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1326.pdfANALYSES OF MARTIAN SURFACE MATERIALS DURING THE MARS SURVEYOR 2001 MISSION BY THE
ATHENA INSTRUMENT PAYLOAD. R. V. Morris (NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058
email@example.com), S. W. Squyres and J. F. Bell III (Cornell University), P. H. Christensen (Arizona State University),
T. Economou (University of Chicago), G. Klingelhöfer and P. Held (T.H. Darmstadt), L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L Jolliff
(Washington University), and R. Rieder (Max Planck Institut für Chemie, Mainz).
Introduction. The scientific study of Mars by rovers
chemical standard derived from an iron ore deposit. AKB-1 requires instrumentation for elemental and mineralogical is an amygdaloidal basalt from the Keweenawan peninsula analyses of surface materials. Athena, the rover payload for (MI). MAN-74-342A is an impact melt rock from the Mars Surveyor 2001 mission, includes a panoramic camera with multispectral imaging capability (Pancam), a Results and Discussion. Representative spectra are
thermal emission spectrometer (Mini-TES), an alpha proton shown in Figure 1. Specific elements and mineralogies firmly x-ray spectrometer (APXS), a Mössbauer spectrometer, and identified in each sample are listed in Table 1 by instrument.
(possibly) a Raman spectrometer. It also includes a Note (1) that the APXS instrument has good energy microscopic imager, plus a coring device (the Mini-Corer) resolution which produces high-quality elemental abundance that can obtain samples of soil and rocks for subsequent data and (2) that the mineralogy instruments (particularly Mössbauer and Raman) provide a detailed and In order to demonstrate the comprehensive, comprehensive mineralogical assessment. Although discriminating, and synergistic nature of the instruments on Mössbauer and Raman are the most sensitive to mineralogy, the Athena payload, we analyzed seven samples using flight they (like APXS for elemental abundance measurements) prototypes for the Mini-TES, APXS, and Mössbauer require proximity to samples for analysis. Because Pancam instruments, an Athena-like laboratory Raman instrument, and Mini-TES can perform analyses on any area in the field and Pancam spectra calculated from convolution of of view, they can be used to map rock types whose laboratory reflectance data over the Pancam bandpasses.
mineralogies (and elemental composition) are then determined Samples. We analyzed Zagami (a SNC meteorite) that
more precisely with all five instruments. The figure and table contains primary igneous phases, plus six analogs for demonstrate how the instruments will work together in Martian surface materials. TRATIV1 is a sample of massive different and complementary ways to analyze Martian calcite (travertine). The remaining four samples are heavily materials, and to select samples for collection and return to oxidized. HWMK600 and HWMK24 are palagonitic and jarositic tephra samples from Mauna Kea (HI). BCS-301 is a Table 1. Elements (>2% abundance) and mineralogies firmly identified by Athena instruments.
1. Ol=olivine; Px=pyroxene; OPx=orthopyroxene; CPx=clinopyroxene; Pl=plagioclase; Sil=silicate; Ma=maskelynite;Zeo=zeolite; Phy=phyllosilicate; TiMt=titanomagnetite; Ilm=ilmenite; Hm=hematite; Gt=goethite; npOx=nanophase ferricoxide; FeOx=iron oxide; FeSul=iron sulfide; Jar=jarosite; Cal=calcite; Car=Fe,Mg,Ca-carbonate; Ap=apatite; Wh=whitlockite.
2. Not analyzed.
IN SITU ANALYSIS OF MARTIAN SURFACE MATERIALS: Morris R. V. et al.
Athena composition and mineralogy instruments. Except as noted, samples are powders. (a) Pancam spectra. (b) Mini-TES emissivity spectra from a (c) X-Ray and (d) alpha spectra from APXS flight protype. (e) Backscatter Zagam; calculated from transmission spectrum).
The Journal of Positive PsychologyVol. 4, No. 2, March 2009, 128–144Youth life satisfaction measures: a reviewCarmel Proctora*, P. Alex Linleyb and John MaltbyaaSchool of Psychology, University of Leicester, UK; bCentre for Applied Positive Psychology, University of Warwick(Received 25 August 2008; final version received 6 January 2009)The burgeoning field of positive psychology has highlig