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Oralcarelink_issue 8_beralus 101410

Yudina Natalia
hypersensitivityduring pregnancy and menopause Dentine hypersensitivity is more common in women, irrespective of of estrogen during menopause results in serious dental age1-5. A correlation exists between hormonal changes during consequences like development or acute attacks of existing pubertal period, pregnancy, menopause and oral health condi- periodontal disease, gum recession and increased dentinal tions. “Dentine hypersensitivity can be seen in 72 - 98 % of the patients with periodontal diseases and is typically more prevalent It is necessary to visit a dentist to diagnose the condition. in young and middle-aged women.” Hormonal changes during There are many reasons for dental sensitivity and many pregnancy can cause changes in composition of dental plaque6-7. available treatment options. Dentist should conduct a differen- High levels of progesterone during pregnancy has an influence on tial diagnosis to ensure correct diagnosis of dentine hypersen- inflammatory responses, hence gum disease can be seen in 35 - 70 sitivity and to eliminate that the pain is caused by one of many % of pregnant women. It manifests as mild inflammation to severe disease. Changes in the hormonal state and immune resistance Regular use of hypersensitivity relieving toothpastes at home is during pregnancy can be prerequisites for appearance of highly recommended. Considering the accelerated formation of increased oral health problems, including dental sensitivity. dental plaque with changed hormonal background, it is Increased sensitivity of tooth tissues to mechanical, important for a pregnant woman to maintain proper oral chemical, temperature stimuli accompanies many hygiene and use the necessary oral care products14. The first dental diseases during pregnancy: periodontal trimester and the last half of the third trimester is an undesirable diseases, caries, non-carious dental lesions8- period for dental treatment. The second trimester, i.e. weeks 13 13. Generalized form of dentine sensitivity - 24 of pregnancy, is considered to be the most favorable period of pregnancy for dental treatments. ”In view of increased dentin sensitivity during pregnancy, there is a need for dental professionals to make treatment recom- mendations. Colgate® Sensitive Pro-Relief™ with Pro-Argin™ technology is clinically proven to provide instant and lasting relief of dentin hypersensitivity” The paste contains Arginine - during and after pregnancy can a natural amino acid and an insoluble calcium compound which creates a surface layer on the dentin which is rich in calcium, phosphate and carbonate which contributes to precipitation of Calcium, Phosphate, and Carbonate with formation of the layer rich with calcium that seals the open sections of dentine and protects dentine from exposure to external stimuli which relieves the hypersensitivity19. There are no restrictions on the use of this product by pregnant women.
destiny and incorrect brushing techniques together with the hormonal changes can also cause inflammation in gums. Deficit Reference: 1.Addy M. Dentine hypersensitivity: New perspectives on an old problem. Int Dent J 2002 52: 367–375. 2.Bartold, PM. Dentinal hypersensitivity: a review AUSTRALIAN DENTAL JOURNAL. 2006; VOL 51: (3): 212-218. 3.Gillam, D. G., Seo, H. S., Bulman, J. S. and Newman, H. N. (1999), Perceptions of dentine hypersensitivity in a general practice population. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 26: 710–714. 4.Gillam, D. G., Seo, H. S., Newman, H. N. and Bulman, J. S. (2001), Comparison of dentine hypersensitivity in selected occidental and oriental populations. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 28: 20–25. 5.West NX. The dentine hypersensitivity patient: a total management package. Int Dent J. 2007; 57 (6 Suppl 1):411-419. 6.J.E.Raber-Durlacher, W. Leene, CCR Palmer-Bouva et al. Experimental gingivitis during pregnancy and post partum: immunohistochemical aspects. J Periodontol 1993 V 64 P. 211-218. 7.Periodontal Medicine / L. Rose [et al.]. – London Decker Inc., 2000. – 294 p., P.151-163. 8. Gajendra S, Kumar JV. Oral health and pregnancy: a review. NY State Dent J 2004;70:40–4. 9.Suresh L, Radfar L. Pregnancy and lactation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004;97:672–82. 10. Palmer R, Soory M. Modifying factors: diabetes, puberty, pregnancy and the menopause and tobacco smoking. In: Linde J, Karring T, Lang NP, editors. Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry. 4th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Munksgaard; 2003. p. 184–86. 11. Laine MA. Effect of pregnancy on periodontal and dental health. Acta Odontol Scand 2002;60:257–64. 12. Löe H, Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy: Prevalence and severity. Acta Odontol Scand 1963;21:533–51. 13. Hunter L, Hunter B. Oral and dental problems associated with pregnancy. In: Oral Healthcare in Pregnancy and Infancy. London: Macmillan Press Ltd; 1997. p. 27–34. 14. JB. Payne, NR Zachs, RA Reinhardt et al. The association between estrogen status and alveolar bone density changes in postmenopausal women with a history of periodontitis. J Periodontol 1997. 68. 24-31. 15.Kielbassa A. M. Dentine hypersensitivity: Simple steps for everyday diagnosis and management // Int Dent J. 2002. Vol. 5. P. 394-396. 16. JB. Payne, NR Zachs, RA Reinhardt et al. The association between estrogen status and alveolar bone density changes in postmenopausal women with a history of periodontitis. J Periodontol 1997. 68. 24-31.17. Tezal M, Wactawski-Wende JW, Grossi SG, Dmochowski J, Genco RJ. Periodontal disease and the incidence of tooth loss in postmenopausal women. J Periodontal. 2005; 76(7):1123-1128. 18. Tezal M, Wactawski-Wende J, Grossi SG, Ho AW, Dunford R, Genco RJ. The relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in postmenopausal women. J Periodontal. 2000; 71(9):1492-8. 19. Panagakos F., Schiff T., Guignon A. Dental hypersensitivity: Effective treatment with an in-office desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate. Am Dent J 2009; 22 Sp.Is.A: 3A-7A.
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1016/1/1/03 genzyme limited - transcript of proceedings | 06 oct 2003

IN THE COMPETITION APPEAL TRIBUNAL New Court, Chair Street, London WC2A.2JT THE OFFICE OF FAIR TRADING ("OFT") Mr David Vaughan CBE QC and Mr Aidan Robertson appeared for the Mr Rhodri Thompson QC appeared for the respondent. --------------- Clifford's Inn, Fetter Lane, London EC2A.1LD PROCEEDINGS DAY THE PRESIDENT: Good morning everyone. Yes, Mr Vaughan? MR VAUG

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