Sesenta años de la Comisión Económica para América Latina Jaime Ornelas Delgado Aportes , Revista de la Facultad de Economía, BUAP, Año XIII, Números 38-39, Mayo-Diciembre de 2008Este artículo tiene el propósito de ofrecer un recorrido a sesenta años de interpretacionessobre el funcionamiento de la actividad económica presentes en la Comisión Económicapara América Latina (CEPA
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Dupont krovar i dfDuPont™ Krovar® I DF
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACTIVE INGREDIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 STORAGE AND DISPOSAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 NOTICE TO BUYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 First Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 LIMITATION OF WARRANTY AND LIABILITY . . . .10 Hazards to Humans and Domestic Animals . . . . . . . . . . .1 Personal Protective Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Engineering Control Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 User Safety Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Environmental Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 PRODUCT INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Use Precautions and Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Crop Rotation Bioassay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Spray Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Spray Tank Clean Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Integrated Pest Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 DIRECTIONS FOR USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 AGRICULTURAL USES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Agricultural Use Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 APPLICATION INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TANK MIXTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 WEEDS CONTROLLED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 CITRUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 California, Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Louisiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 NON-AGRICULTURAL USES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Non-Agricultural Use Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 USE RESTRICTIONS - STATE OF FLORIDA . . . . . . . . .5 APPLICATION INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 NON-CROP WEED CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Application Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Application Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Weeds Controlled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Retreating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Small Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Tank Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 SPECIAL USES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Under Asphalt and Concrete Pavement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Application Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Application Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Application Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Tank Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Important Precautions - Under Asphalt Only . . . . . . . .7 SPRAY DRIFT MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENTS
HAZARDS TO HUMANS
AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS
CAUTION: Harmful if swallowed or if absorbed
through skin. Causes moderate eye irritation. Avoid
contact with eyes, skin, or clothing.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Krovar® I DF
Some of the materials that are chemical-resistant to thisproduct are listed below. If you want more options, followthe instructions for category A on an EPA chemical- herbicide
resistant category selection chart.
Pilots, flaggers and groundboom applicators must
- Long-sleeved shirt and long pants
In addition to the above PPE, groundboom applicators must also wear: chemical-resistant gloves made of any waterproof material such as polyethylene or polyvinylchloride.
Mixers, loaders, other applicators, and other handlers
[3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] 40% must wear:
- Chemical resistant gloves made of any waterproof Nonrefillable Container
material such as polyethylene or polyvinylchloride.
- A NIOSH approved dust/mist filtering respirator with any N, R, P, or HE filter or with approval number prefix Refillable Container
- Chemical resistant apron when mixing, loading, or Follow manufacturer's instructions forcleaning/maintaining PPE. If no such instructions forwashables exist, use detergent and hot water. Keep and KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN
wash PPE separately from other laundry.
See 'Engineering Control Statement' for additional Si usted no entiende la etiqueta, busque a alguien para que ENGINEERING CONTROL STATEMENT
se la explique a usted en detalle. (If you do not understand When handlers use closed systems, enclosed cabs or this label, find someone to explain it to you in detail.) aircraft in a manner that meets the requirements listed in FIRST AID
the Worker Protection Standard (WPS) for agricultural IF ON SKIN OR CLOTHING: Take off contaminated
pesticides [40 CFR 170.240 (d)(4-6)], the handler PPE clothing. Rinse skin immediately with plenty of water for requirements may be reduced or modified as specified in 15-20 minutes. Call a poison control center or doctor for Pilots must use an enclosed cockpit that meets the IF IN EYES:
requirements listed in the Worker Protection Standard Hold eye open and rinse slowly and gently (WPS) for agricultural pesticides [40 CFR 170.240(d)(6)].
with water for 15-20 minutes. Remove contact lenses, ifpresent, after the first 5 minutes, then continue rinsing eye.
Flaggers supporting aerial applications must use an Call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice.
enclosed cab that meets the definition in the WorkerProtection Standard (WPS) for agricultural pesticides [40 IF INHALED: Move person to fresh air. If person is not
CFR 170.240(d)(5)] for dermal protection. breathing, call 911 or an ambulance, then give artificialrespiration, preferably mouth-to-mouth, if possible. Call a USER SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS
poison control center or doctor for further treatment Users should: Wash hands thoroughly with soap and
water after handling and before eating, drinking, IF SWALLOWED: Call a poison control center or doctor
chewing gum, using tobacco, or using the toilet. immediately for treatment advice. Have person sip a glass Remove clothing/PPE immediately if pesticide gets of water if able to swallow. Do not induce vomiting unless inside. Then wash thoroughly and put on clean told to do so by the poison control center or doctor. Do not give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.
Remove PPE immediately after handling this product.
Have the product container or label with you when calling Wash the outside of gloves before removing. As soon a poison control center or doctor, or going for treatment.
as possible, wash thoroughly and change into cleanclothing.
For medical emergencies involving this product, call tollfree 1-800-441-3637.
Dilute and agitate excess spray solution and apply at labeled ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS
Do not apply directly to water, or to areas where CROP ROTATION BIOASSAY
surface water is present, or to intertidal areas below In sites where KROVAR® I DF has been used, a field bioassay the mean high water mark. Do not contaminate water should be completed prior to planting any desired crop. In arid when cleaning equipment or disposing of equipmentwashwaters or rinsate. climates (10 inches of rainfall or less) or areas where drought Bromacil is known to leach through soil and has been conditions have prevailed for one or more years, a field found in ground water as a result of normal field use.
bioassay must be completed prior to planting any desired crop.
Users are advised not to apply in areas where soils are A successful field bioassay means growing to maturity a test permeable, particularly where ground water is used for strip of the crop(s) intended for production. The test strip drinking water. Consult with the pesticide state lead should cross the entire field including knolls and low areas.
agency for information regarding soil permeability andaquifer vulnerability in your area.
The results from the bioassay may require the two-year croprotation interval to be extended.
DuPont™ KROVAR® I DF is a dispersible granule to be Mixing in water - Fill tank 1/2 full with water. Start
mixed in water and applied as a spray for selective control of agitation system, add KROVAR® I DF and continue adding weeds in citrus and for non-crop weed control.
water. Add separately each additional component of any KROVAR® I DF controls many annual weeds and, at the tank-mix while adding water. Continue agitation throughout.
highest rates allowed by this label, it controls certain perennial Mixing in liquid fertilizer - A fertilizer solution may be
used in the spray mixture. Small quantities should be tested Moisture is necessary to move the herbicide into the root zone for compatibility by the following procedures before full of weeds. Best results are obtained if treatment is made to moist soil, and moisture is supplied by rainfall or sprinkler 1. Put 1 pint fertilizer solution in a quart jar.
irrigation within two weeks after application. Weed control 2. Mix 2 teaspoonfuls KROVAR® I DF with 2 tablespoons symptoms are slow to appear and may not become apparent of water; mix thoroughly and add to fertilizer solution.
until the herbicide has been carried into the root zone of theweeds by moisture. The degree and duration of control will vary with the amount of herbicide applied, soil texture, rainfall, 4. If other herbicides are used in the mixture, premix 2 and other soil and water management practices.
teaspoons of dry materials or 1 teaspoon of liquids with 2tablespoons of water; add to KROVAR® I DF-fertilizer USE PRECAUTIONS AND RESTRICTIONS
KROVAR® I DF is not to be used in any recreational areas 6. Watch mixture for several seconds; check again in 30 Injury to or loss of desirable trees or other plants may result 7. If mixture does not separate, foam, gel or become lumpy, Do not apply (except as recommended for crop use), or drain or flush equipment on or near desirable trees or other plants,or on areas where their roots may extend, or in locations Provided the above procedure shows the mixture to be where the chemical may be washed or moved into contact compatible, prepare the tank mixture as follows: Add the with their roots. Do not use on lawns, walks, driveways, fertilizer solution to the spray tank first; with agitator tennis courts or similar areas. Do not use in home fruit running, add the required amount of KROVAR® I DF and plantings nor in citrus orchards interplanted to other trees or desirable plants. Prevent drift of dry powder or spray to Mixing with other herbicides - Determine the tank mixture
desirable plants. Keep from contact with fertilizers, partner(s) compatibility with KROVAR® I DF by following the directions above. For Step 1 above, use 1 pint of water Do not apply this product through any type of irrigation instead of the liquid fertilizer. Provided the above procedure shows the mixture to be compatible, KROVAR® I DF may Treated areas may be planted to citrus trees one year after SPRAY TANK CLEAN OUT
last application. Do not replant to other crops within twoyears after last application as injury may result.
Thoroughly clean all traces of DuPont™ KROVAR® I DF NOTE: Additional Precautions
from application equipment immediately after use. Flush the Avoid storage of pesticides near well sites.
tank, pump, hoses, and boom with several changes of water Calibrate sprayers only with clean water away from the well after removing nozzle tips and screens (clean these parts separately). Dispose of the equipment wash water by Measure out only enough KROVAR® I DF for the job at applying it to a use-site listed on this label.
Avoid over-filling the spray tank.
Do not discharge excess material as a point source.
When herbicides that affect the same biological site of actionare used repeatedly over several years to control the same AGRICULTURAL USE REQUIREMENTS
weed species in the same field, naturally-occurring resistant Use this product only in accordance with its labeling and biotypes may survive a correctly applied herbicide treatment, with the Worker Protection Standard, 40 CFR part 170.
propagate, and become dominant in that field. Adequate This Standard contains requirements for the protection of control of these resistant weed biotypes cannot be expected.
agricultural workers on farms, forests, nurseries, andgreenhouses, and handlers of agricultural pesticides. It If weed control is unsatisfactory, it may be necessary to contains requirements for training, decontamination, retreat the problem area using a product affecting a different notification, and emergency assistance. It also contains specific instructions and exceptions pertaining to the To better manage herbicide resistance through delaying the statements on this label about personal protectiveequipment(PPE) and restricted-entry interval. The proliferation and possible dominance of herbicide resistant requirements in this box only apply to uses of this weed biotypes, it may be necessary to change cultural product that are covered by the Worker Protection practices within and between crop seasons such as using a combination of tillage, retreatment, tank-mix partners and/or Do not enter or allow worker entry into treated areas sequential herbicide applications that have a different site of during the restricted entry interval (REI) of 12 hours.
action. Weed escapes that are allowed to go to seed will PPE required for early entry to treated areas that is promote the spread of resistant biotypes. permitted under the Worker Protection Standard and that It is advisable to keep accurate records of pesticides applied involves contact with anything that has been treated, suchas plants, soil, or water, is: to individual fields to help obtain information on the spread and dispersal of resistant biotypes. Consult your agricultural Chemical Resistant Gloves made of any Waterproof dealer, consultant, applicator, and/or appropriate state agricultural extension service representative for specific alternative cultural practices or herbicide recommendationsavailable in your area.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT
Apply KROVAR® I DF with a properly calibrated fixed-boom This product may be used as part of an Integrated Pest power sprayer as a band or broadcast treatment. Apply any Management (IPM) program that can include biological, time of year provided overhead moisture (rainfall or sprinkler cultural, and genetic practices aimed at preventing economic irrigation) is available to activate the herbicide, preferably just pest damage. IPM principles and practices include field before or just after weeds have germinated. scouting or other detection methods, correct target pestidentification, population monitoring, and treating when All use rates of KROVAR® I DF are expressed for broadcast target pest populations reach locally determined action treatments. For band treatments, use proportionately less. thresholds. Consult your state cooperative extension service, Use sufficient spray volume (minimum of 10 gallons per acre) professional consultants or other qualified authorities to to provide uniform coverage of the treated area and to allow determine appropriate action treatment threshold levels for proper dispersion and suspension of the product in the spray treating specific pest/crop systems in your area.
tank. Continuous agitation in the spray tank is required to keep DIRECTIONS FOR USE
the product in suspension. Agitate spray tank contents bymechanical or hydraulic means. If a by-pass or return line is It is a violation of federal law to use this product in a manner used, it should terminate at a bottom of tank to minimize inconsistent with its labeling. DuPont™ KROVAR® I DF herbicide must only be used in accordance with instructions on Best results are obtained if KROVAR® I DF is applied to bare this label. For any requirements specific to your State or Tribe, ground. If weeds are present at application, tank mixtures with consult the agency responsible for pesticide regulation. foliar active herbicides are recommended (see Tank Mixtures Do not apply this product in a way that will contact workers section of label). If dense populations of hard-to-kill weed or other persons, either directly or through drift. Only species are present, control of these weeds prior to application protected handlers may be in the area during application. Use of this product in certain portions of California, Oregon, TANK MIXTURES
and Washington is subject to the January 22, 2004 Order forinjunctive relief in Washington Toxics Coalition et al vs EPA, KROVAR® I DF may be tank mixed with other suitable Co1-132C (W.D. W.A.). For information, please refer to herbicides registered for use in citrus. Refer to the tank mixture partner label(s) for any additional use information orrestrictions. Follow the label guidelines that are the mostrestrictive.
KROVAR® I DF may also be tank mixed with appropriateadjuvants used with herbicides in citrus.
NOTE: If there is no prior use experience with the tankmixture combination, a compatibility test should be performedprior to adding the products into the spray tank. See SPRAYPREPARATION section of the label for further information.
When using DuPont™ KROVAR® I DF alone or in Do not use in citrus groves inter-planted with other trees or combination, thoroughly re-agitate the spray tank contents if desirable plants or in areas where roots of desirable plants or WEEDS CONTROLLED
For all states listed below, when making multiple applications, do not apply at less than 60 day intervals to trees less than 4 years old and 80 days to trees 4 years old or greater. A maximum of two applications of product per year is allowed.
Thoroughly clean all traces of KROVAR® I DF from application equipment immediately after use. Flush tank, pump, hoses and boom with several changes of water after removing nozzle tips and screens (clean these parts CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA
Trees Established for at least Three Years:
occur when applied in late fall or early winter, but before winter annuals become well established. Application should be made after the first fall or early winter rains have settled the For the initial treatment, apply 4-5 pounds KROVAR® I DF per acre on coarse soils containing 1-2% organic matter and 5- 6 pounds per acre on fine soils, or soils with organic matter of 2 1/2% or more. Alternatively, apply 3-4 pounds per acre in the fall and repeat at 2-4 pounds per acre in the spring. Do not Use the highest rate allowed by this label where groundsel or puncturevine are known to be a problem. These rates will also suppress low density stands of bermudagrass and yellow nutsedge. Repeat annually for best treatment effect.
Perennials (At maximum rates and repeat treatments)
The use of KROVAR® I DF (bromacil + diuron) is prohibited for weed control in non-bedded citrus groves located on any permeable, better drained soil identified in the intended site of application. Permeable, better drained soils NOTE: Use the highest rates allowed by this label for best
which occur in citrus producing areas of the state include control of perennial weeds listed on this label. Partial control soils unnamed and characteristic of quartzipsamments, and of perennial weeds can result with only a single treatment of the following soil series classifications: KROVAR® I DF. Repeat applications are required (in season and/or annually) for best control of the perennial weeds on this label. Control of perennials may be improved by cultivation prior to treatment, otherwise, avoid working the soil as long as weed control continues or else effectiveness of the treatment may be reduced.
Apply KROVAR® I DF as a band or broadcast treatment APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS
beneath and/or between trees. Aerial application is prohibitedin citrus.
Apply KROVAR® I DF as a band treatment only using a
properly calibrated fixed-boom power sprayer. Do not use
Avoid contact of citrus foliage and fruit with spray or mist.
Trunk to Trunk. All use rates of KROVAR® I DF are
Avoid overlapping and shut off spray boom while starting, expressed for broadcast treatments. For band treatments, use turning, slowing or stopping as injury to trees may result. Temporary yellowing of citrus leaves may occur following Use sufficient spray volume (minimum of 10 gallons per treatment. As injury to citrus trees may result, do not use on acre) to provide uniform coverage of the treated area and to soils with less than 1% organic matter. Do not use on poorly allow proper dispersion and suspension of the product in the drained soils, gravelly soils or thinly covered or exposed sub- spray tank. Continuous agitation in the spray tank is required Do not treat trees planted in irrigation furrows. Do not treat Do not apply more than 16 pounds of KROVAR® I DF per treated acre per year. This amount corresponds to 6.4 poundsof bromacil and 6.4 pounds of diuron, the active ingredientsin KROVAR® I DF .
The maximum allowable use rate for bromacil is 6.4 pounds NON-AGRICULTURAL USES
per treated acre per year inclusive of all bromacilformulations. The maximum allowable use rate for diuron is NON-AGRICULTURAL USE
6.4 pounds per treated acre per year inclusive of all diuron REQUIREMENTS
Multiple applications may improve control of “hard-to-kill” The requirements in this box apply to uses of this product that are NOT within the scope of the Worker Trees Established Less Than One Year: For control of
Protection Standard for agricultural pesticides (40 CFR annual weeds, apply 2-4 pounds of DuPont™ KROVAR® I Part170). The WPS applies when this product is used DF per treated acre to maintain weed control. Do not apply to produce agricultural plants on farms, forests, more than 6 pounds per treated acre during any 6 month period nor more than 8 pounds per treated acre during the Noncrop weed control is not within the scope of the Trees Established One to Three Years: For control of
Do not enter or allow others to enter the treated area annual weeds, apply 2-4 pounds of KROVAR® I DF per treated acre. A second application may be made whenneeded to maintain weed control, but do not exceed 8 pounds USE RESTRICTIONS - STATE OF FLORIDA
per treated acre per year.
Trees Established Three or More Years: Apply 4-8
In the state of Florida the use of KROVAR® I DF (bromacil pounds per treated acre to maintain weed control. Do not + diuron) is prohibited in the counties of Hardee, Highland, apply more than 16 pounds of KROVAR® I DF per treated Polk, Orange and Lake. For Non-Agricultural Usage in all other areas of the state, do not apply more than 16 pounds LOUISIANA
per acre per year of KROVAR® I DF. This amountcorresponds to 6.4 pounds of bromacil and 6.4 pounds of Trees Established for at least Three Years: Make a single
diuron, the active ingredients in KROVAR® I DF. The application of 2 to 4 pounds per acre on coarser soils (sands, maximum allowable use rate for bromacil is 6.4 pounds per loamy sands, sandy loams) and 4 to 6 pounds per acre on finer acre per year inclusive of all bromacil formulations.
soils (silt loams, clay loams, or soils with organic matter of 21/2% or more); use the highest rate allowed by this label for APPLICATION INFORMATION
maximum suppression of perennials. Alternatively, make two KROVAR® I DF is recommended for general weed control applications per year at rates of 2 pounds per acre on coarser as follows: uncultivated non-agricultural areas (such as, soils and 3 pounds per acre on finer soils; make the second airports, highway, railroad and utility rights-of-way, sewage application when needed to maintain weed control. Do not disposal areas); uncultivated agricultural areas (non-crop apply more than 6 pounds per acre per year.
producing, which includes: farmyards, fuel storage areas, fence rows, barrier strips); industrial sites (outdoor, such as, Trees Established Less than One Year:
KROVAR® I DF per acre to maintain weed control. Do not Apply KROVAR® I DF using a properly calibrated fixed- apply at less than 60-day intervals. Do not apply more than 6 boom power sprayer. Use sufficient spray volume (minimum of 10 gallons per acre) to provide uniform coverage of the Trees Established One or Two Years:
treated area and to allow proper dispersion and suspension of the product in the spray tank. All rates of KROVAR® I DF KROVAR® I DF per acre. A second application may be made are expressed for broadcast treatments. For band treatments, when needed to maintain weed control, but do not exceed 6 pounds per acre per year.
Trees Established Three or More Years: Make one to two
A maximum of 12 pounds active ingredient bromacil per applications per year to maintain weed control. Use 2-4 pounds acre per year is allowed. A maximum of 12 pounds active per acre on coarser soils (sands, loamy sands, sandy loams) ingredient diuron is allowed per acre per year in areas of high and 4-6 pounds per acre on finer soils (silt loams, clay loams, rainfall or dense vegetation. A maximum of 8 pounds of or soils with organic matter of 2 1/2 % or more). Use the active ingredient diuron is allowed in all other areas. Apply higher rate for maximum suppression of perennials. Do not a maximum of two applications per year. The minimum use more than 6 pounds per acre per year.
Combination with other herbicides broadens the spectrum of
weeds controlled. In addition, total vegetation control can be
achieved with higher rates of KROVAR® I DF plus residual-
type companion herbicides. To improve the control of
emerged weeds, add surfactant at 0.25% by volume.
Note: Applications may also be made using a handgun
sprayer. Use a spray volume of at least 40 gallons per acre to
insure uniform coverage. For small areas, a hand sprayer or
sprinkling may be used.
NON-CROP WEED CONTROL
Broadleaf Weeds--12-16 pounds per acre
Apply DuPont™ KROVAR® I DF as a preemergence spray prior to or during the rainy season when weeds are actively Grasses--6-8 pounds per acre
germinating or growing. Moisture is required to activate and move KROVAR® I DF into the root zone of weeds for preemergence control. For best preemergence control, apply prior to rainfall and weed germination.
In arid regions of the Western U.S., to insure adequate moisture for activation and even dispersion of the herbicide in the soil profile, KROVAR® I DF should be applied several weeks prior to the Fall freeze or shortly after Spring thaw to Grasses--8-12 pounds per acre
coincide with periods of higher seasonal moisture probability.
Do not treat frozen or saturated soils, or soils that are non- Do not apply to sites which have roots of desirable plants growing into the treatment zone as plant injury or death may Grasses--12-16 pounds per acre
occur. Do not apply to hard or impervious soils, water saturated soils or to any surface that does not allow the herbicide to be moved into the soil horizon with moisture.
Unusually heavy rainfall shortly after application may move *Note: Best control of Saltgrass and Sand Dropseed is the product off-target to the lowest surrounding point and achieved from a Spring application prior to plant green-up.
For control of hard-to-kill perennials such as bermudagrass If herbicide treated soil is disturbed by any physical or (Cynodon dactylon), bouncingbet (Saporaria officinalis), mechanical means, the herbicide barrier is disrupted and the dogbane (Apocynum spp.), Johnsongrass (Sorghum likelihood of non-performance may increase. For best halepense), and nutsedge (Cyperus spp.) apply 19 - 30 pounds performance results, make sure the treatment area is stable after the application for the desired weed control period.
For extended control of annual weeds and partial control of APPLICATION RATES
perennials such as bermudagrass and nutsedge, apply 10-18 Apply KROVAR® I DF at the rates indicated by weed type.
pounds* per acre. Use the higher KROVAR® I DF rates on When applied at lower rates, KROVAR® I DF provides short- adsorptive soils (high in organic matter or carbon). Best results term control of weeds listed; when applied at higher rates, occur when application is made just before weed emergence or WEEDS CONTROLLED
Retreating: Apply 4 to 6 pounds per acre when annual weeds
KROVAR® I DF effectively controls the following broadleaf and grasses reappear on sites where weed growth has been weeds and grasses when applied at the rates shown.
Broadleaf Weeds--6-8 pounds per acre
Small Areas: 1/4 cupful of KROVAR® I DF per 200 sq. ft. is
KROVAR® I DF may be tank mixed with other suitable herbicides registered for non-agricultural use. Refer to the tank mixture partner label(s) for any additional use information or restrictions. Follow the label guidelines that are the most KROVAR® I DF may also be tank mixed with appropriate Broadleaf Weeds--8-12 pounds per acre
adjuvants used with herbicides for non-agricultural use.
NOTE: If there is no prior use experience with the tank mixture combination, a compatibility test should be performed prior to adding the products into the spray tank. See SPRAY PREPARATION section of the label for further information.
When using KROVAR® I DF alone or in combination, thoroughly re-agitate the spray tank contents if allowed to SPECIAL USES
CONTROLLING DROPLET SIZE - GENERAL
UNDER ASPHALT AND CONCRETE PAVEMENT
• Volume - Use high flow rate nozzles to apply the highest
practical spray volume. Nozzles with higher rated flowsproduce larger droplets.
DuPont™ KROVAR® I DF can be used to control weedsunder asphalt and concrete pavement, such as that used in • Pressure - Use the lower spray pressures recommended for
parking lots, highway shoulders, median strips, roadways, and the nozzle. Higher pressure reduces droplet size and does not improve canopy penetration. WHEN HIGHER FLOWRATES ARE NEEDED, USE A HIGHER-CAPACITY KROVAR® I DF should only be used in an area that has been NOZZLE INSTEAD OF INCREASING PRESSURE.
prepared according to good constructions practices. Use • Nozzle Type - Use a nozzle type that is designed for the
sufficient water to insure uniform coverage, generally 100 gal intended application. With most nozzle types, narrower per acre. Agitate the tank continuously to keep spray angles produce larger droplets. Consider using low- APPLICATION TIMING
CONTROLLING DROPLET SIZE - AIRCRAFT
KROVAR® I DF should be applied immediately before paving • Number of Nozzles - Use the minimum number of nozzles
to avoid lateral movement of the herbicide as a result of soil with the highest flow rate that provide uniform coverage.
movement due to rainfall or mechanical means.
• Nozzle Orientation - Orienting nozzles so that the spray is
emitted backwards, parallel to the airstream will producelarger droplets than other orientations.
Apply KROVAR® I DF at 17 to 30 pounds per acre. Use ahigher rate for hard to control weeds and/or for longer term • Nozzle Type - Solid stream nozzles (such as disc and core
with swirl plate removed) oriented straight back producelarger droplets than other nozzle types.
BOOM LENGTH AND HEIGHT
To control a broader spectrum of weeds, or for an extended • Boom Length (aircraft) - The boom length should not
period of weed control, a tank mixture of KROVAR® I DF at exceed 3/4 of the wing length, using shorter booms 7 to 15 pounds per acre plus DuPont™ OUST® XP at 4 to 8 decreases drift potential. For helicopters use a boom length and position that prevents droplets from entering the rotor IMPORTANT PRECAUTIONS-UNDER ASPHALT
• Boom Height (aircraft) - Application more than 10 ft above
• Do not use KROVAR® I DF under pavement in residential the canopy increases the potential for spray drift.
properties such as driveways, or in recreational areas, • Boom Height (ground) Setting the boom at the lowest
including jogging or bike paths, tennis courts, or golf cart height which provides uniform coverage reduces the exposure of droplets to evaporation and wind. The boom • Desirable plants may be injured if their roots extend into should remain level with the crop and have minimal bounce. treated areas or if planted in treated areas.
SPRAY DRIFT MANAGEMENT
Drift potential increases at wind speeds of less than 3 mph (dueto variable direction and inversion potential) or more than 10 The interaction of many equipment and weather-related factors mph. However, many factors, including droplet size and determines the potential for spray drift. The applicator is equipment type determine drift potential at any given wind responsible for considering all these factors when making speed. AVOID APPLICATIONS DURING GUSTY OR AVOIDING SPRAY DRIFT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF NOTE: Local terrain can influence wind patterns. Every
applicator should be familiar with local wind patterns and how IMPORTANCE OF DROPLET SIZE
The most effective way to reduce drift potential is to apply TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
large droplets (>150 - 200 microns). The best drift When making applications in hot and dry conditions, set up management strategy is to apply the largest droplets that equipment to produce larger droplets to reduce effects of provide sufficient coverage and control. The presence of sensitive species nearby, the environmental conditions, andpest pressure may affect how an applicator balances drift SURFACE TEMPERATURE INVERSIONS
control and coverage. APPLYING LARGER DROPLETS Drift potential is high during a surface temperature inversion.
Surface inversions restrict vertical air mixing, which causes small suspended droplets to remain close to the ground and move laterally in a concentrated cloud. Surface inversions are ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS! See Wind,
characterized by increasing temperature with altitude and are Temperature and Humidity, and Surface Temperature
common on nights with limited cloud cover and light to no Inversions sections of this label.
wind. They begin to form as the sun sets and often continueinto the morning. Their presence can be indicated by ground fog; however, if fog is not present, inversions can also beidentified by the movement of smoke from a ground source or STORAGE AND DISPOSAL
an aircraft smoke generator. Smoke that layers and moves Do not contaminate water, food, or feed by storage or laterally in a concentrated cloud (under low wind conditions) indicates a surface inversion, while smoke that moves upward Pesticide Storage: Store product in original container
and rapidly dissipates indicates good vertical air mixing.
Pesticide Disposal: Waste resulting from the use of
this product must be disposed of on site or at an
Shielding the boom or individual nozzles can reduce the effects of wind. However, it is the responsibility of the applicator to Container Handling: Refer to the Net Contents
verify that the shields are preventing drift and not interfering section of this product’s labeling for the applicable
with uniform deposition of the product.
“Nonrefillable Container” or “Refillable
Nonrefillable Plastic and Metal Containers
The pesticide should only be applied when the potential for (Capacity Equal to or Less Than 50 Pounds):
drift to adjacent sensitive areas (eg., residential areas, bodies of Nonrefillable container. Do not reuse or refill this water, known habitat for threatened or endangered species, container. Triple rinse container (or equivalent) non-target crops) is minimal (eg., when wind is blowing away promptly after emptying. Triple rinse as follows: Empty the remaining contents into application
equipment or a mix tank. Fill the container 1/4 full
with water and recap. Shake for 10 seconds. Pour
rinsate into application equipment or a mix tank or
store rinsate for later use or disposal. Drain for 10
seconds after the flow begins to drip. Repeat this
procedure two more times. Then, for Plastic
Containers, offer for recycling if available or puncture
and dispose of in a sanitary landfill, or by incineration.
Do not burn, unless allowed by state and local
ordinances. For Metal Containers, offer for recycling
if available or reconditioning if appropriate, or
puncture and dispose of in a sanitary landfill, or by
other procedures approved by state and local
Nonrefillable Plastic and Metal Containers
(Capacity Greater Than 50 Pounds): Nonrefillable
container. Do not reuse or refill this container. Triple
rinse container (or equivalent) promptly after
emptying. Triple rinse as follows: Empty the
remaining contents into application equipment or a
mix tank. Fill the container 1/4 full with water.
Replace and tighten closures. Tip container on its side
and roll it back and forth, ensuring at least one
complete revolution, for 30 seconds. Stand the
container on its end and tip it back and forth several
times. Turn the container over onto its other end and
tip it back and forth several times. Empty the rinsate
into application equipment or a mix tank or store
rinsate for later use or disposal. Repeat this procedure
two more times. Then, for Plastic Containers, offer for
recycling if available or puncture and dispose of in a
sanitary landfill, or by incineration. Do not burn,
unless allowed by state and local ordinances. For
Metal Containers, offer for recycling if available or
reconditioning if appropriate, or puncture and dispose
of in a sanitary landfill, or by other procedures
approved by state and local authorities.
Nonrefillable Plastic and Metal Containers, e.g.,
All Other Refillable Containers: Refillable
Intermediate Bulk Containers [IBC] (Size or Shape
container. Refilling Container: Refill this container Too Large to be Tipped, Rolled or Turned Upside
with KROVAR® I DF containing bromacil and diuron Down): Nonrefillable container. Do not reuse or refill
only. Do not reuse this container for any other this container. Clean container promptly after purpose. Cleaning before refilling is the responsibility emptying the contents from this container into of the refiller. Prior to refilling, inspect carefully for application equipment or mix tank and before final damage such as cracks, punctures, abrasions, worn out disposal using the following pressure rinsing threads and closure devices. If damage is found, do procedure. Insert a lance fitted with a suitable tank not use the container, contact DuPont at the number cleaning nozzle into the container and ensure that the below for instructions. Check for leaks after refilling water spray thoroughly covers the top, bottom and all and before transporting. If leaks are found, do not sides inside the container. The nozzle manufacturer reuse or transport container, contact DuPont at the generally provides instructions for the appropriate number below for instructions. Disposing of spray pressure, spray duration and/or spray volume. If Container: Do not reuse this container for any other the manufacturer’s instructions are not available, purpose other than refilling (see preceding). Cleaning pressure rinse the container for at least 60 seconds the container before final disposal is the responsibility using a minimum pressure of 30 PSI with a minimum of the person disposing of the container. To clean the rinse volume of 10% of the container volume. Drain, container before final disposal, use the following pour or pump rinsate into application equipment or pressure rinsing procedure. Insert a lance fitted with a rinsate collection system. Repeat this pressure rinsing suitable tank cleaning nozzle into the container and procedure two more times. Then, for Plastic ensure that the water spray thoroughly covers the top, Containers, offer for recycling if available or puncture bottom and all sides inside the container. The nozzle and dispose of in a sanitary landfill, or by incineration.
manufacturer generally provides instructions for the For Metal Containers, offer for recycling if available appropriate spray pressure, spray duration and/or or reconditioning if appropriate, or puncture and spray volume. If the manufacturer’s instructions are dispose of in a sanitary landfill, or by other procedures not available, pressure rinse the container for at least approved by state and local authorities.
60 seconds using a minimum pressure of 30 PSI with aminimum rinse volume of 10% of the container Nonrefillable Paper or Plastic Bags, Fiber Sacks
volume. Drain, pour or pump rinsate into application including Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers
equipment or rinsate collection system. Repeat this (FIBC) or Fiber Drums With Liners: Nonrefillable
pressure rinsing procedure two more times. Then, for container. Do not reuse or refill this container.
Plastic Containers, offer for recycling if available or Completely empty paper or plastic bag, fiber sack or puncture and dispose of in a sanitary landfill, or by drum liner by shaking and tapping sides and bottom to incineration. Do not burn, unless allowed by state and loosen clinging particles. Empty residue into local ordinances. For Metal Containers, offer for application or manufacturing equipment. Then offer recycling if available or reconditioning if appropriate, for recycling if available or dispose of empty paper or or puncture and dispose of in a sanitary landfill, or by plastic bag, fiber sack or fiber drum and liner in a other procedures approved by state and local sanitary landfill, or by incineration. Do not burn, unless allowed by state and local ordinances.
Outer Foil Pouches of Water Soluble Packets
Refillable Fiber Drums With Liners: Refillable
(WSP): Nonrefillable container. Do not reuse or refill
container (fiber drum only). Refilling Fiber Drum: this container. Offer for recycling if available or, Refill this fiber drum with DuPont™ KROVAR® I dispose of the empty outer foil pouch in the trash as DF containing bromacil and diuron only. Do not reuse long as WSP is unbroken. If the outer pouch contacts this fiber drum for any other purpose. Cleaning before the formulated product in any way, the pouch must be refilling is the responsibility of the refiller. Completely triple rinsed with clean water. Add the rinsate to the empty liner by shaking and tapping sides and bottom spray tank and dispose of the outer pouch as described to loosen clinging particles. Empty residue into application or manufacturing equipment. Disposing ofFiber Drum and/or Liner: Do not reuse this fiber Do not transport if this container is damaged or drum for any other purpose other than refilling (see leaking. If the container is damaged, leaking or preceding). Cleaning the container (liner and/or fiber obsolete, or in the event of a major spill, fire or other drum) before final disposal is the responsibility of the emergency, contact DuPont at 1-800-441-3637, day or person disposing of the container. Offer the liner for recycling if available or dispose of liner in a sanitarylandfill, or by incineration. Do not burn, unless NOTICE TO BUYER: Purchase of this material does not
allowed by state and local ordinances. If drum is confer any rights under patents of countries outside of the contaminated and cannot be reused, dispose of it in the manner required for its liner. To clean the fiber drumbefore final disposal, completely empty the fiber drum The DuPont Oval, DuPont™, KROVAR® and OUST® are by shaking and tapping sides and bottom to loosen trademarks or registered trademarks of E. I. duPont de clinging particles. Empty residue into application or manufacturing equipment. Then offer the fiber drumfor recycling if available or dispose of in a sanitarylandfill, or by incineration. Do not burn, unlessallowed by state and local ordinances.
SL - 1539 042210 04-14-10
WARRANTY AND LIABILITY
NOTICE: Read this Limitation of Warranty andLiability Before Buying or Using This Product. If theTerms Are Not Acceptable, Return the Product at Once,Unopened, and the Purchase Price Will Be Refunded.
It is impossible to eliminate all risks associated with theuse of this product. Such risks arise from weatherconditions, soil factors, off target movement,unconventional farming techniques, presence of othermaterials, the manner of use or application, or otherunknown factors, all of which are beyond the control ofDuPont. These risks can cause: ineffectiveness of theproduct, crop injury, or injury to non-target crops orplants. WHEN YOU BUY OR USE THIS PRODUCT,YOU AGREE TO ACCEPT THESE RISKS.
DuPont warrants that this product conforms to thechemical description on the label thereof and isreasonably fit for the purpose stated in the Directions forUse, subject to the inherent risks described above, whenused in accordance with the Directions for Use undernormal conditions.
TO THE EXTENT CONSISTENT WITHAPPLICABLE LAW, DUPONT MAKES NO OTHEREXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY OF FITNESSOR OF MERCHANTABILITY OR ANY OTHEREXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY. TO THEEXTENT CONSISTENT WITH APPLICABLE LAW,IN NO EVENT SHALL DUPONT OR SELLER BELIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL,CONSEQUENTIAL OR SPECIAL DAMAGESRESULTING FROM THE USE OR HANDLING OFTHIS PRODUCT. BUYER'S OR USER'SBARGAINED-FOR EXPECTATION IS CROPPROTECTION. TO THE EXTENT CONSISTENTWITH APPLICABLE LAW, THE EXCLUSIVEREMEDY OF THE USER OR BUYER AND THEEXCLUSIVE LIABILITY OF DUPONT OR SELLER,FOR ANY AND ALL CLAIMS, LOSSES, INJURIESOR DAMAGES (INCLUDING CLAIMS BASED ONBREACH OF WARRANTY OR CONTRACT,NEGLIGENCE, TORT OR STRICT LIABILITY),WHETHER FROM FAILURE TO PERFORM ORINJURY TO CROPS OR OTHER PLANTS, ANDRESULTING FROM THE USE OR HANDLING OFTHIS PRODUCT, SHALL BE THE RETURN OF THEPURCHASE PRICE OF THE PRODUCT, OR AT THEELECTION OF DUPONT OR SELLER, THEREPLACEMENT OF THE PRODUCT.
To the extent consistent with applicable law that allowssuch requirement, DuPont or its Ag Retailer must haveprompt notice of any claim so that an immediateinspection of buyer's or user's growing crops can bemade. Buyer and all users shall promptly notify DuPontor a DuPont Ag Retailer of any claims, whether basedon contract, negligence, strict liability, other tort orotherwise, or be barred from any remedy.
This Limitation of Warranty and Liability may not beamended by any oral or written agreement.
For product information call: 1-888-6-DUPONT
Internet address: www.dupont.com/ag/us
1999-2010 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, 1007 Market Street, Wilmington, Delaware 19898.
All rights reserved.
Plenary Lecture 11:10 - 12:10 International Conference Hall PL 03 Chair: Jinglong Wu , Kagawa University, Japan Differential Contribution of Early Visual Areas to Perception of Contextual Effects: fMRI Studies Yoshimichi Ejima, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan Tutorial 15:30 - 16:10 International Conference Hall T 02 Chair: Satoru Miyauchi, National Institute of