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Microsoft word - mstr grdnr present 1 2 bio reformat as printed w headerMASTER GARDNER INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
Sponsored by The University of California, Davis DYNAMIC GROWING FOR MASTER GARDENERS
WILLIAM R. JACKSON, PhD
Author, Consultant, Educator
This concise synopsis was made available to the Master Gardeners International for its Conference July 15-19, 1997, in Sacramento, California. At the time of this presentation on July 16, the audience selected three of the
1. COMPOST - CARBON RESERVE: THE POWER PACK
(A) What are humic substances and what can they do?
(B) Trace minerals and plant electrolytes.
In the unwinding of the sun, we experience light energy available to spaceship earth. The radiation of the sun is involved in the action and design of photosynthesis through green buds and leaves. Also involved are various heats, the passage of time, and earth pressures. Through digestion, disintegration, and transformation processes, humic substance molecules are manufactured, representing sun-energy impoundment. This is light energy converted to mass chemical energy, thus humified and made available and usable to spaceship earth plants and animals as biological energy. This is the unwinding of the sun reflected as the carbon power pack, in the form of The high-molecular-weight humic substances, humic acids and humates, alter the physical characteristics of the soil while the low-molecular-weight humic substances, fulvic acids and fulvates, are involved in chemical reactions in the soil that influence plants' metabolic processes. Fulvic acids can form through the enzymatic and/or chemical oxidation of humic acids. Both fulvic acids and humic acids found in soil result from the chemical and biological degradation of dead organisms. The formation of these substances may come about by the oxidative changes of organic fragments, microbial synthesis, or chemical condensation after biological breakdown or self-digestion of humic biomass. HUMIC AND FULVIC SUBSTANCES
Aid plant tissues requiring free oxygen for aerobic respiration, and thus provide metabolic energy Combine with sunlight and photosynthesis to furnish metabolic energy. When used as a dilute solution for foliar spray, cause plants to experience a notable uptake of • Not only assist plant respiration, but also increase the production and productivity of Assist plant respiration; for example, the combination of various plant root storage tissue and humic and fulvic substances serve as hydrogen acceptors. Produce energy involving photosynthesis, enhancing this process which includes the biochemical manufacture of complex organic materials, especially carbohydrates from carbon dioxide, water, trace mineral, and inorganic salts, along with sunlight energy for chlorophyll production. Increase the chlorophyll content in plant leaves when the plant is provided with root nutrient or Accentuate plant cell reproduction by stimulating the production of nucleic acids for DNA and Directly influence the development of enzymes and the net enzyme synthesis. Contain auxins; auxins are involved in the chelation of iron for the plant, improving growth, health, and nutrient intensity of the plant, especially the development of the root system of the plant.
2. WATER: ITS PROPERTIES AND RESULTS
Water has unique properties with respect to cellular activities that make life on earth possible. It has been calculated that living things consist of from 70% to 90% water. The chemical properties of water are absolutely essential to the development and continuation of all life. Water, which forms more than Sponsored by The University of California, Davis three-fourths of all cell tissue content, has the highest known di-electric constant. This property of water is responsible for the ionization of the infinite number of molecules that water holds in suspension or in solution. Water is also one of the most important catalysts known. Humic and fulvic acids solubilize in water and make available to plants certain nutrients and trace minerals that would be unavailable otherwise. One of the valuable characteristics of humic substances is the ability to absorb and retain quite large amounts of water. In addition, fulvic acid helps water penetrate and permeate plant cells, assisting nutrient uptake and water storage during drought conditions. Fulvic acid may balance water during drought conditions and assist in the accumulation of soluble sugars, helping to prevent wilting. The oxygen atoms of water satisfy their requirements for electrons with this stable arrangement. Carbohydrates are a basic source of the hydrogen ions, that are released by means of oxidation. Electrolytic solutions and colloids, which make up the bulk of living cells, are especially adapted to electro-chemical processes. Electrolytes in solution, especially in water or aqueous solution, conduct electrical current. Consider for a moment water, with the ability to hold material in solution and colloids. Now add the most powerful natural electrolyte known to organic matter, fulvic acid, to the water. The water now dissolves, transports, and amplifies this material and its electric action. The following are highlights of this subject: Under drought conditions, humic and fulvic acids help balance water and assist plant transpiration, the transport of water and nutrients of the cell tissues. The balancing phenomenon of fulvic acids produces a reduction in the amount of water Humic and fulvic acids assist the balance of water under drought conditions by increasing plant respiration, thus helping the plant "breathe" better while under stress. Fulvic acids aid water in assisting the penetration and permeation of plant cells and thus assist in nutrient uptake and water storage within the plant cells during dry times. Fulvic acids can assist plants during drought to accumulate soluble sugars and thus help to Humic and fulvic acids have a very positive effect on the water holding capacity of the soil. These humic substances also allow the reduced supply of water in its very thin film to be more easily released during drought conditions, and thus be made available to the roots of the Fulvic acids also assist in the development of better, stronger, and larger root structures, which improves the uptake of water and nutrients. Fulvic acid electrolytes in water solution conduct current for life giving energy. Water dissolves, transports, and amplifies fulvic acid and transports its electric action Water vapor or humidity tends to cluster around and bond to fulvic acids, which is referred to Humic and fulvic substances reduce soil erosion by increasing sorption and increasing the binding force of the very fine soil particles to the electrolytically charged water. Humic and fulvic acids combined with water provide a highly productive material with many very unique properties. The value of this unique combination of nature is in its productivity and its natural safety.
3. PLANTS AND FACTORS THAT REGULATE GROWTH
Plants respond to factors that regulate growth. External examples: light, length of day, temperature, gravity. Internal examples: natural plant hormones. These naturally occurring hormones have a particular chemical structure and regulate plant growth. The principal internal growth regulators are plant hormones. A plant hormone is a natural chemical messenger that is produced in very small amounts by one part of the plant and becomes active in another part of the plant. "Growth Regulators," such as humic and fulvic acids, address plant metabolism and stimulation, functions that involve many of the chemical energy transformations that occur in plant cells as repair, MASTER GARDNER INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
Sponsored by The University of California, Davis growth, and crop yield take place. Humic and fulvic substances enter the plant cell membrane, roots, stems, and leaves, and sensitize multiple physiological functions. The most common, amino acids and proteins available daily, stored energy, the plant's ability to generate some of its own energy, and coenzymes participate together in biological growth functions. Natural plant hormones and
sterols are also a part of the biological growth process. Auxins are natural plant hormones that promote the
growth of plant cells in roots, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits by controlling light reception and making sugars available to the plants. Humic and fulvic substances include auxins or function as auxins and thus affect plant
metabolism in a positive manner. Gibberellins are natural plant hormones that regulate the balance in plant
development, affecting cell division, stem elongation, and the triggering of DNA gene codes of enzymes that
break down starches and awaken plant seeds and buds. Cytokinins are active in plant cell division and help
prevent leaf aging while working with auxins to control the growth and development of plants in general. Organic compounds cause specific enzyme action which stimulates DNA and RNA activation and cellular growth. Fulvic acids provide multiple and natural chemical reactions in the soil, thereby instigating and stimulating unique and positive influences on plants' metabolic processes. In all cases where humic and fulvic substances influence the development of an enzyme, it is assumed that there is a direct and positive effect on the net enzyme synthesis. Organic growth regulators involve certain functions of DNA, including specific enzymes that cause cellular Regulation of the structure of the plant Activation of metabolism-directed transport Substitution for or interaction with light Increase in stomata opening and transpiration
4. THE PLUS AND MINUS SIGNS OF LIFE
At the death of electric potential, life is reduced to zero and the biological and histological components of plants and animals are resolved back into simple elements of the earth and air.
ELECTROCHEMISTRY is the positive and negative "glue" for all matter:
Electrochemistry is the study of electrolyte solutions and the chemical changes associated
• Electrolyte: A term derived from two Greek words meaning electric and to lose. It is a
substance that dissolves in water or other suitable medium to produce a solution capable of conducting an electrical current. This electric current decomposes some of the molecular
bodies and, in the process, electrons are set loose. Hence, the name electrolyte. It is
important to note that elements that are anions in one electrolyte may, in another or under
different circumstances, become cations. Atoms in a compound are held together by the attraction of unlike charges (positive and All chemical interactions are electric at the atomic level; so, in a sense, all chemistry is Charged atoms in solution possess a definite quantity of electric charge. This supports the fact that electricity is atomic in nature and that each atom contains a natural unit of electricity. The chief requirement for all electrolyte processes is the presence of mobile ions for
In any electrochemical process (spontaneous or externally powered), the net chemical reaction is the sum of the two half-cell reactions that occur at the electrodes. Trace minerals or like Sponsored by The University of California, Davis substances, may serve as electrodes. One of these reactions is always an oxidation reaction in which the donor loses electrons; the other is a reduction reaction in which the acceptor gains electrons. As related in New Electronic Encyclopedia, (1991) "Photosynthesis," Grolier Management of the cation and anion balance in living cells is very important, especially in cases of known toxicity. When too much of any element is used and cations accumulate, cell toxicity may develop and ionic balance must be restored. Trace minerals such as fulvic acids are beneficial in achieving and maintaining this cell If the cells of plants or animals disintegrate when the electrical potential is reduced to zero, then what is the effect on plant and animal cells if the electrical potential is reduced somewhat? If electrical and chemical balance can
be created by the application of electrolytes, then some of the answers for improving the quality of living things
becomes evident. Trace minerals are powerful electrolytes that balance cellular life. When the individual cell is
restored to its normal chemical balance, and thereby its electrical potential, life prevails where death and disintegration normally would have resulted. Many authors have proposed that humic compounds are taken up by plants' vascular systems. In fact, trace minerals such as fulvic acids have been used to augment cellular activity by increasing metabolism. Beyond the nutritional benefits of humic substances, fulvic acids affect the health and growth of cell life by stimulating various physiological and biochemical processes related to cell metabolism. Literature repeatedly expresses that small concentrations of fulvic acids activate enzymatic systems within plants, most often influencing plant respiration. Reported studies conducted by several research groups observed plants absorbing more oxygen in the presence of fulvic acids than untreated control plants. During initial plant growth periods and during the formation of reproductive organs, biochemical processes are most active. Plants removed from their fulvic acids source experience oxygen deficiency during these periods. They cannot handle the elaborate functions of the complex enzyme system that transfers hydrogen while activating the oxygen. The addition of fulvic acids during growth and formative periods, increases the vital activity of plants and relieves the Trace minerals are physiologically active in enhancing plant growth, in influencing enzyme activities and in providing selective effects on many biochemical processes. This low-molecular-weight substance has a positive effect on root initiation and growth that appears to be related to its metal chelating ability. There is evidence that all humic compounds, especially those of the trace mineral fraction, are excellent natural chelators and cation exchangers. These functional properties of fulvic acid are vitally important in the nutrition and electric life of all
5. SICK PLANTS: ORGANIC VITAMINS, ORGANIC "ANTIBIOTICS" AND INSECT CONTROL
Organisms in the soil often produce vitamins that, when found at very low concentrations, are vitally influential to the development of plant life. Coenzymes are found in water-soluble vitamins such as B-complex vitamins. All of the known vitamins may be present in soils, and even though plants can synthesize or manufacture many vitamins themselves, a supplementary source from humic and fulvic soil sources may significantly improve plant growth. Various vitamins, auxins, and plant hormones are prominent products of the decay of organic substances. Antibiotics, produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes, are difficult to specifically determine in soils. Still, their presence is acknowledged, and they perform vital functions by inhibiting or killing certain microbe populations. They are known to be very effective at extremely low concentrations in the soil. During the decomposition of plant residues, antibiotics such as natural streptomycin, Terramycin, bacitracin, colicine, polymyxin, clavacin, and penicillin are produced. These examples of antibiotics, as well as others, may not be totally understood, but nevertheless they have a significant influence in plant-microorganism relationships. Destructive insects are representative of the plight of the above-ground portion of the plant. Many would generally conclude that a healthy, vigorously surviving plant can adequately defend itself against MASTER GARDNER INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
Sponsored by The University of California, Davis any of nature's attacks, including insects and worms. It has been determined that certain trees can produce tannins or adaptable terpins that will deter pests, or a change affecting the invader can take place in the nutritional levels Plants may produce enzyme inhibitors to deter chewing or sucking insects by interfering with digestion. However, these defensive materials reduce the efficiency of the plant and drain energy from its reserves. Additional sugar in plant tissue generally is correlated with fewer insect problems. Humic and fulvic acids appear to cause the genetic mechanism of plants to function at a higher level. This activation of plant metabolism makes plants convert more carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, amino acids, and other energy producing material within the cell. In this manner, more energy is captured by the chlorophyll and plant pigments and converted into plant substances or energy reserves. The energy also may be used for various work functions within the plant cell such as osmotic transport, electrical energy, mechanical maneuvers, and Plants under stress emit a different frequency that will attract certain predatory insects. Thus, the goal is to develop a well balanced plant and soil diet of humic and fulvic substances along with a healthy microorganism population so that the plant's overall defense system will be strong enough to protect itself from insect invasion. There is limited information in our literature regarding natural, functional insect control. Why should we look for a way to solve the insect problem naturally? Because the system of chemical over-treatment causes problems of imbalance and toxicity. Here is a question for each of us: Why do these pesky little insects develop an immunity to their own scientifically tested and proven poison? (Refer to, "The Joy Ride is Over," U.S. News and World If the following five questions can be answered, perhaps we could control insect invasions. How can you help the soil meet the mineral and nitrogen fertility requirements of plants, thus bringing the soil-plant system into balance? Is it possible that if nitrogen fertilizer requirements were reduced, the overabundance of nitrate and ammonium ions would be beneficially reduced? Within this scenario, would the cytokinin activity, as well as other beneficial plant hormonal activity, slow down plant aging or the senescence of older leaf-tissue, thus maintaining an optimum level of proteins and plant energy to be incorporated into all plant parts? Could we reduce the use of pesticides while at the same time make micro nutrients more available and thereby enhance roots' mycorrhizal activity? Is there a way to assist root mycorrhizae, thereby making water more available during drought periods and enhancing the processes of photosynthesis to meet the demands of a wider range
Organisms in the soil produce vitamins that influence the development of plant life. Organic vitamins, auxins, and plant hormones are significant products of the decay or Antibiotics produced by soil bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes serve an important role in helping to maintain a safe, balanced microbial population. "Beautiful bugs eat sick plants. They never become confused and eat a healthy plant.They Jackson, William R., PhD. (1993). Humic, Fulvic and Microbial Balance: Organic Soil Conditioning. Jackson, William R., PhD. (1995). Environmental Care & Share, Working Model Constructs Which Suggest: "We can do better." Evergreen, CO: Jackson Research Center.
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