolate doesn’t contain any Reading & Speaking (SB page 40)
Number 3. Chocolate contains chemicals that produce the same reaction in the body as falling in • Go through the questions with the class and explain any unknown vocabulary. You may like to point out Number 4. The healthy part of chocolate is the cocoa, that chocoholic is a made-up word for someone who is and dark chocolate has at least 50–70% cocoa. On addicted to chocolate. The form of the term alcoholic, the other hand, a lot of commercial milk chocolate someone who is addicted to alcohol, is often used bars have hardly any cocoa in them at all, so this to form similar words for other addictions. Students may also have come across workaholic to describe someone who works too hard.
Number 5. A little chocolate can make a dog sick. A lot of chocolate can kill it, so this statement is false. • Put the students into pairs, but ask them to work individually at first to guess how they think their Number 6. Americans consume a lot of chocolate, partner would answer the questions. Don’t let them but per capita, the Swiss consume more. The Swiss consume ten kilograms per person per year, so this statement is false. • When the students have decided on their answers for all their questions, let them discuss them with their partners to see if they guessed correctly. In a class Number 8. Chocolate contains much less caffeine feedback session, find out who the chocoholics of the than coffee, so this statement is false. Number 9 is true. Number 10 is true. In fact, they used a lot of chocolate sauce because the scene took seven days to • Go through the statements with the class and ask the students to decide whether they think they are true or false. Don’t confirm or deny any answers at this stage, but encourage discussion.
• Play the recording for the students to check their Psycho \"saIkEÁ\ (1960)
answers. Then, in a class feedback session, find out if Psycho is one of film director Alfred Hitchcock’s they were surprised by any of these.
most famous films. It tells the story of a young woman who steals some money, and while escaping, stops at the Bates Motel, where she meets 3 True 4 True 5 False (A little chocolate can make a dog sick. • Focus the students’ attention on the example and 6 False (The Swiss consume more chocolate.) explain or get them to identify that chocolate takes a singular verb (is) whereas chips takes a plural verb 8 False (Chocolate contains very little caffeine.) (are), and that chocolate is an uncountable noun, • If the students point out that you can also count chocolates, focus their attention on the two photos on Uncountable + occasionally countable: beers, this page. One shows chocolates, the other chocolate. cakes, coffees, salads, whiskies, yoghurts When you talk about individual chocolates, as in the items in a box of chocolates in the top photo, they can be counted. When you’re talking about the substance, Language note
as in the bottom photo, chocolate is uncountable. The Grammar: nouns that are both countable and
example sentence is about chocolate in general, uncountable
i.e. chocolate the substance, so the noun and verb Certain food items can be both countable and uncountable with a difference of meaning, e.g. • Point out that all the words in the box, including chip beer, cake, cereal, cheese, chicken, chocolate, coffee, fish, are singular. The students must decide whether each meat, whisky, yoghurt. In some cases this is because item is countable or not. If it is, they must use a plural you can divide the item and eat it in pieces. This form and plural verb as in Chips are good for you. As includes cake, lettuce and cucumber. In other cases it the students write their new statements, go round is a shorter way of making a sentence, particularly checking the everyone is using singular/plural forms when referring to liquids. For example Two whiskies / appropriately. Then check their answers.
Two beers / Two coffees (instead of Two glasses of • Put the students into pairs to discuss the statements whisky, two glasses of beer, two cups of coffee). and decide which ones they agree with.
is: fish, fruit, milk, salt, sleep, sugar, travel, workare: chips, crisps, vegetables, vitamins • Focus the students’ attention on the information in the margin on quantity expressions. Point out that some of the expressions can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns, but that some are Grammar (SB page 41)
Nouns and quantity expressions
• Read the example question with the class and point out, or get the students identify, that you use How many? in questions with countable nouns and How Go through the statements with the class and ask them much? in questions with uncountable nouns.
to complete them. Then ask them to suggest some more • Ask the students to work individually to complete examples of countable and uncountable nouns.
the remaining questions. Tell them not to worry about the answers just yet.
• Check that everyone has formed the questions correctly before looking at the example again with the class and pointing out that a little cannot be Language notes
the answer to the first question because friends Grammar: countable nouns / uncountable nouns
is countable and a little can only be used with • Countable nouns are the names of individual uncountable nouns. Ask the students to choose the objects, people or ideas which can be counted. answers which are not possible for the remaining Countable nouns have plurals (shop, shops). • Uncountable or mass nouns are the names of • After checking their answers, ask the students to materials, liquids, collections without clear underline the answers that are true for them. Then boundaries, which aren’t seen as separate ask them to work in pairs and take turns asking and objects, e.g. water, weather, air. Uncountable nouns don’t have plurals (weathers). • If the issue of chocolate being both countable and uncountable didn’t come up in the previous section, explain when it can be countable and when Language notes
uncountable, using the pictures on this page and on Grammar: How much/many …?
the previous one. Explain that even in a bar, chocolate When enquiring about the quantity of chocolate is still a substance rather than an individual item and remaining in the bar on page 41, the question that if you wanted to count it, you would have to say would probably be How much chocolate is there? The two bars of chocolate or two chocolate bars, rather than chocolate in the bar can’t be counted. The same question for the individual chocolates from a box • Ask the students to look at the other items in the would be How many chocolates are there? because the box and decide which of those can sometimes be countable and sometimes uncountable.
Vocabulary: quantity expressions
• You can use some with plural countable nouns: a) watch b) jacket c) comb d) fridge some restaurants. Other words commonly used e) idea f) house g) book h) interview with, or referring to, countable nouns are: none, (not) any, (a) few, several, many, a lot, lots, plenty. • You can use some with uncountable nouns: some water. Other words commonly used with, or referring to, uncountable nouns are: none, (not) a) some b) a few c) A little d) much any, (a) little, a bit, much, a lot, lots, plenty. e) so much f) some g) any h) some Vocabulary: little
Generally speaking, if a student makes a mistake
with a quantity expression, they’ll still be
Vocabulary (SB page 41)
understood. If, for example, one of your students says Bill Gates has many money, although the sentence is grammatically incorrect, the meaning is • Focus the students’ attention back on the chocolate clear. The word little presents a bigger problem: if photos. Remind them that individual chocolates are used with a countable noun, little refers to the size countable but that liquid chocolate, or chocolate in a of the noun; if used with an uncountable noun, it block, is uncountable. Then point out the example in refers to the quantity. This can produce problems this exercise and explain that there is a way to count with meaning. It’s therefore important that the uncountable things and that is to use expressions like teacher is aware that sentences like There were little a bar of or two bottles of. Point out that the photo on the people at the party are probably grammatically rather right could be described simply as chocolate or as a bar than politically incorrect, the desired sentence being There were few people at the party, or, more naturally • Ask the students to try to match the remaining There weren’t many people at the party. Vocabulary: not enough / too much/many
• not enough suggests you have less than you need
I don’t have enough petrol = I need more petrol. b) 6: a bowl of fruit / sugar (+ cereal / grapes / c) 5: a box of chocolates / matches (+ cereal / • too much/many suggests you have more than you d) 1: a bunch of bananas / flowers (+ grapes / I have too much homework = I want less homework. I have too many things to do today = I want fewer When used with uncountable nouns, you use too f) 3: a packet of cigarettes / crisps (+ biscuits / much. With countable nouns you use too many.
cereal / rice / seeds / soup / spaghetti / tea / tissues) 4 Grammar Extra 5
Ask the students to turn to Grammar Extra 5 on page 134
of the Student’s Book. Here they’ll find an explanation Vocabulary: containers
of the grammar they’ve been studying and further • It’s sometimes possible to ‘package’ an uncountable noun and make it countable, e.g. three bottles of water, two pieces of steak. • Note that in different countries, food items can be sold in different packaging. So, for example, biscuits are often sold in boxes in the United States, whereas in the UK packets of biscuits are • Other common UK household containers are: carton (of milk, orange juice)
can (of cola, beer)
tube (of toothpaste, cheese spread)
tin (of tuna, tomatoes)
a) veal cod limes trout beans tuna • Pairwork. Ask the students to work together to add the b) leeks plums hake figs prawns words to the correct lists to make more collocations • Check answers with the class before asking the c) turkey olives mussels melons students to discuss their own consumption or use of d) garlic cherries lobster onions e) peppers bacon salmon spinach f) sausages lettuces cabbages oranges Speaking
(SB page 42)
g) aubergines strawberries cucumbers Go through the sentence endings with the class and The last word has a different stress pattern.
make sure everyone understands them. Then ask the students to work individually and in silence to add names to the sentences.
a) veal cod limes trout beans tuna b) leeks plums hake figs prawns peaches • Focus the students’ attention on the example c) turkey olives mussels melons question. With weaker classes, ask the students to form all the questions they’ll need to ask to check d) garlic cherries lobster onions their ideas. If your classroom layout allows, ask the grapefruits courgettes students to mingle and ask questions of the people e) peppers bacon salmon spinach whose names they put in their sentences to see if they f) sausages lettuces cabbages oranges • In a class feedback session, find out what information about eating habits and preferences they found out g) aubergines strawberries cucumbers celery raspberries tomatoes Vocabulary & Pronunciation
(SB page 42)
• Go through the items in the box and point out the pronunciation of draught. Read the example to the class and explain that all the words in the box are • Focus the students’ attention on the photo. Ask them contrasts with the words in the questions.
to identify as many items of food in it as they can. As • Ask the students to complete the questions.
they call out words, write them in a spidergram on • Check answers before getting the students to take the board. Put the word food in the centre with lines turns asking and answering the questions to find out out to fruit, vegetables, meat and dairy products. As each other’s food preferences. Ask if any pairs had students identify items in the photo, ask them to say • When you’ve exhausted the possibilities of the photo, a) cooked b) heavy c) white d) frozen allow them to add any other food words they know.
e) weak f) mild g) draught h) sweet 2 2.02
• Students discuss the various food items listed and
decide what the colours represent. Ask them to check (SB page 43)
any words they don’t know in their dictionaries. Point out that peppers, tomatoes, olives and aubergines are technically fruit but are generally Tell the class about the most unusual thing you have ever eaten. Describe the texture and the taste • Play the recording and ask the students to listen and and say whether you enjoyed it and whether you repeat the words. Play it a second time for them to would eat it again. Ask if anyone else has eaten this mark the stressed syllables. Then ask them what is thing and whether anyone would consider eating it.
different about the last word in each row. red = meatpurple = fish and seafoodorange = fruitgreen = vegetables M: While I was in Africa, I ate caterpillars. They boil • Focus the students’ attention on the photos and ask them and dry them in the sun, so they taste a bit if anyone has ever eaten any of these things. If they dry and bland. But they’re really good for you. have, get them to tell the class about it and to describe the taste and the texture.
• Then ask the students to say what they think each M: One of my favourite insects to eat is ants. Did thing would taste like. You could draw their attention you know that in Colombia, some cinemas serve to the list of words in Exercise 2 if they need help roasted, chocolate-covered ants instead of popcorn? with words to describe taste and texture. I: Really? What are they like?M: Sweet and crisp – like popcorn. Cultural note
A Mars Bar is a popular chocolate bar in the UK. In M: What about you? Have you ever eaten anything some places, particularly in fish and chip shops in Scotland, it’s possible to buy them deep-fried, that I: Well, I’m not as adventurous as you, and I haven’t is dipped in batter (a mixture of milk, flour and travelled much. But the strangest, and, I must say, the most revolting thing I’ve ever eaten was in Scotland recently. It was deep-fried Mars Bar. M: What? You mean, like fish and chips – Mars bar • Tell the students that they’re going to hear someone I: That’s right. Greasy and horribly sweet. who’s eaten all these things describing the taste. First, draw their attention to the columns, which explain how the items were cooked and that describe the taste and texture of these things. Explain any new words.
• Play the recording for the students to match • Put the students into groups. One student the dishes with the descriptions. Play it again if thinks of a type of food and the others have to necessary. Then check answers with the class.
ask yes/no questions to find out what it is. For example, Is it sweet? Do you fry it? Students have a) 5 b) 4 c) 2 d) 1 e) 6 f) 3 a maximum of ten questions to find out what the food is. If they succeed, they get a point. If not, the person who chose the food gets a point.
2.03 (I = Interviewer; M = Mark)
• Ask the students to think of the most disgusting I: Mark, you’ve tasted some of the more unusual food combinations they possibly can. For dishes from around the world. Can you tell us example, chocolate-covered oysters in a spicy about them and what they taste like? custard sauce. The class then vote on the most disgusting dish.
M: Yes, well, I’ve just come back from China where I: Cobra? I imagine it tastes fishy. M: No, not at all. In fact tastes meaty, like chicken. Put the students into pairs to discuss the questions. Ask It was a little tough and chewy, but delicious. them to report back to the class on what they found out.
I: Really? I find that hard to imagine.
M: And before that I was in Thailand. I ate lots of Vocabulary & Speaking (SB page 43)
fried grasshoppers there. They’re really crisp and tasty. I: Hm. I’m not sure I’d like to eat insects. Remind the students of the words for ways of cooking M: Well, that’s because you’re not used to them. food that they met in the previous section. Then go In many parts of the world insects are a good through the taste and texture words in the table, making source of protein and minerals. Last time I was in sure that students can tell the difference. Texture has to Indonesia, I had a feast of insects. In fact, for one do with the way something feels or looks, taste is simply meal, the main course was roasted cockroaches. how the tongue perceives it. Ask them to complete the table with taste and texture words from the previous M: Well, they’re crunchy on the outside, and on the inside there’s a rich liquid which tastes quite Ways of cooking food: boil, grill, bake, fry
I: What other insects have you eaten? Ways of describing taste: bitter, salty, spicy, bland,
sweet, fruity, disgusting, tasty, meaty, delicious
Ways of describing texture: creamy, dry, crunchy,
greasy, crisp, tough, chewy
a) False. (Her mother would ‘try’ to cook well. Her Pairwork. Go through the example sentences with the class, then ask students in pairs to take turns to describe one of the food items or guess what’s being described.
Pairwork. Students take turns to describe their best and worst meals. Encourage them to report back to the class h) False. (On Saturdays they ate from trays in front (SB page 44)
Ask the students if they know who Emma Bunton is.
(See note below.) Ask them to skim the text quickly to find out the answers to the two questions. Then ask • Go through the example with the class, then ask them them to read the article more carefully. Point out that to change the other sentences to the first person.
this is an interview and she uses quite a lot of slang. • Check answers before asking the students to change However, much of this is explained in the glossary.
the information so that it is true for them.
Favourite food: the classics – shepherd’s pie, roast Grammar (SB page 45)
dinners, spaghetti bologneseFood she didn’t like: peas used to / would
• Focus the students’ attention on the statements on page 44 and go through the table with them. Emma Bunton \emE "bØntEn\ (born 1976)
Point out that in the examples, sentence a) matches Emma Bunton is an English pop singer, songwriter description 2 (a state in the past), and sentence b) and actor. She is also a member of the 1990s girl matches description 1 (a repeated action in the past). group the Spice Girls in which, as the youngest, she Ask them to match the remaining sentences with the Shepherd’s pie \"SepEdz paI\
• Go through the information about used to and would A dish of minced lamb covered with mashed potato in the margin. Draw their attention to the correct and topped with melted cheese. The same dish but form of used to in a question (Did he use to? not Did made with minced beef is called a ‘Cottage pie’.
he used to?). Point out that sentence a) could be rewritten with used to: Emma’s mother used to be a better Roast dinners
cook than her father. Sentence b) could be rewritten Roast dinners are the traditional meals that British with used to: Her family used to enjoy eating new things, people eat on Sundays. They consist of roast or with would: Her family would enjoy eating new things meat (beef, lamb, chicken or pork), potatoes and (enjoy here is acts as an active verb). Explain that vegetables. Yorkshire pudding (which is made from there’s nothing wrong with the original sentences, flour, milk and eggs) is also traditionally served but used to and would are ways of emphasizing the with roast beef. The meal is popular throughout repeat nature of actions or states in the past. In f) had Britain and Ireland, and also in Canada and means ate, so it acts as an active verb. Also draw the students’ attention to descriptions 3 and 4 where used Spaghetti bolognese \spE"geti bÅlE"neIz\
to and would cannot be used.
Spaghetti bolognese is the name used in Britain to describe a pasta dish which originally came from a) 2 b) 1 c) 3 d) 4 e) 1 f) 1 g) 1 Bologna in northern Italy. The traditional dish is served with tagliatelle rather than spaghetti, and is served with a meat sauce (ragu alla Bolognese). This sauce is made with beef, pancetta, onions, Language notes
carrots, celery, tomatoes and white wine. It’s cooked very slowly.
Grammar: used to / would
• You can use used to when you want to talk about
past habits or states. It’s always followed by the infinitive. It can’t be used to talk about Students decide which of the statements are true and (1) something in the past which happened once, which false. When checking answers, encourage the or (2) something which is still true. Compare: students to correct the false statements.
We used to live in Singapore (but we don’t now). • Play the recording and ask the students to listen and find which two questions Julio doesn’t answer.
He used to smoke (but he doesn’t now). (Past habit.)We went to France last year. (Single action, so We • Ask the students to match the questions and answers. used to go to France last year. is not possible.) Then play the recording again for them to check their answers.
• The question form is Did you use to…? (not Did He does not answer questions e) and f).
• You can use would to talk about repeated a) 2 b) 4 c) 7 d) 8 e) – f) – actions in the past. It often suggests a nostalgic g) 1 h) 3 i) 9 j) 5 k) 6 reminiscence. I’d spend hours with my friends by the river. • You can’t use would to talk about past states.
• would is often contracted to ’d.
There were five of us at home when I was growing • This use of would is less common in the question up – my father, my mother, my brother, my sister and me. My mother did most of the cooking, but we all helped her. Well, sort of helped her. We each had a special job: I used to chop vegetables; my brother helped with the washing up; and my sister set the • Do the first two with the class as examples and then table. I used to love everything my mother cooked, ask the students to decide which sentences can be except for one thing – meat. I didn’t like it, and that rewritten with used to and which with would.
made life difficult for my mother, because everyone • Check answers before asking the students to rewrite else liked it. So she used to cook meat for everyone the sentences so that they are true for them.
else, and a vegetarian meal for me. Teatime was always really important in my house – I think it’s because my mother is half English. We’d have tea and cakes at about four o’clock in the afternoon. My mother would invite the neighbours round, and we’d have a tea party! I used to love those 3 Pairwork
times. My father would come home from work at • The pairwork exercise for this unit is on pages 117 about seven o’clock in the evening, and then we used and 122 of the Student’s Book. Put the students in to have our dinner in the kitchen. Then we would pairs and tell them who will be Student A, and who help to clear the table, and we’d be in bed by 8.30. The weekends were a bit different. Every Saturday, we used to go to the restaurant for dinner, and on • While they’re doing the exercise, go round Sundays we’d have pasta as a treat. My father is of monitoring and giving help. Take note of any errors Italian origin, so pasta was his favourite dish. My which may need particular attention later, and also favourite dish when I was a child was rice and beans any examples of good language use, which you can – it’s a popular dish in Brazil, but nobody makes it Cultural note
American grunge band active in the late 1980s • Give the students a minute or two to think back and and early 1990s. In 1994, lead vocalist Kurt decide what they’re going to talk about. Then ask Cobain committed suicide, bringing the band to a them to look at the questions in Exercise 1 again. premature end at the peak of its popularity.
Allow them to make notes of what they’re going to say and how they’re going to say it, but discourage them from writing a paragraph that they can simply Speaking: anecdote
read out. Go round, monitoring and giving help.
(SB page 45)
• Put the students in pairs and ask them to take turns For more information about how to set up, monitor and to tell their partner about their life when they were repeat Anecdotes, see page xx in the Introduction. a child. Encourage them to ask each other follow-up questions to get further information.
• Ask some pairs to report back to the class about what • Focus the students’ attention on the photos of Julio. Explain that they’re going to hear him talking about his life when he was a child between the ages of five and ten. Go through the questions with the class. Explain any unknown vocabulary. Point out again the form of used to in questions (Did you use to .?).
Useful phrases (SB page 46)
2.06 (Wa = Waiter; M = Man; W = Woman)
Wa: Good afternoon. Do you have a reservation? Focus the students’ attention on the illustrations, which M: Yes, a table for two in the name of Brown. show two different scenarios in a restaurant. Give the Wa: Oh yes. Is this table OK for you? students time to take in what the illustrations show M: Do you have anything near the window? and to identify the differences between them. Play the recording and ask the students which picture best illustrates what they heard. Although neither of the W: Not quite. Could you give us a few more minutes? speech bubbles shown in the pictures actually appears in Wa: Of course. Would you like to order some drinks? the conversation, the students should be able to recognise W: Yes, two gin and tonics, please. from the speakers’ intonation, if not the actual words, that W: Excuse me. We’re ready to order now. the couple in the conversation are rude and unpleasant.
Wa: Very good. What can I get you?W: I’ll have the lamb, please. The conversation goes with picture a.
Wa: OK. And sir?M: I’ll have the grilled salmon steak.
Wa: Would you like to see the dessert menu? 2.05 (Wa = Waiter; M = Man; W = Woman)
W: No, I’m all right, thank you. Wa: Good afternoon. Do you have a reservation? M: Can we have two coffees and the bill, please. Wa: Oh, yes. Is this table OK for you? M: No. We want to sit near the window.
Wa: Yes, of course. Follow me.
Wa: Are you ready to order yet? W: No. Go away and come back a bit later. Play the recording for the students to listen and repeat Wa: Of course. Would you like to order some drinks? the phrases. After they’ve done this chorally, ask several students to repeat the phrases individually, and check W: Oy! Come here. We want to order now. that everyone is pronouncing them correctly.
Wa: Very good. What can I get you?W: Give me the lamb. a) Excuse me. We’re ready to order now. M: I want the grilled salmon steak. b) Can we have two coffees and the bill, please? Wa: Would you like to see the dessert menu? c) Yes, a table for two in the name of Brown. d) Yes, two gin and tonics, please. M: Bring me two coffees and the bill. e) I’ll have the grilled salmon steak. f) Do you have anything near the window? g) No, I’m all right, thank you.
h) I’ll have the lamb, please.
i) It was lovely, thank you. Language note
j) Not quite. Could you give us a few more minutes? Grammar: Would you like some …?
Note that in some circumstances it’s possible to ask
questions using some (generally when the speaker
is confident of an affirmative response). In the • Ask the students to work individually to put the restaurant the waiter asks Would you like to order phrases in the correct places in the conversation. Play some drinks? (rather than Would you like any drinks?) recording 2.06 for them to check their answers before as he is confident of an answer in the affirmative.
moving on to the next stage of the exercise.
• Put the students into pairs (or threes) and ask them to practise the conversation, taking turns to be the man, • Tell the students that they’re now going to hear another version of the conversation. Ask them to 1 c 2 f 3 j 4 d 5 a 6 h (e) make a note of any differences they notice.
• Play the recording and get feedback from the class.
The second version of the conversation is more polite.
Vocabulary Extra (SB page 47)
Nouns and articles
Ask the students to read through the poem first. Draw their attention to the questions on the right and ask them to complete the poem. Ask a volunteer student to • Focus the students’ attention on the table and go read out the poem aloud to check. Then ask the students through the examples with them. Tell the students to complete the ‘noun type’ column with the correct option from the box.
1 a 2 a 3 the 4 the 5 the 6 the • Ask the students to copy the table into their notebooks. Then focus their attention on the list of nouns in the margin and the information about these words. Tell the students to complete the table using Ask the students to read the note in the margin. Then ask them to cross out the in the sentences if it isn’t used Singular
to refer to people and things in a general way.
a) The men are better drivers than the women.
b) The life gets harder as you get older.
c) The time is more important than the money.
d) The women are more careful with money than xxx
e) The children are getting fatter: they don’t do f) It’s impossible to live without the music.
scissors the scissorstrousers the trousers Further practice material
Need more writing practice?
• Ask the students to look in their dictionary to see how it shows whether a noun is countable, uncountable or plural.
Need more classroom practice activities?
• Then ask students to use their dictionaries to classify ➜ Photocopiable resource materials pages the nouns in the box and to find out what they all Grammar: Just a minute!
Vocabulary: Best of the bunch
They are all uncountable. (In many other Communication: Did you use to …?
languages these are considered countable) Need DVD material?
➜ DVD – Programme 5: First date Ask the students to read the dictionary entry in the Need progress tests?
margin. Then focus their attention on the five examples in the entry and ask them to add these examples under Need more on important teaching concepts?
The person or
The person or
The person or
Key concepts in New Inside Out pages xxii to thing has already
thing is known
thing is ‘the only
Need student self-study practice?
Need student CEF self-evaluation?
Need more information and more ideas?
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