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CHANCA PIEDRA POWDERDescription: Chanca piedra means "stone breaker" throughout South America and theAmazon.* Raintree’s chanca piedra has been sustainably wild-harvested in the AmazonRainforest (without any pesticides or fertilizers). For more complete information on thisunique rainforest plant, please see the Raintree Nutrition internet website and the onlineTropical Plant Database.
Traditional Uses:* for kidney stones and gallstones (active stones and as a preventative); to tone, balance,strengthen, detoxify and protect the kidneys and to reduce uric acid and increase urination; to tone, balance,strengthen, detoxify, and protect the liver (and to balance liver enzymes); for hypertension and high cholesterollevelsIngredients: 100% pure chanca piedra whole herb (Phyllanthus niruri). No binders, fillers or additives are used.
This plant is non-irradiated and non-fumigated and has grown naturally in the Amazon without any pesticides orfertilizers.
Suggested Use: This plant is best prepared as an infusion (tea): Use one teaspoon of powder for each cup ofwater. Pour boiling water over herb in cup and allow to steep 10 minutes. Strain tea (or allow settled powder toremain in the bottom of cup) and drink warm. It is traditionally taken in 1 cup dosages, 2-3 times daily.
Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
Drug Interactions: None reported; however based on animals studies, it might potentiate antihypertensive,diabetic drugs.
Other Observations:• Chanca piedra has been documented to reduce blood pressure in animal studies. Individuals with low blood pressure should be monitored for this possible effect.
• Chanca piedra has been documented with female antifertility effects in one mouse study. Although not proven in humans, the use of the plant is probably contraindicated in women seeking pregnancy.
• This plant has demonstrated hypoglycemic activity. Individuals with hypoglycemia should be monitored more closely for this possible effect.
Clinical Documentation and Research:* Available third-party documentation and clinical research on chancapiedra can be found at the Raintree website or on Medline/PubMed. A partial listing of the published researchon chanca piedra is shown below:Actions on Kidney Stones & Uric Acid:Murugaiyah, V., et al. "Mechanisms of antihyperuricemic effect of Phyllanthus niruri and its lignan constituents."J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jul; 124(2): 233-9.
Schuler, T., et al. "Medical expulsive therapy as an adjunct to improve shockwave lithotripsy outcomes: asystematic review and meta-analysis." J. Endourol. 2009; 23(3): 387-93.
Kieley, S., et al. "Ayurvedic medicine and renal calculi." J. Endourol. 2008; 22(8): 1613-6.
Wright, C., et al. "Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Oct;114(1) :1-31.
Murugaiyah V, et al. “Antihyperuricemic lignans from the leaves of Phyllanthus niruri.” Planta Med. 2006 Nov;72(14): 1262-7.
Micali, S., et al. “Can Phyllanthus niruri affect the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones?A randomized, prospective, long-term study.” J. Urol. 2006 Sep; 176(3): 1020-2.
Barros, M. E., et al. “Effect of extract of Phyllanthus niruri on crystal deposition in experimental urolithiasis.” Urol.
Res. 2006 Dec; 34(6): 351-7.
Nishiura, J. L., et al. “Phyllanthus niruri normalizes elevated urinary calcium levels in calcium stone forming (CSF)patients.” Urol. Res. 2004 Oct; 32(5): 362-6.
Barros, M. E., et al. “Effects of an aqueous extract from Phyllanthus niruri on calcium oxalate crystallization invitro.” Urol. Res. 2003; 30(6): 374-9.
Freitas, A. M., et al. “The effect of Phyllanthus niruri on urinary inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization andother factors associated with renal stone formation.” B. J. U. Int. 2002; 89(9): 829–34.
Campos, A. H., et al. “Phyllanthus niruri inhibits calcium oxalate endocytosis by renal tubular cells: its role inurolithiasis.” Nephron. 1999; 81(4): 393–97.
Antispasmodic, Pain-Relieving, & Anti-inflammatory Actions:Lai, C., et al. "Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation in human gastric epithelial AGS cells byPhyllanthus urinaria extracts." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Aug; 118(3): 522-6.
Dirjomuljono, M., et al. "Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigellasativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract." Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2008; 46(6): 295-306.
Fang, S., et al. "Anti-oxidant and inflammatory mediator's growth inhibitory effects of compounds isolated fromPhyllanthus urinaria." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Mar; 116(2): 333-40.
Kassuya, C. A., et al. “Antiinflammatory and antiallodynic actions of the lignan niranthin isolated from Phyllanthusamarus. Evidence for interaction with platelet activating factor receptor.” Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2006 Sep; 546(1-3):182-8.
Iizuka, T., et al. “Vasorelaxant effects of methyl brevifolincarboxylate from the leaves of Phyllanthus niruri.” Biol.
Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(1): 177-9.
Kassuya, C. A., et al. “Anti-inflammatory properties of extracts, fractions and lignans isolated from Phyllanthusamarus.” Planta Med. 2005; 71(8): 721-6.
Kiemer, A. K., et al. “Phyllanthus amarus has anti-inflammatory potential by inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, andcytokines via the NF-kappaB pathway.” J. Hepatol. 2003; 38(3): 289-97.
Santos, A. R., et al. “Antinociceptive properties of extracts of new species of plants of the genus Phyllanthus(Euphorbiaceae).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 72(1/2): 229–38.
Miguel, O. G., et al. “Chemical and preliminary analgesic evaluation of geraniin and furosin isolated fromPhyllanthus sellowianus.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(2): 146–49.
Paulino, N., et al. “The relaxant effect of extract of Phyllanthus urinaria in the guinea-pig isolated trachea. Evidencefor involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1996; 48(11): 1158-63.
Santos, A. R., et al. “Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of the extracts of plants fromthe genus Phyllanthus.” Gen. Pharmacol. 1995; 26(7): 1499–1506.
Santos, A. R., et al. “Further studies on the antinociceptive action of the hydroalcohlic extracts from plants of thegenus Phyllanthus.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1995; 47(1): 66–71.
Santos, A. R., et al. “Analgesic effects of callus culture extracts from selected species of Phyllanthus in mice.” J.
Pharm. Pharmacol. 1994; 46(9): 755–59.
Calixto, J. B., et al. “Antispasmodic effects of an alkaloid extracted from Phyllanthus sellowianus: a comparativestudy with papaverine.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 1984; 17(3-4): 313-21Antiviral Actions:Cheng, H., et al. "Excoecarianin, isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria Linnea, inhibits Herpes simplex virus type 2infection through inactivation of viral particles." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Oct 6.
Dirjomuljono, M., et al. "Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigellasativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract." Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2008; 46(6): 295-306.
Yang, C., et al. "The in vitro activity of geraniin and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose isolated fromPhyllanthus urinaria against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infection." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr;110(3): 555-8.
Bagalkotkar, G., et al. "Phytochemicals from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. and their pharmacological properties: areview." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006 Dec; 58(12): 1559-70.
Naik, A., et al. "Effects of alkaloidal extract of Phyllanthus niruri on HIV replication." Indian J. Med. Sci. 2003 Sep;57(9): 387-93.
Huang, R. L., et al. “Screening of 25 compounds isolated from Phyllanthus species for anti-human hepatitis B virusin vitro.” Phytother. Res. 2003; 17(5): 449-53.
Liu, J., et al. “Genus Phyllanthus for chronic Hepatitis B virus infection: A systematic review.” Viral Hepat. 2001;8(5): 358–66.
Xin-Hua, W., et al. “A comparative study of Phyllanthus amarus compound and interferon in the treatment ofchronic viral Hepatitis B.” Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 2001; 32(1): 140–42.
Wang, M. X., et al. “Herbs of the genus Phyllanthus in the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B: Observation with threepreparations from different geographic sites.” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1995; 126(4): 350–52.
Wang, M. X., et al. “Observations of the efficacy of Phyllanthus spp. in treating patients with chronic Hepatitis B.”1994; 19(12): 750–52.
Thyagarajan, S. P., et al. “Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on chronic carriers of Hepatitis B virus.” Lancet 1988;2(8614): 764–66.
Venkateswaran, P. S., et al. “Effects of an extract from Phyllanthus niruri on Hepatitis B and wood chuck hepatitisviruses: in vitro and in vivo studies.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 1987; 84(1): 274–78.
Bhumyamalaki, et al. “Phyllanthus niruri and jaundice in children.” J. Natl. Integ. Med. Ass. 1983; 25(8): 269–72.
Thyagarajan, S. P., et al. “In vitro inactivation of HBsAG by Eclipta alba (Hassk.) and Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.).”Indian J. Med. Res. 1982; 76s: 124–30.
Notka, F., et al. “Concerted inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus amarus on HIV replication in vitro and ex vivo.”Antiviral Res. 2004 Nov; 64(2): 93-102.
Notka, F., et al. “Inhibition of wild-type human immunodeficiency virus and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistantvariants by Phyllanthus amarus.” Antiviral Res. 2003 Apr; 58(2): 175-186.
Qian-Cutrone, J. “Niruriside, a new HIV REV/RRE binding inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri.” J. Nat. Prod. 1996;59(2): 196–99.
Ogata, T., et al. “HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri.” AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 1992;8(11): 1937–44.
Liver Protective & Detoxification Actions:Chirdchupunseree, H., et al. "Protective activity of phyllanthin in ethanol-treated primary culture of rathepatocytes." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jan 11.
Krithika, R., et al. "Ameliorative potential of Phyllanthus amarus against carbon tetrachloride-inducedhepatotoxicity." Acta Pol. Pharm. 2009 Sep-Oct; 66(5): 579-83.
Guhu, G., et al. "Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus inhibits chromium(VI)-induced toxicity in MDA-MB-435Scells." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2009 Oct 27.
Krithika, R., et al. "Mitigation of carbon tetrachloride-induced damage by Phyllanthus amarus in liver of mice." ActaPol. Pharm. 2009 Jul-Aug; 66(4): 439-44.
Hau, D., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria extract attenuates acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity: involvement ofcytochrome P450 CYP2E1." Phytomedicine. 2009 Aug; 16(8): 751-60.
Krithika, R., et al. "Isolation, characterization and antioxidative effect of phyllanthin against CCl4-induced toxicityin HepG2 cell line." Chem. Biol. Interact. 2009 Oct; 181(3): 351-8.
Yadav, N., et al. "Synergistic effect of silymarin and standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus againstCCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Rattus norvegicus." Phytomedicine. 2008 Dec; 15(12): 1053-61.
Negi, A., et al. "Recent advances in plant hepatoprotectives: a chemical and biological profile of some importantleads." Med. Res. Rev. 2008 Sep; 28(5): 746-72.
Appiah-Opong, R., et al. "Interactions between cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and Ghanaianmedicinal plants." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(12): 3598-603.
Manjrekar, A., et al. "Effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. treatment on liver, kidney and testes in CCl4 inducedhepatotoxic rats." Indian J. Exp Biol. 2008 Jul; 46(7): 514-20.
Londhe, J., et al. "Antioxidant activity of some polyphenol constituents of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus amarusLinn." Redox. Rep. 2008; 13(5): 199-207.
Adeneye, A., et al. "Protective effect of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus on gentamicinand acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul; 118(2): 318-23.
Faremi, T., et al. "Hepatoprotective potentials of Phyllanthus amarus against ethanol-induced oxidative stress inrats." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(8): 2658-64.
Rai, V., et al. "Chromium-induced changes in ultramorphology and secondary metabolites of Phyllanthus amarusSchum & Thonn. - an hepatoprotective plant." Environ. Monit. Assess. 2008 Dec; 147(1-3): 307-15.
Shen, B., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria ameliorates the severity of nutritional steatohepatitis both in vitro and in vivo."Hepatology. 2008 Feb; 47(2): 473-83.
Xu, M., et al. "Phenolic antioxidants from the whole plant of Phyllanthus urinaria." Chem. Biodivers. 2007 Sep;4(9): 2246-52.
Jaleel, C., et al. "NaCl as a physiological modulator of proline metabolism and antioxidant potential in Phyllanthusamarus." C. R. Biol. 2007; 330(11): 806-13.
Sarkar, M., et al. "Hepatocytes are protected by herb Phyllanthus niruri protein isolate against thioacetamidetoxicity." Pathophysiology. 2007 Oct; 14(2): 113-20.
Pramyothin, P., et al. "Hepatoprotective activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et. Thonn. extract in ethanol treatedrats: in vitro and in vivo studies." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Nov; 114(2): 169-73.
Naaz, F., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et Thonn. on aflatoxinB1-induced liver damage in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Sep; 113(3): 503-9.
Stickel, F., et al. "Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases." Dig. Liver Dis. 2007; 39(4): 293-304.
Bhattacharjee, R., et al. "Protein isolate from the herb Phyllanthus niruri modulates carbon tetrachloride-inducedcytotoxicity in hepatocytes." Toxicol. Mech Methods. 2007; 17(1): 41-7.
Bhattacharjee, R., et al. “Protein isolate from the herb, Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae), playshepatoprotective role against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage via its antioxidant properties.” Food Chem.
Toxicol. 2007; 45(5): 817-26.
Chatterjee, M., et al. “Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri on nimesulide-inducedoxidative stress in vivo.” Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 2006 Oct; 43(5): 299-305.
Bhattacharjee, R., et al. “The protein fraction of Phyllanthus niruri plays a protective role against acetaminopheninduced hepatic disorder via its antioxidant properties.” Phytother. Res. 2006; 20(7): 595-601.
Lee, C. Y., et al. “Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus in Taiwan on acute liver damage induced by carbontetrachloride.” Am. J. Chin. Med. 2006; 34(3): 471-82.
Chatterjee, M., et al. “Herbal (Phyllanthus niruri) protein isolate protects liver from nimesulide induced oxidative stress.” Pathophysiology. 2006 May; 13(2): 95-102.
Khatoon, S., et al. “Comparative pharmacognostic studies of three Phyllanthus species.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006Mar; 104(1-2): 79-86.
Levy, C., et al. “Use of herbal supplements for chronic liver disease.” Clin. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 2(11):947-56.
Rajeshkumar, N. V., et al. “Phyllanthus amarus extract administration increases the life span of rats withhepatocellular carcinoma.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov; 73(1–2): 215–19.
Padma, P., et al. "Protective effect of Phyllanthus fraternus against carbon tetrachloride-induced mitochondrialdysfunction." Life Sci. 1999; 64(25): 2411-17.
Jeena, K. J., et al. “Effect of Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on n-nitrosodie-thylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis.” Cancer Lett. 1999; 136(1): 11–16.
Thabrew, M. R., et al. “Phytogenic agents in the therapy of liver disease.” Phytother. Res. 1996; 10(6): 461–67.
Prakash, A., et al. “Comparative hepatoprotective activity of three Phyllanthus species, P. urinaria, P. niruri andP. simplex, on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in the rat.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(8): 594–96.
Dhir, H., et al. “Protection afforded by aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus species against cytotoxicity induced by leadand aluminium salts.” Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(5): 172–76.
Sreenivasa, R. Y. “Experimental production of liver damage and its protection with Phyllanthus niruri and Capparisspinosa (both ingredients of LIV52) in white albino rats.” Probe 1985; 24(2): 117–19.
Syamasundar, K. V., et al. "Antihepatotoxic principles of Phyllanthus niruri herbs." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1985; 14(1):41-4.
Anticancerous, Cellular Protective & Antioxidant Actions:Huang, S., et al. "Ellagic acid, the active compound of Phyllanthus urinaria, exerts in vivo anti-angiogenic effectand inhibits MMP-2 activity." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010;Harikumar, K., et al. "Inhibition of viral carcinogenesis by Phyllanthus amarus." Integr. Cancer Ther. 2009 Sep;8(3): 254-60.
Guhu, G., et al. "Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus inhibits chromium(VI)-induced toxicity in MDA-MB-435Scells." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2009 Oct 27.
Londhe, J., et al. "Radioprotective properties of polyphenols from Phyllanthus amarus Linn." J. Radiat. Res.
(Tokyo). 2009 Jul; 50(4):303-9.
Harikumar, K., et al. "Phyllanthus amarus inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in Dalton's lymphoma ascitescells through activation of caspase-3 and downregulation of Bcl-2." Integr. Cancer Ther. 2009 Jun; 8(2): 190-4.
Chularojmontri, L., et al. "Cytoprotective role of Phyllanthus urinaria L. and glutathione-S transferase Pi indoxorubicin-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells." J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 2009 Jun; 92 Suppl 3: S43-51.
Huang, S., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria increases apoptosis and reduces telomerase activity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells." Forsch. Komplementmed. 2009 Feb; 16(1): 34-40.
C Jagetia, G. "Radioprotective potential of plants and herbs against the effects of ionizing radiation." J. Clin.
Biochem. Nutr. 2007 Mar; 40(2): 74-81.
Harikumar, K., et al. An extract of Phyllanthus amarus protects mouse chromosomes and intestine from radiationinduced damages." J. Radiat. Res. 2007 Nov; 48(6): 469-76.
Iizuka, T, et al. "Inhibitory effects of methyl brevifolincarboxylate isolated from Phyllanthus niruri L. on plateletaggregation." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2007; 30(2): 382-4.
Leite, D. F., et al. “The cytotoxic effect and the multidrug resistance reversing action of lignans from Phyllanthusamarus.” Planta Med. 2006 Dec; 72(15): 1353-8.
Raphael, K. R., et al. “Inhibition of N-Methyl N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced gastric carcinogenesisby Phyllanthus amarus extract.” Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2006 Apr-Jun; 7(2): 299-302.
Hari Kumar, K. B., et al . “Inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450) in vitro as well as in vivoby Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(7): 1310-3.
Mellinger, C. G., et al. “Chemical and biological properties of an arabinogalactan from Phyllanthus niruri.” J. Nat.
Prod. 2005; 68(10): 1479-83.
Kumar, K. B., et al. “Chemoprotective activity of an extract of Phyllanthus amarus against cyclophosphamideinduced toxicity in mice.” Phytomedicine. 2005; 12(6-7): 494-500.
Raphael, K. R., et al. “Inhibition of experimental gastric lesion and inflammation by Phyllanthus amarus extract.”J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 87(2-3): 193-7.
Rajeshkumar, N. V. "Antitumour and anticarcinogenic activity of Phyllanthus amarus extract." J. Ethnopharmacol.
2002; 81(1): 17-22.
Sripanidkulchai, B., et al. “Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of Phyllanthus amarus.” Phytomedicine2002; 9(1): 26–32.
Devi, P. U. “Radioprotective effect of Phyllanthus niruri on mouse chromosomes.” Curr. Sci. 2000; 78(10):1245–47.
Souza, C. R., et al. “Compounds extracted from Phyllanthus and Jatropha elliptica inhibit the binding of[3H]glutamate and [3H]GMP-PNP in rat cerebral cortex membrane.” Neurochem. Res. 2000; 25(2): 211–15.
Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Cholesterol & Hypotensive Actions:Lin, S., et al. "Antioxidant, anti-semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, and anti-hypertensive activities of geraniinisolated from Phyllanthus urinaria." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(7): 2485-92.
Modak, M., et al. "Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes." J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 2007May; 40(3): 163-73.
Amaechina, F., et al. "Hypotensive effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus Schum andThonn (Euphorbiaceae)." Acta Pol. Pharm. 2007 Nov-Dec; 64(6): 547-52.
Adeneye, A. A., et al. “Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous leaf and seed extract ofPhyllanthus amarus in mice.” Fitoterapia. 2006 Dec; 77(7-8): 511-4.
Ali, H., et al. “alpha-Amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particularreference to Phyllanthus amarus.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Oct; 107(3): 449-55.
Raphael, K. R., et al. “Hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn on alloxaninduced diabetes mellitus in rats and its relation with antioxidant potential.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2002; 40(8): 905-9.
Khanna, A. K., et al. "Lipid lowering activity of Phyllanthus niruri in hyperlipemic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002;82(1): 19-22.
Srividya, N., et al. “Diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic effect of Phyllanthus amarus.” Indian J. Exp. Biol.
1995; 33(11): 861–64.
Shimizu, M., et al. “Studies on aldose reductase inhibitors from natural products. II. Active components of aParaguayan crude drug, ‘paraparai mi,’ Phyllanthus niruri.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 1989; 37(9): 2531–32.
Umarani, D., et al. “Ethanol induced metabolic alterations and the effect of Phyllanthus niruri in their reversal.”Ancient Sci. Life 1985; 4(3): 174–80.
Ramakrishnan, P. N., et al. “Oral hypoglycaemic effect of Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.) leaves.” Indian J. Pharm. Sci.
1982; 44(1): 10–12.
Immunomodulatory Actions:Mellinger, C., et al. "Chemical and immunological modifications of an arabinogalactan present in tea preparationsof Phyllanthus niruri after treatment with gastric fluid." Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2008 Aug; 43(2): 115-20.
Antiparasitic, Antimalarial, Wound-Healing & Other Antimicrobial Actions:Rahuman, A., et al. "Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culexquinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)." Parasitol. Res. 2008 Apr; 102(5): 867-73.
Dapper, D., et al. "Antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous extract of Phyllantus amarus Schumach and Thonnagainst Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice." Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 2007 Jun-Dec; 22(1-2): 19-25.
Okigbo, R., et al. "Antimicrobial effects of Piper guineense 'Uziza' and Phyllantus amarus 'Ebe-benizo' on Candidaalbicans and Streptococcus faecalis." Acta Microbiol. Immunol. Hung. 2007 Dec; 54(4): 353-66.
Traoré, M., et al. "In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 'saye', an herbal remedy used in Burkina Fasotraditional medicine." Phytother. Res. 2008; 22(4): 550-1.
Shakil, N., et al. "Nematicidal prenylated flavanones from Phyllanthus niruri." Phytochemistry. 2008 Feb; 69(3):759-64.
Mustofa, S., et al. "In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of extracts of Phyllanthus niruri L.
herbs traditionally used to treat malaria in Indonesia." Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health. 2007 Jul;38(4): 609-15 Mazumder, A., et al. “Antimicrobial potentiality of Phyllanthus amarus against drug resistant pathogens.” Nat. Prod.
Res. 2006; 20(4):323-6.
Devi, V., et al. “Effect of Phyllanthus niruri on wound healing in rats.” Indian J. Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Oct-Dec;49(4): 487-90.
Kolodziej, H., et al. “Tannins and related compounds induce nitric oxide synthase and cytokines gene expressionsin Leishmania major-infected macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells.” Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2005 Dec; 13(23): 6470-6.
Subeki, S., et al. “Anti-babesial and anti-plasmodial compounds from Phyllanthus niruri.” J. Nat. Prod. 2005; 68(4):537-9.
Kloucek, P., et al. “Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Calleria District.” J.
Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jun; 99(2): 309-12.
Cimanga, R. K., et al. “In vitro antiplasmodial activity of callus culture extracts and fractions from fresh apicalstems of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae): part 2.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec; 95(2-3): 399-404.
Agrawal, A., et al. “Evaluation of inhibitory effect of the plant Phyllanthus amarus against dermatophytic fungiMicrosporum gypseum.” Biomed. Environ. Sci. 2004 Sep; 17(3): 359-65.
Tona, L., et al. “In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in theDemocratic Republic of Congo.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jul; 93(1): 27-32.
Mesia, L. T. K., et al. “In-vitro antimalarial activity of Cassia occidentalis, Morinda morindoides and Phyllanthusniruri.” Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 2001; 95(1): 47–57.
Tona, L., et al. “Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa,Congo.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 68(1/3): 193–203.
Farouk, A., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of certain Sudanese plants used in folkloric medicine. Screening forantibacterial activity (I).” Fitoterapia 1983; 54(1): 3–7.
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COLOSCOPIE VANAF 9:00 Onderzoek van de dikke darm en laxeren van de darm Een coloscopie is een onderzoek waarbij met behulp van een flexibele slang het slijmvlies van de dikke darm wordt bekeken. Belangrijk is dat de darm goed schoon is. Hiervoor wordt de darm gelaxeerd met medicijnen en vloeistof. U krijgt een recept waarmee u Moviprep bij uw apotheek kunt ophalen. Deze voorbereiding

Microsoft word - survival cooking.doc

Survival Cooking Vikki & Patrick Cauldwel May 2006 There are three main things to consider when dealing with “survival cooking”, at least as What are you planning for? We are going to consider three different scenarios in which survival or emergency Your CERT team has been deployed If you are deployed as part of a CERT team, you will need to be prepared to provide your o

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