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The following information is publicly available but not commonly known. If youwish to save time in reviewing this information, simply go to the bold orunderlined sections of each study. 1. Herb - Echinacea and the Immune System2. Berries and Cancer Cells3. Herb - Milk Thistle and the Immune System4. Diet and Exercise in Relation to Disease5. Olives and Olive - Ant-Cancer6. Red Meats and Cancer7. Meat Eating and Diabetes in Women8. Milk and Ovarian Cancer 1. ANTIOXIDANT IMMUNE BUILDING EFFECT OF THE HERB ECHINACEA

Studies on the antioxidant activity of Echinacea root extract. Hu C, Kitts
Food, Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of British Columbia, 6650 N.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4.
Methanol extracts of freeze-dried Echinacea (E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea) roots were examined for free radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities. Root extracts of
E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea were capable of scavenging hydroxyl radical. Similar
scavenging activities for each variety were found for both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical
and ABTS radical. Meanwhile, antioxidant activities of all three varieties of Echinacea were
found to delay the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxide induced by the thermal
decomposition of 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride and extend the lag phase of
peroxidation of soybean liposomes. Echinacea root extracts suppressed the oxidation of human
low-density lipoprotein, as evaluated by reduced agarose electrophoretic mobility following
oxidative modification by Cu(2+). The mechanisms of antioxidant activity of extracts derived
from Echinacea roots included free radical scavenging and transition metal chelating
PMID: 10820044 [PUBMED - INDEXED FOR MEDLINE] ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Increased production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo
treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastis canadensis.

Rehman J, Dillow JM, Carter SM, Chou J, Le B, Maisel AS.
Department of Internal Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California,San Diego 92161, USA.
A number of immunomodulatory effects have been attributed to the medicinal plants Echinacea
angustifolia and Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis); however, little is known about whether
treatment with these plants can enhance antigen-specific immunity. We investigated the antigen-
specific in vivo immunomodulatory potential of continuous treatment with Echinacea and
Goldenseal root extract over a period of 6 weeks using rats that were injected with the novel
antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and re-exposed to KLH after the initial exposure.
Immunoglobulin production was monitored via ELISA continuously over a period of 6 weeks.
The Echinacea-treated group showed a significant augmentation of their primary and secondary
IgG response to the antigen, whereas the Goldenseal-treated group showed an increase in the
primary IgM response during the first 2 weeks of treatment. Our results suggest that medicinal
plants like Echinacea or Goldenseal may enhance immune function
by increasing antigen-
specific immunoglobulin production.
Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in vitro by fruit and berry
extracts and correlations with antioxidant levels.

Olsson ME, Gustavsson KE, Andersson S, Nilsson A, Duan RD.
Department of Crop Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O.
Box 44, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden. Marie.
The effects of 10 different extracts of fruits and berries on cell proliferation of
colon cancer cells HT29 and breast cancer cells MCF-7 were investigated
. The
fruits and berries used were rosehips, blueberries, black currant, black
chokeberries, apple, sea buckthorn, plum, lingonberries, cherries, and raspberries.
The extracts decreased the proliferation of both colon cancer cells HT29 and
breast cancer cells MCF-7, and the effect was concentration dependent.
inhibition effect for the highest concentration of the extracts varied 2-3-fold
among the species, and it was in the ranges of 46-74% (average = 62%) for the
HT29 cells and 24-68% (average = 52%) for the MCF-7 cells. There were great
differences in the content of the analyzed antioxidants in the extracts. The level of
the vitamin C content varied almost 100-fold, and the content of total carotenoids
varied almost 150-fold among the species. Also in the composition and content of
flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, and phenolics were found great
differences among the 10 species. The inhibition of cancer cell proliferation seen
in these experiments correlated with levels of some carotenoids and with vitamin
C levels, present at levels that can be found in human tissues. The same inhibition
of cell proliferation could not be found by ascorbate standard alone. This
correlation might indicate a synergistic effect of vitamin C and other substances.
In MCF-7 cells, the anthocyanins may contribute to the inhibition of proliferation.
Immunostimulatory effect of Silybum Marianum (milk thistle) extract.
Wilasrusmee C, Kittur S, Shah G, Siddiqui J, Bruch D, Wilasrusmee S, Kittur DS.
Department of Surgery SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.
BACKGROUND: Herbal products are increasingly used for their effects on the immune system.
Milk Thistle, a commonly used herbal product is known to inhibit growth of certain
although the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Previously we have shown that
Milk Thistle extracts stimulate neurons in culture. Since other drugs that affect the neuronal;
system also affect the immune system, we investigated the effects of Milk Thistle on the immune
system. MATERIAL/METHODS: Standardized Milk Thistle extract was studied in murine
lymphocyte proliferation tests using Concanavalin A (ConA) as mitogen for non-specific
stimulation and mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) as allospecific stimulation. Th1 and Th2
cytokine levels in MLC were assayed by two antibody capture ELISA technique. All tests were
performed in triplicate and repeated twice. RESULTS: We found that Milk Thistle is
immunostimulatory in vitro. It increased lymphocyte proliferation in both mitogen and MLC
assays. These effects of Milk Thistle were associated with an increase in interferon gamma,
interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 cytokines in the MLC (table). This immunostimulatory effect
increased in response to increasing doses of Milk Thistle. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has
uncovered a novel effect of milk thistle on the immune system
. This immunostimulatory
may be of benefit in increasing the immunity to infectious diseases.
1: J Appl Physiol. 2005 Jan;98(1):3-30.
Effects of exercise and diet on chronic disease.
Roberts CK, Barnard RJ.
Dept. of Physiological Science, UCLA, 4101 Life Sciences Bldg., 621 Charles E. YoungDr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095-).
Currently, modern chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes,
metabolic syndrome, and cancer, are the leading killers in Westernized society and are
increasing rampantly in developing nations. In fact, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension
are now even commonplace in children. Clearly, however, there is a solution to this
epidemic of metabolic disease that is inundating today's societies worldwide: exercise and
diet. Overwhelming evidence from a variety of sources, including epidemiological,
prospective cohort, and intervention studies, links most chronic diseases seen in the
world today to physical inactivity and inappropriate diet consumption
. The purpose
of this review is to 1) discuss the effects of exercise and diet in the prevention of chronic
disease, 2) highlight the effects of lifestyle modification for both mitigating disease
progression and reversing existing disease, and 3) suggest potential mechanisms for
beneficial effects.
1: Eur J Cancer Prev. 2004 Aug;13(4):319-26.
Olives and olive oil in cancer prevention.
Owen RW, Haubner R, Wurtele G, Hull E, Spiegelhalder B, Bartsch H.
Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center, ImNeuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. R Epidemiologic studies conducted in the latter part of the twentieth century demonstrate
fairly conclusively that the people of the Mediterranean basin enjoy a healthy lifestyle
with decreased incidence of degenerative diseases. The data show that populations within
Europe that consume the so-called 'Mediterranean diet' have lower incidences of major
illnesses such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Studies have suggested that the
health-conferring benefits of the Mediterranean diet are due mainly to a high consumption
of fibre, fish, fruits and vegetables. More recent research has focused on other important
factors such as olives and olive oil. Obviously fibre (especially wholegrain-derived
products), fruits and vegetables supply an important source of dietary antioxidants.
What is the contribution from olives and olive oil? Apparently the potential is extremely
high but epidemiologic studies rarely investigate consumption of these very important
products in-depth, perhaps due to a lack of exact information on the types and amounts of
antioxidants present. Recent studies have shown that olives and olive oil contain
antioxidants in abundance
. Olives (especially those that have not been subjected to the
Spanish brining process) contain up to 16 g/kg typified by acteosides, hydroxytyrosol,
tyrosol and phenyl propionic acids. Olive oil, especially extra virgin, contains smaller
amounts of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, but also contains secoiridoids and lignans in
abundance. Both olives and olive oil contain substantial amounts of other compounds
deemed to be anticancer agents
(e.g. squalene and terpenoids) as well as the
peroxidation-resistant lipid oleic acid. It seems probable that olive and olive oil
consumption in southern Europe represents an important contribution to the beneficial
effects on health of the Mediterranean diet.
PMID: 15554560 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 6. RED MEATS AND CANCER
1: Int J Cancer. 2005 Feb 20;113(5):829-34.
Red meat consumption and risk of cancers of the proximal colon, distal
colon and rectum: The Swedish Mammography Cohort.

Larsson SC, Rafter J, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Wolk A.
Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, The National Institute of Environmental Medicine,Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Although there is considerable evidence that high consumption of red meat may increase
the risk of colorectal cancer, data by subsite within the colon are sparse. The objective of
our study was to prospectively examine whether the association of red meat consumption
with cancer risk varies by subsite within the large bowel. We analyzed data from the
Swedish Mammography Cohort of 61,433 women aged 40-75 years and free from
diagnosed cancer at baseline in 1987-1990. Diet was assessed at baseline using a self-
administered food-frequency questionnaire. Over a mean follow-up of 13.9 years, we
identified 234 proximal colon cancers, 155 distal colon cancers and 230 rectal cancers.
We observed a significant positive association between red meat consumption and
risk of distal colon cancer
(p for trend = 0.001) but not of cancers of the proximal colon
(p for trend = 0.95) or rectum (p for trend = 0.32). The multivariate rate ratio for women
who consumed 94 or more g/day of red meat compared to those who consumed less than
50 g/day was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-3.68) for distal colon, 1.03 (95%
CI 0.67-1.60) for proximal colon and 1.28 (95% CI 0.83-1.98) for rectum. Although there
was no association between consumption of fish and risk of cancer at any subsite, poultry
consumption was weakly inversely related to risk of total colorectal cancer (p for trend =
0.04). These findings suggest that high consumption of red meat may substantially
increase the risk of distal colon cancer.
Future investigations on red meat and colorectal
cancer risk should consider cancer subsites separately. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PMID: 15499619 [PubMed - in process]PMID: 15546438 [PubMed - in process] 7. MEAT EATING AND DIABETES IN WOMEN
1: Arch Intern Med. 2004 Nov 8;164(20):2235-40.
Dietary patterns, meat intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women.
Fung TT, Schulze M, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB.
Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, Mass. 02115, USA BACKGROUND: Although obesity is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes,
evidence is emerging that certain foods and dietary factors may be associated with
. To examine the association between major dietary patterns and risk of type 2
diabetes mellitus in a cohort of women. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the
associations between major dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Dietary
information was collected in 1984, 1986, 1990, and 1994 from 69,554 women aged 38 to
63 years without a history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer in 1984. We
conducted factor analysis and identified 2 major dietary patterns: "prudent" and
"Western." We then calculated pattern scores for each participant and examined
prospectively the associations between dietary pattern scores and type 2 diabetes risks.
RESULTS: The prudent pattern was characterized by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables,
legumes, fish, poultry, and whole grains, while the Western pattern included higher
intakes of red and processed meats, sweets and desserts, french fries, and refined
. During 14 years of follow-up, we identified 2699 incident cases of type 2
diabetes. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a relative risk for
diabetes of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.76, P for trend, <.001) when
comparing the highest to lowest quintiles of the Western pattern. Positive associations
were also observed between type 2 diabetes and red meat and other processed meats. The
relative risk for diabetes for every 1-serving increase in intake is 1.26 (95% CI, 1.21-1.42)
for red meat, 1.38 (95% CI, 1.23-1.56) for total processed meats, 1.73 (95% CI, 1.39-
2.16) for bacon, 1.49 (95% CI, 1.04-2.11) for hot dogs, and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.22-1.69) for
processed meats. CONCLUSION: The Western pattern, especially a diet higher in
processed meats, may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in women.

PMID: 15534160 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 8. MILK AND OVARIAN CANCER
1: Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;80(5):1353-7.
Milk and lactose intakes and ovarian cancer risk in the Swedish
Mammography Cohort.

Larsson SC, Bergkvist L, Wolk A.
Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, The National Institute of Environmental Medicine,Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. susanna BACKGROUND: High intakes of dairy products and of the milk sugar lactose have beenhypothesized to increase ovarian cancer risk, but prospective data are scarce.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between intakes of dairy products and lactose
and the risk of total epithelial ovarian cancer and its subtypes. DESIGN: This was a
prospective population-based cohort study of 61 084 women aged 38-76 y who were
enrolled in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Diet was assessed in 1987-1990 with the
use of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. During an average follow-up of
13.5 y, 266 women were diagnosed with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer; 125 of those
women had serous ovarian cancer. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential
confounders, women who consumed >/=4 servings of total dairy products/d had a
risk of serous ovarian cancer
(rate ratio: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.7; P for trend = 0.06) twice
that of women who consumed <2 servings/d. No significant association was found for
other subtypes of ovarian cancer. Milk was the dairy product with the strongest
positive association with serous ovarian cancer
(rate ratio comparing consuming >/=2
glasses milk/d with consuming milk never or seldom: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.7; P for trend =
0.04). We observed a positive association between lactose intake and serous ovarian
cancer risk
(P for trend = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that high
intakes of lactose and dairy products, particularly milk, are associated with an
increased risk of serous ovarian cancer
but not of other subtypes of ovarian cancer.
Future studies should consider ovarian cancer subtypes separately.
PMID: 15531686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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