Older Age at retirement is associated with decreased risk of dementia.
Analysis of a healthcare insurance database of self-employed workers
Carole Dufouil, PhD - INSERM U708 & CIC-EC7, Bordeaux-France Edwige Pereira, MSc - INSERM U708, Bordeaux-France Geneviève Chêne, MD PhD - INSERM U897, Bordeaux-France M. Maria Glymour, Sc D - Harvard School of Public Health, Boston-USA Annick Alpérovitch, MD MSc - INSERM U708, Paris-France Elodie Saubusse, MSc - RSI Aquitaine, Bruges-France Mathilde Risse-Fleury, MD - RSI Saint-Denis-France Brigitte Heuls, MD - RSI Saint-Denis-France Jean-Claude Salord, MD - ILC France, Paris-France Marie-Anne Brieu, MD - ILC France Paris-France Francoise Forette, MD - ILC France, Paris - France Background
Intellectual stimulation and mental engagement throughout life might be protective against
dementia. We investigated whether age at retirement influences dementia risk among self-
employed workers in France.
We linked health and pension databases including self-employed workers who were living and
retired as of December 31st 2010. Dementia cases were defined based either on ICD-10th diagnosis
or on claim for one of the medication against dementia (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine). Data
were analysed using Cox proportional hazard model where age at dementia diagnosis or age at
censoring (31st December 2010) was the dependent variable and age of retirement was the
independent variable. Hazard ratios were computed adjusting for gender, marital status,
occupational category, type of retirement, pension amount, diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes.
Sensitivity analyses to assess potential reverse causation and differential cohort or temporal
diagnosis biases were undertaken.
Among the 429,803 retired self-employed workers alive on December 31st 2010, prevalence of
dementia was 2.65%. Workers had been retired on average for more than 12 years. Multivariable
analyses showed that the hazard ratio (HR) of dementia was 0.968 (95% Confidence Interval=
[0.962-0.973]) per each extra year of age at retirement. After excluding workers who had dementia
diagnosed within the 5 years following retirement, the results remained unchanged and highly
significant (p<0.0001). Results were also similar in further analyses stratified by age categories or
year of dementia diagnosis.
Professional activity may be an important determinant of mental exercise and social integration.
Our data show strong evidence of a significant decrease in the risk of developing dementia
associated with older age at retirement, in line with the "use it or lose it" hypothesis. This health
perspective should be taken into consideration when the age of cessation of professional activity is
discussed. Our results thus highlight the importance of maintaining high levels of cognitive and
social stimulation throughout work and retiree life and emphasize the need for interventions and
policies to help older individuals achieve such cognitive and social engagement.


Weiping yu1, xingguo mei2, qinwei jiang2 and christopher d

THERMOSENSITIVE DOCETAXEL LIPOSOMES Xingguo Mei1, Qinwei Jiang1, Weiping Yu2 and Christopher D.V. Black21Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27, Taiping Road, Beijing, PRC 100850 2Celsion Corporation, 10220-L Old Columbia Road, Columbia, MD 21046. USA. We have developed a liposome preparation containing docetaxel that is designed to release its contents when subjected to mild

Challenges perceived by the judiciary and the new practice note no 9 of 2010 – conduct of group proceedings

Introduction  In large complex proceedings, such as class actions, there are many hidden reefs, there are cross winds and there are side winds. There is rarely plain sailing. Everyone, except the judge, is usually part of a well resourced team. The pot of gold can be large and the benefits for plaintiffs chasing that pot are significant. The pirates, though, are well armed, astute and

Copyright © 2014 Medical Pdf Articles