Pub 285 spc english style guide

Secretariat of the Pacific Community
Style Guide
October 2001
This style guide was prepared by Kim Des Rochers and Alison Southby with input from previous SPC editors.
Preparing publications.1
SPC’s copyright .2
ISBN, ISSN, Agdex and CIP .3
SPC’s address .4
Capital letters .5
Geographical names.6
Hyphens and compound words .7
Full stop or period.9
Colon .9
Comma .10
Dashes/rules .11
Brackets .11
Question mark .11
Exclamation mark .12
Quotation marks.12
Writing out numbers.13
Ranges .14
Dates and time.14
Mathematical symbols .16
Scientific symbols and units of measurement .16
Foreign words and phrases in English text.17
Singular or plural .17
Some verb forms .18
Tables .20
Scientific names .20
Citations within text .22
Punctuation in citations .23
This style manual has been written to help SPC authors pro- duce documents for publication and is designed to establish a conven-tion for style and grammar, streamline the editing process, and facili-tate layout.
It is not meant to cover every style and grammatical issue the SPCauthor may encounter. Volumes have been written on the subject. It isalso impossible (not to mention unnecessary) to include every eventu-ality an author might run into.
For many readers of SPC publications, English is not the first lan-guage. Therefore, one of the most important considerations in pro-ducing a publication is that it be written clearly, concisely, and with-out unnecessary words and phrases. The style rules in this guide have been derived from the latest editionsof the following internationally recognised sources:• Scientific Style and Format: the CBE Manual for Authors,Editors, and Publishers The Random House Dictionary of the English Language European Association of Science Editors: Science Editors’Handbook 1.2
The spelling of words in English is not governed by any nation- al or international authority as the spelling of French words is. Manywords in English take different forms that can be generally charac-terised as either American English or UK English. UK forms are usedin Commonwealth countries such as Australia, New Zealand andCanada. Preparing publications

All documents should be double-spaced before they are pre- sented to Publications. This makes it easier for the editor to writecomments in the margins and between the lines of text and makes iteasier for the author to read these changes. In addition, pages shouldbe numbered and the entire document should be spell-checked.
References in the text body to tables and figures should correspondwith the actual illustrations. Use a simple font such as Times Roman.
If your publication has complicated graphs or tables in MicrosoftExcel or some other program, check with Publications before submit-ting your document for layout.
If you need to include general cultural and physical back- ground information about a Pacific country in your publication (egtotal rainfall, land area, capital, major ports, language spoken, orother geographical information), PLEASE consult a reliable source.
This does not mean any of the Lonely Planet guides. Reputablesources can be found in the SPC library and include: The PacificIslands: an encyclopedia, University of Hawai’i Press, 2000; TheStatesman’s Yearbook, Palgrave Publishers, 2001; The World Guide,New Internationalist Publications, 2001. There are others.
With a few exceptions, each SPC publication should have the SPC’s copyright

Copyright Secretariat of the Pacific Community, [current year] All rights for commercial / for profit reproduction or translation, in any form, reserved.
The SPC authorises the partial reproduction or translation of this material for scientif- ic, educational or research purposes, provided that SPC and the source document are properly acknowledged. Permission to reproduce the document and/or translate in whole, in any form, whether for commercial / for profit or non-profit purposes, must be requested in writing. Original SPC artwork may not be altered or separately pub- In the case of brochures, where space is a premium, the copyright canbe shortened to: ISBN, ISSN, Agdex and CIP

ISBN — International Standard Book Number is a unique code
used to identify a publication by its title, publisher and edition. TheISBN can be used to identify books in orders (e.g.,stock control and library systems. ISBNs are always 10 digits long, and are divided into four parts. Forexample, the ISBN 982-203-810-0 refers specifically to the document,Pacific kava — a producer’s guide. The 982 refers to the South Pacificregion; the 203 refers to the individual publisher (in this case SPC);820 refers specifically to that document (i.e. is keyed to the title); thelast digit is a kind of check mechanism.
ISBNs should be assigned to books, pamphlets, and reports more thanfour pages long. Microfilm publications, microcomputer software, mul-timedia kits containing printed matter, books on cassettes and maps.
ISBNs are not given to most posters (unless there is detailed informa-tion), calendars, advertisements, and most serial publications.
ISSN — International Standard Serial Number is a unique
number given to serial publications such as newsletters, magazines,newspapers. ISSNs are helpful in identifying a specific serial, especially when dif-ferent serials have the same or similar title. An ISSN can be given toany serial publication, no matter the format (CD ROM, online, etc.).
A serial publication is one that is published successively under thesame title (e.g. Fisheries Newsletter) ISSNs are eight digits long. For example, the Pacific Islands Nutritionnewsletter has the ISSN 1022-2782. ISSNs should appear in the upperright-hand corner of the front cover of each issue.
Agdex — Agdex is a system for cataloguing agricultural publi-
cations. An Agdex number is not a unique number like an ISBN orISSN, but instead links similar subject matter (i.e. an Agdex numberis subject specific, rather than item specific). Two publications withthe same Agdex number means they are on the same subject. Forexample, any publication with an Agdex number of 622, means thosepublications are about insect pests and their control. Agdex numbersare three digits long.
1.10 CIP data — Cataloguing-in-publication data is an internation-
ally recognised description for a publication, and can include infor-
mation on the title, author(s), or editor(s), place of publication, pub-
lisher, year of publication, and page numbers. CIP data is generally
found on the reverse side of the title page of a publication, near the
publisher’s copyright.
For more detail, see the brochure Publishing at SPC.
SPC’s address
In English language documents, SPC’s address should appear as:
Secretariat of the Pacific CommunityBP D598848 Noumea CedexNew CaledoniaTel: +687 20.00.00Fax: +687 26.38.18E-mail: 2. SPELLING

British spelling. In general, SPC Publications follows UK English usage; however, influences are crossing the Atlantic in bothdirections all the time. For example, the Concise Oxford Dictionaryuses ‘organize’ with a ‘z’ as its first choice of spelling. Also, thespellings program and disk have become required UK usage in ‘com-puterese’). There may even be times when it is preferable to useAmerican English, such as for publications specifically targetingMicronesian countries. In general, it is suggested that SPC authors usethe Concise Oxford Dictionary as a basic reference for spelling.
Words ending in -ise/-ize, -yse/-yze . Use -ise and -yse endings.
Both spellings are correct in UK English, but the -ise and -yse formstend to be more common. Again, refer to the Concise Oxford for thelatest convention.
But, for proper names follow the style of the organisation itself. Forexample, World Health Organization, Food and AgricultureOrganization (both take a ‘z’) 2.3
Judgment/judgement and acknowledgment/acknowledgement.
SPC style is to retain the first ‘e’.
Words with -ae- or -oe-. Use the British spelling for words such as aetiology, foetus, and oestrogen (etiology, fetus, and estrogen areAmerican usage). 2.5
Write gram, kilogram, litre, metre (not kilogramme, liter).
Capital letters

As a general rule, capitalise all nouns and adjectives in names of specific institutions and their subdivisions (DGs, directorates, divi-sions and other departments), committees, or working groups.
But, the committee discussed …; the programme encompasses… Note. When using an original name in French or another language
where only the first word is capitalised, follow the foreign style and
put in italics or add inverted commas if confusion could arise.
Political entities. Capitalise specific political entities, but use lowercase when the reference is general.
The Federated States of Micronesia; Kosrae State 2.8
Treaties and international agreements. Follow the same general rule for treaties, conventions, arrangements, understandings and protocols.
the Treaty of Waitangi; the Canberra Agreement 2.9
Seasons, weekdays, months, and events. No capitals for spring, summer, autumn, winter; use capitals for weekdays, months, holidays,
and events (e.g. Friday, July, Bastille Day, International Year of the Child).
2.10 Earth, world, and other celestial bodies. Capitalise earth and
world only in connection with astronomy or astronautics (the Earth,
the Galaxy, the Moon
), except where the proper noun is used as an
adjective (earth satellites, moon rock); no capitals for the resources ofthe earth, the population of the world.
2.11 Proprietary names. Proprietary names (or trade names) are nor-
mally capitalised, unless they have become generic terms, such as
aspirin, linoleum and nylon. Capitalise registered trade names such as
Xerox, Land-Rover, Coca-Cola.
2.12 Quotations. Start with a capital in running text only if the quo-
tation is a complete sentence in itself.
According to Françoise Sagan, ‘Writing is just having a sheet ofpaper, a pen and not the shadow of an idea of what you’regoing to say.’ 2.13 Nationalities, languages, etc. All words derived from country
names should be capitalised.
I-Kiribati; ni-Vanuatu; English style guide; French-speaking 2.14 Titles. Capitalise titles before a name.
President Kennedy; Ratu Seru Epenesa; Reverend Jesse Geographical names
Place names and topographical features should always be capi-
Pacific Ocean, Coral Sea, Grande Terre, Majuro Atoll, Suva,
Mauna Loa, Marianas Trench, Emperor Seamounts.
NB: Pacific, when referring either to the region or the ocean, is always
capitalised. Ignore your spell checker which suggests a lower case ‘p’
for Pacific.
2.16 Likewise, all island groups are capitalised: Bismark
Archipelago, Hawaiian Islands, Tuamotu Archipelago, Pacific Islands.
2.17 Compass points (north, south, east, west) and their derivations
(northern, southern, eastern, western; southwest, northeast, .) are
lower case unless they form part of a place name. For example: South
Pacific, Southeast Asia, Pacific Northwest. A single capital letter (N,
S, E, W) is used when writing latitude and longitude (e.g. Honolulu isat 21°18.47’N, 157°52.00’W).
2.18 Ocean currents are capitalised: Equatorial Counter Current,
Humboldt Current.
2.19 Winds are not capitalised: southeast trades, monsoon winds.
But, weather and climatic systems are: El Niño, La Niña, Intertropical
Convergence Zone, North Pacific High.
Hyphens and compound words
General. The trend is away from hyphens and to either join
words or to leave them open. For example: seawater, gill net.
Compound words may be written as two or more separate words, or
with hyphen(s), or as a single word. Many compounds have followed
precisely those steps (e.g. data base, data-base, database).
Sometimes hyphens are necessary to clarify the sense or to avoid confusion.
re-cover — recover; re-creation — recreation; re-form — reform 2.21 There are few hard and fast rules, but note the following
small-scale fisheries; user-friendly software; two-day meeting;four-month stay; thiamine-deficient diet; sea-surface tempera-ture; purse-seine fishery; long-term plan; five-year-old wine; up-to-date information 2.22 In adverb-adjective modifiers, no hyphen is needed when the
adverb ends in -ly.
genetically modified foods; a beautifully phrased sentence 2.23 Many compounds lose their hyphens when used after the noun.
policy for the long term; production on a large scale; news thatis up to date 2.24 If, however, the compound is used as an adverb or adjective, it
is hyphenated.
she works full-time; a part-time position 2.25 Prefixes are usually hyphenated in recent or ad hoc coinages.
co-worker, non-resident, non-flammable, non-smoker Many words tend to drop the hyphen as they become established.
antibody, codecision, cooperation, coordinate, subcommittee 2.26 Nouns from phrasal verbs. These are often hyphenated, but the
situation is fluid and US usage (no hyphen) is increasingly adopted in
UK English. Thus handout, takeover, comeback but, follow-up, run-
up, spin-off.

2.27 Avoid double consonants and vowels in words that are not fre-
quently used
. Hyphens are often used to avoid juxtaposing two con-
sonants or two vowels.
part-time, re-election, re-entry, re-examine 2.28 Numbers and fractions. Numbers take hyphens when they are
spelled out. Fractions take hyphens when used as an adjective, but
not when used as nouns.
But an increase of two thirds.
2.29 Prefixes before proper names. Prefixes before proper names are
hyphenated: pre-Colombian, mid-Pacific, trans-European.
Full stop or period

Use only one space after the full stop at the end of a sentence.
No additional full stop is required if a sentence ends with an abbreviation that takes a point (for instance a.m.) or a quotationcomplete in itself that ends in a full stop, question mark or exclama-tion mark before the final quotes. Mark Twain once said, ‘When indoubt strike it out.’ 3.3
Full stops as omission marks (aka ellipsis points). Always use three points, preceded by a hard space (non-breaking space). In Word,use Alt + Ctrl + (full stop) to insert ellipsis points. In French texts thepoints are commonly enclosed in brackets. This is never done inEnglish.
‘The objectives of the Secretariat will be achieved … whilerespecting the wishes of individual governments.’ 3.4
If a sentence ends with an omission, do not add an extra full 3.5
If any other punctuation mark follows, there is no space before Colon

Colons are most often used to indicate that an expansion, qual- ification or explanation is about to follow (e.g. a list of items in run-ning text).
Do not use colons at the end of headings or to introduce a 3.8
Do not start the word following a colon with a capital letter 3.9
Do not leave a space between a colon and the preceding word The discussion group covered three topics: carbohydrates,lipids and proteins.
Use the semicolon to link two connected thoughts in the same
sentence; to separate items in a series in running text, especially
phrases containing commas; or to add emphasis.
John says he intends to go on duty travel in August; however,he hasn’t made definite plans.
In men the most important aetiological factor is a high-fat diet;in women, an oestrogen deficiency.
John Green, Fisheries Statistician, ICLARM; Jane Brown,Fisheries Development Adviser, SPC; Pierre Blanc, FisheriesInformation Officer, SPC.
Commas, or their absence, can completely change the sense of
a sentence.
3.12 Non-defining relative clauses. Non-defining relative clauses
must be set off by a pair of commas to distinguish them from relative
clauses that define the preceding noun.
The translations, which have been revised, can now be typed.
(which adds detail — all the translations have been revised) The translations that have been revised can now be typed.
(that defines the subset that is to be typed — only those thathave been revised are to be typed) 3.13 Adjectives. Strings of adjectives all modifying a later noun but
not each other should be separated by commas.
But where the last adjective is part of the core it is not preceded by acomma: 1moderate, 2stable 3agricultural 4prices.
Here, 1 and 2 each separately modify the core (3 and 4).
Em dashes, or em rules, are used to indicate an abrupt break in
a sentence. An em rule should be used instead of commas or paren-
theses. Include a space on either side of an em dash.
There are many differences — aside from physical ones —between men and women.
3.15 En dashes, or en rules, are used to join coordinate or contrast-
ing pairs of words (a current–voltage graph, cost–benefit analysis,
mark–recapture study, ice–seawater slurry
); or to indicate a range of
numbers (34–96), including dates (1956–2001), degrees of latitude
(23°N–18°S) or temperature (0°–30°C)
3.16 Use an en dash to express a minus sign (e.g. –10°C) or to give
a range in months or page numbers (May–August; p.37–48).
En rules should be closed up (ie without a space on either side of it).
Bracketed sentences. A whole sentence in brackets should have
the final stop inside the closing bracket.
3.18 Square brackets. Square brackets are used to make insertions in
quoted material.
Question mark
Courtesy questions. No question mark is needed after a request
or instruction put as a question for courtesy.
Would you please sign and return the attached form.
3.20 Do not use a question mark in indirect speech.
The Director-General asked when the Annual Report would becompleted.
Exclamation mark
Avoid using it.
Quotation marks
Double vs single quotation marks. Use single quotation marks
first and double marks for quotations within quotations.
3.23 Short quotations. Short quotes of up to four lines or so are
normally run into the surrounding text. They are set off by opening
and closing quotation marks.
3.24 Block quotations. Extended (block) quotations should be
indented and separated from the surrounding text by paragraph spac-
ing before and after. No quotation marks are required with this dis-
tinctive layout.
3.25 Other uses. Generally, use quotation marks as sparingly as pos-
sible for purposes other than actual quotation.
Words ending in -s. Common and proper nouns and abbrevia-
tions ending in -s form their singular possessive with -’s (the plural
remains -s’), just like nouns ending in other letters.
Chris’s document; a hostess’s pay; the Smiths’ house 3.27 Plurals of abbreviations. Plurals of abbreviations do not take
an apostrophe.
3.28 Plurals of figures. Plurals of figures do not take an apostrophe.
Pilots of 747s undergo special training.
The names of ships, vehicles and aircraft are italicised.
S/V Nomad; F/V Rachel; HMS Endeavour 3.30 The names of newspapers, books, SPC publications or journal
names (within running text, not within a list of references) are italicised
(except for ‘the’ in a newspaper title).
The New York Times; Zen and the Art of MotorcycleMaintenance; Pacific Islands Nutrition Newsletter; FisheriesBulletin 4. NUMBERS
General. In deciding whether to write numbers in words or fig- ures, the first consideration should be consistency within a passage.
Where statistics are being compared in running text, use figures. Innon-statistical documents write the numbers nine and below in words(except in a range such as 9–11); all others to be written as numerals.
In scientific writing, metric measure is the accepted form for express-ing quantities. SPC uses the Système international d’unités (or SI).
Do not use a comma in numbers under 9999.
Always use figures with units of measurement denoted by sym- 10°C; 1000 nm; 50 ml; 250 kW; 5 km or five kilometres notfive km 4.4
However, numbers qualifying units of measurement that are spelled out may be written with figures.
With hundreds, thousands and so on there is a choice of using 300 or three hundred but not 3 hundred 4.6
Million and billion, however, may be combined with figures.
Try to not start a sentence with a number or a symbol followed by a number. These should be written out, or the sentence rephrased. Writing out numbers

Do not combine single-digit figures and words using hyphens 4.9
Compound attributes containing numbers must be hyphenated a seven-year-old wine; a ten-year-old child; five-year plan 4.10 When two numbers are next to one another, it is often prefer-
able to spell out one of them.
ninety 50-gram weights; seventy 25-franc stamps 4.11 Obligatory use of figures. Always use figures, not words, for
temperatures, times, percentages, and units of measurement (see 4.1).
Written out. Repeat symbols and multiples (thousand, million,
4.13 Abbreviated form. If the symbol or multiple remains the same,
insert a closed-up en-dash between the figures.
Dates and time
Write out the month, preceded by a simple figure for the day,
e.g. 23 July 1997. Use all four digits when referring to specific years
(i.e. 1997 not ’97).
4.15 Write a range of days as follows: 12–18 May 2000; 29 May–3
June 2000 (no comma).
4.16 Decades and centuries. When referring to decades and centuries
write the 1990s (no apostrophe), the 1800s.
4.17 Ranges. Use a closed-up en dash.
4.18 Note the following:
from 1990 to 1995 (never from 1990–95) between 1990 and 1995 (never between 1990–95) 1990 to 1995 inclusive (never 1990–95 inclusive) 4.19 When writing dates using the 12-hour system, separate the
hour and minute with a full stop. Use a.m. or p.m. to indicate the
division of the day.
General. In principle, abbreviations and acronyms are upper- cased. In practice, the longer the acronym, the more likely it is to lose itscapitals. To ensure consistency and remove the need to make subjectivedecisions, it is suggested that you follow the ‘five-letter’ rule below. Bearin mind, though, that this rule is arbitrary, so use your judgment. NB: the initial letters of radar and scuba are lower cased unless a sen-tence begins with these words.
Short acronyms. Five letters or fewer: uppercase throughout without full stops (periods), including acronyms that can be pro-nounced.
Longer acronyms. In general, lowercase those with more than five letters, with initial capital, provided they can be pronounced. Benelux, Esprit, Unesco, but AusAID 5.4
Indefinite article. This should be based on the way an abbrevi- ation is read. The choice of the article (a/an) depends on the pronun-ciation of the first letter.
Definite article. Do not use the definite article (the) before an SPC is a regional organisation. (not, The SPC is a regionalorganisation.) 5.6
Single truncated words. Single truncated words take a point unless the last letter of the word is included.
Foreign-language abbreviations. Untranslated foreign language abbreviations should retain the capitalisation and punctuation con-ventions of the original.
Mathematical symbols

Per cent. The per cent sign (%) sits directly next to the figure (e.g. 58%), unlike French practice. Note that percentage is one word,but per cent is two words although many scientific journals use per-cent as one word. In non-technical texts, spell out per cent ratherthan using the symbol.
Scientific symbols and units of measurement

Names of units of measurement. Names of basic and derived units of measurement are always lowercased when they are writtenout in full, even if they are derived from a personal name, such asampere, kelvin, hertz, watt. They have normal plurals: 250 volts, 50watts, 90 hertz.
5.10 Capitalisation of symbols. The initial letter of symbols for SI
units derived from personal names is always capitalised: Hz (hertz), K
. Symbols derived from generic nouns are always lowercased:
fl oz (fluid ounce), ft (foot), etc. Symbols for units of measurement.
These are normally abridged forms of the names of these units. They
are written without stops, with a space between the number and the
unit, and do not have plurals (4 ha, 9 m, 10 lb, 20 psi).
Foreign words and phrases in English text

Latin and other foreign-language expressions that are gram- matically integrated into an English text should be italicised (noinverted commas) and should have the appropriate accents, eg ‘usedinter alia as proof of payment’; ‘a possible raison d’être for thesestudies is …’ 6.2
Exceptions: words and phrases now in common use and/or considered part of the English language: angst, ennui, ad hoc, percapita, per se, vice versa.
Diacritics are marks or symbols written above, below or between letters to indicate a difference in pronunciation from a letterwithout this mark. For example the French é and ç, or the Spanish ñ.
Many Pacific Island languages also use diacritical marks, more com-monly in the form of glottals (Hawai‘i, ahupua‘a, Vava‘u, Ha‘apai).
SPC’s style, however, is to use diacritics with French documents only.
The reason for this is that in addition to glottal stops, some Pacificlanguages use other types of diacritics as well, many of which areextremely difficult to make with the software we use. Perhaps moreimportantly though, there is no in-house person to check the accuracyof these notations. If the author feels that diacritics are justified fortheir document, then they will be responsible for ensuring the accu-rate use and placement of those marks. Perhaps one of the few excep-tions to the use of diacritics with Pacific languages is when an organi-sation or institution specifically uses a diacritical mark in their name(e.g. the official way to write University of Hawai`i, is with a markbetween the two ‘i’s).
Singular or plural

Collective nouns. Use the singular form when the emphasis is The government is considering the matter.
The advisory committee has met twice this year.
Use the plural when the emphasis is on the individual members.
The police have failed to trace the goods.
A majority of the committee were in favour.
Countries, institutions and organisations take the singular.
The United States is reconsidering its position.
The Secretariat was not informed.
A singular verb is common in English with a double subject if Checking and stamping the forms is the job of the customsauthorities.
Words in -ics. The sciences of mathematics, dynamics, kinetics, statistics and economics are singular. Statistics meaning simply ‘fig-ures’ is plural; so too is economics in the sense of ‘commercial viabili-ty’, as in the economics of the new process were studied in depth.
The word none may take either a singular or plural verb.
Some verb forms

Verb forms. In UK usage, a final -l is doubled after a single vowel on adding -ing or -ed (sole exception: parallel, paralleled).
Other consonants double only if the last syllable of the root verb is stressed or carries a strong secondary stress.
Further exceptions:Some verbs ending in -p (e.g. handicapped, kidnapped, worshipped,unlike developed).

Lists of short items (without main verbs) should be introduced by a full sentence and have the following features:• no punctuation (very short items) or comma after each item 8.2
Where each item completes the introductory sentence, you label each item (using no initial capital) with the appropriatebullet, number or letter; begin each item with a lower case letter; 8.3
If all items are complete statements without a grammatical link to the introductory sentence, proceed as follows:a.
label each item with the appropriate bullet, number or letter; start each item with a lowercase letter; Try to avoid running the sentence on after the list of points. 8.4
If any one item consists of several complete sentences, announce the list with a main sentence and continue as indicated below.
Label each item with the appropriate bullet, number or letter. End each statement with a full stop. This allows several sen-tences to be included under a single item without throwing punc-tuation into confusion.
The list of points may extend over several pages, making itessential not to introduce it with an incomplete sentence orcolon. Tables

Tables inset in text matter should never be introduced with a 8.6
Table headings. Place table headings above the table. Diagrams, figures and graphs should be labelled at the bottom. It is not neces-sary to repeat the word table in the heading. 9. SCIENCE GUIDE
Scientific names

Biological sciences. Note that the initial letter of the scientific name is capitalised, while the species name is always lowercased, evenif it is derived from a proper noun.
The names of genera, species and subspecies (varieties, culti- vars) are always italicised: the genus Thunnus.
Most text references are to genus or species. The genus name should be spelled out in full on first occurrence and subsequentlyabbreviated: Escherichia coli, abbreviated E. coli. To avoid confusion,if another genus name is introduced into the text with the same initialas one already in use, both genus names should be spelled out in fullfrom that point on.
Common or vernacular names that are familiar to the reader should not be bolded or italicised, but left the same as the surround- ing text (e.g. a taro plant; a taboo area). They should also not be cap-italised unless they include a proper name (e.g. Galapagos shark,Asian papaya fruit fly; but, blacktip reef shark, melon fruit fly).
SPC Member Countries and Territories
Country/Territory Name
N.B.: With some countries the definite article (the) is not used (e.g.
Solomon Islands, not the Solomon Islands; Cook Islands, not theCook Islands; Fiji Islands, not the Fiji Islands) 11. SPC HOUSE STYLE
A number of style and punctuation issues particular to SPC include: Pacific Islands not Pacific islands Pacific Islanders not Pacific islanders PICTs = Pacific Island countries and territories (which includeSamoa, Guam, Pitcairn Islands, French Polynesia and Wallisand Futuna) not Pacific Island Countries and Territories PICs = Pacific Island countries not Pacific Island Countries NGO = non-governmental organisation not non-governmentorganisation (For more instances of specific usage, see the SPC House Style List [inpreparation]) 12. CITATIONS, REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES
12.1 A list of references is not quite the same as a bibliography. A
list of references gives a complete citation of all works cited in the
text. A bibliography is a list of references, plus sources used in com-
piling the document but not necessarily cited within the text.
12.2 Different publishing houses and journals have their own style for
formatting references. SPC uses a combination of the CBE Scientific
Style and Format
and the Vancouver system.
12.3 Do not translate titles and details of works that have appeared
only in a foreign language, but give official English titles, for example of
publications of international organisations, if available.
Citations within text
Use the author–date (also known as name–year) system: the
author’s surname and the year of publication (without a comma sepa-
rating the two), and enclosed in round brackets.
The incidence of NCDs in the Pacific region is increasing rapid-ly (McDonald 1999).
Punctuation in citations
A comma followed by a space separates citations of different
references by the same author(s).
Nearly 40 per cent of the population are less than 15 years old(Smith 1998, 1999a, 1999b).
12.6 A semicolon followed by a space separates citations of refer-
ences by different authors.
Tuna stocks in the western and central Pacific Ocean will soonbe extinct (Hampton 1998; Lawson 2000).
12.7 Multiple authors. For two authors, use both surnames, joined
by ‘and’. For three or more authors, use the first author’s surname,
followed by ‘et al.’:
(Dawson and Briggs 1996; Luciani et al. 1997) N.B.: ‘et al.’ is not italicised, and takes a full stop.
In general, SPC uses minimal punctuation and capitalisation in
all references.
Titles of foreign-language works or names of publishers should not betranslated into English or italicised.
Within a reference list, do not write out in full some journal namesand abbreviate others. For example, the Journal of Pacific History canbe abbreviated to J Pac Hist. Both are acceptable but only ONE formshould be used within any given reference list.
Journal articles
One author
Johannes, R.E. 1982. Traditional conservation methods and pro-tected areas in Oceania. Ambio 11(5):258–261.
Multiple authors
Chou, R. and H.B. Lee. 1997. Commercial marine fish farming inSingapore. Aquaculture Research 28:767–776.
Multiple authors
Cambie, R.C. and J. Ash. 1994. Fijian medicinal plants. Australia:CSIRO. 365 p.
Editors as authors
Gilman, A.G., T.W. Rall, A.S. Nies, and P. Taylor (eds). 1990. Thepharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York:Pergamon. 1811 p.
Chapter from a book
Haines, A.K. 1982. Traditional concepts and practices and inlandfisheries management. In: L. Morauta, J. Pernetta and W. Hearney(eds). Traditional conservation in Papua New Guinea: implicationsfor today. Boroko: Institute for Applied Social and EconomicResearch. 279–291.
Proceedings and conference reports
Seret, B. and J-Y Sire (eds). 1999. Fifth Indo-Pacific FishConference; 3–8 1997 Nov; Noumea, New Caledonia. Paris:Société Française d’Ichtyologie. 866 p.
Nietschmann, B. 1984. Indigenous island peoples, living resources,and protected areas. In: National parks, conservation, and devel-opment: the role of protected areas in sustaining society. J.A.
McNeely and K.R. Miller (eds). 333–343. Proceedings of theWorld Congress on National Parks, Bali Indonesia, 11–22 October1982. Washington D.C: Smithsonian Institute Press.
Dissertations and theses
Ritzmann, R.E. 1974. The snapping mechanism of Alpheid shrimp[dissertation]. Charlottesville (VA): University of Virginia. 59 p.
Newspaper and magazine articles
Rensberger, B., Specter B. 1989 Aug 7. CFCs may be destroyed bynatural processes. Washington Post; Sect A:2(col 5).
Electronic citations
To cite a website (but not a specific document or information within
that site), give the address of the site in the text and the year. For
example, to cite The Nature Conservancy website:
To cite specific information from The Nature Conservancy’s website,give the URL and the year (and the day and month if it is listed): ‘Scattered in a double chain of 922 islands east of Papua NewGuinea, the Solomon Islands cover more than 1.35 millionsquare kilometers of the South Pacific ( 2001)’ ‘Mahi mahi are a highly migratory species found in tropicaland subtropical waters of the Indian, Atlantic and PacificOceans( 02 July 2001)’ Referencing an article from an online journal
Stone, R. 2000. European Union to fund science in Balkanregion. Science 290(5500):2230. Retrieved from Web 18 July2001
Jacobson, J.W., J.A. Mulick and A.A. Schwartz. 1995. A his-tory of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, andantiscience: Science working group on facilitated communica-tion. American Psychologist, 50, 750–765. Retrieved from WebJanuary 25, 1996, Putting references in order
Two or more references by the same author, should be orderedby date; i.e. oldest first, most recent last Chapman, M.D. 1985. Environmental influences on the devel-opment of traditional conservation in the South Pacific region.
Environmental Conservation 12(3):217–230.
Chapman, M.D. 1987. Women’s fishing in Oceania. HumanEcology 15(3):267–287.
Several references where one or more author(s) is common to
all of them

Alcala, A.C. 1988. Effects of marine reserves on coral fishabundances and yields of Philippine coral reefs. Ambio17:194–199.
Alcala, A.C. and T. Luchavez. 1981. Fish yield of the coral reefsurrounding Apo Island, central Visayas, Philippines. MarineBiology 8:69–73.
Alcala, A.C. and G.R. Russ. 1990. A direct test of the effects ofprotective management on abundance and yield of tropicalmarine resources. Journal of Conservation 46:40–47.
Ebeling, A.W. and D.R. Laur. 1985. The influence of plantcover on surfperch abundance at an offshore temperature reef.
Environmental Biology of Fishes 16:123–133.
Ebeling, A.W. and D.R. Laur. 1988. Fish populations in kelpforests without sea otters: effects of severe storm damage anddestructive sea urchin grazing. Ecological Studies 65:169–191.
Ebeling, A.W., D.R. Laur and R.J. Rowley. 1985. Severe stormdisturbances and reversal of community structure in a southernCalifornia kelp forest. Marine Biology 84:287–294.
Ebeling, A.W., S.J. Holbrook and R.J. Schmidt. 1990.
Temporally concordant structure of a fish assemblage: boundor determined? American Naturalist 135:63–73.
Ebeling, A.W. R.J. Larson, W.S. Alevizon and R.N. Bray. 1980.
Annual variability of reef fish assemblages in kelp forests offSanta Barbara, California. Fisheries Bulletin 78:361–377.


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