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file:///Users/cerdmann/Downloads/2013-08-24-harvard-latest.html @swcarpentry #dst4lClass-related URLs: Python III
Mike Selik spam Grammar, syntax, keywords (i.e. Viagra), domain name, quantity vs variety Frequency of words is common method You can usually try googling what you want to do, and if it's common, there's probably a pythonlibrary that can help. For example, searching "Python download file from web" can lead to, a library for you to install.
Reuse, recombine pieces of code to create new code.
When you're using a library that's not one of the defaults, you have to import it with an importstatement. Before you import a library (such as requests), commands related to that library will not bemeaningful to python.
You import what you need when you need it. This can help avoid naming conflicts between librariesand variables. "Explicit is better than implicit." Don't name a variable "str" -- the function "str" will be unusable. Variables can be deleted, but there isno way to clear them all at once. In ipython, %whos will show you all variables.
List: a data type used to store a bunch of data in a particular sequence
range(): creates a sequence of numbers as a list range(9) = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]range(1,10) = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]range(5, 10, 2) = [5, 7, 9] Python is what's called a "zero indexed" language. That means when counting objects in acollection we start counting from "zero" instead of "one" For example the first element of a listis the 0th element. The first character in a string is the 0th character. For example: >>> my_str = 'Hello'>>> my_str[0]'H' file:///Users/cerdmann/Downloads/2013-08-24-harvard-latest.html >>> my_list = [1, 2, 3]>>> m_list[0]1>>> my_list[1]2 negative index numbers: count from the end of the list; my_list[-1] gets the last element inmy_listSlicing a list: a subset of a list, in sequence, between index numbers: list[0:3] gets the first three elements in list Strings are also indexed, so they can be sliced like a list. A list is a container and can bechanged, appended.
You can use the ".append()" function on a list, as it is not immutable, although it has to bestored as a variable for you to print it out. You can't append to strings.
Parentheses indicate two things: a tuple, which is an immutable list, and calling a function withparameters (which apparently are also a tuple?).
my_tuple = (1,2,3,4,5) declares a tuple with the name my_tuplemy_function(1,2,3,4,5) runs the function my_function with parameters 1,2,3,4,5 Square brackets [ ] indicate that the contents are a list, or we're pulling something out of a list
when at the end of a variable, so look for my_list[2].
Parentheses ( ) indicate that we're calling a function
\r and \n are artifacts of typewriter interaction: separate carriage return and new line commands splitlines() is a function that takes no arguments. len() takes one argument, and range() takes
two arguments, and all of the arguments go into the parentheses, and if there aren't any, the
parentheses are still there.
split() splits on specified characters:
split('\n')default splits on spaces, tabs, returnsit's built in to python, and relatively simple, but if you want to do more sophisticatedanalysis, you can use a more sophisticated library.
basic loop syntax:
for some variable in something:
do stuff with some variable
It's a best practice to call some variable something that relates to what you're iterating over. And in
general, name things so that others can understand your code, and also so that you can understand the
file:///Users/cerdmann/Downloads/2013-08-24-harvard-latest.html python understands the word after "for" as a variable, no matter what it's called.
in curly brackets with colons { 'key':value, 'key':value}. values can be anything, and are indexed bykeys, not by whole values. Lists can be stored in dictionaries.
create an empty dictionary by assigning dict() as a variable value to create a paired key and value in a dictionary: dict_name['key'] = value Python IV
exercises: format() uses {} but does not involve dicts, the brackets just indicate very temporary variables.
"I'm a {0}! Look at me {1}!".format('cheetah', 'run') will return "I'm a cheetah! Look at me run!"
tip: control L clears screen in just about any terminal deque ( an alternate way to concatenate strings (as opposed to using +):names = ['Adam', 'Tanya', 'Alice', 'Sean']for friend in names: print "Hello {0}".format(friend)It's technically faster for python to compute the format command.
You can use multiple values {0}, {1}, etc.; the number is {} points to an element in the tuple () .startswith() returns true or false based on whether the argument is in the string that you applythis to use in lieu of string[0:?] == valueonly works with strings file:///Users/cerdmann/Downloads/2013-08-24-harvard-latest.html words = ['zip', 'blip', 'croissant', 'toast', 'quip', 'quail', 'quetzal', 'quizzical']for word in words: if word.startswith("q"): print wordcan also use .endswithcheck out string documentation for others, like .lower, .upper, etc.
All of these neat things are functions, and you can find out what functions are available for aparticular object by searching for something liks "python string functions" or python list functions,"and that will probably link you to relevant documentation.
conditions can be combined within an if statement using "and", "or" words = ["pizazz", "python", "zebra", "pizza"]for word in words: if word.startswith("z") or word.endswith("z"): print word Python uses tab indents to show whether you're in or outside of an if statement. Other programminglanguages cruelly make you use brackets, etc. ("There's even this one language called LISP that is,like, all brackets.") using for loops with lists:honor_roll_count = 0student_grades = ["A", "C", "B", "B", "C", "A", "F", "B", "B", "B", "C", "A"]for grade in student_grades: if grade in "AB": honor_roll_count += 1print honor_roll_count comments are for things that the code doesn't tell you. Anything following a # is not read bythe program.
comments are one line.
to comment multiple lines, can put a # in front of each line. You may also see 3 quotationmarks surrounding a multi-line comment, especially to explain functions.
many code editors and IDEs ("integrated development environments") will comment outmultiple lines of code, e.g., Komodo Edit "Programmers are very fervent about their favorite text editors." file:///Users/cerdmann/Downloads/2013-08-24-harvard-latest.html You may want to intentionally place a print() command within a loop when testing your code, so thatyou can monitor variable values as your loop is executed.
You can quickly create a list of letters from a string: [letter for letter in string] returns [first letter, second letter, third letter.] .join() will create a string by joining the elements from a list Version Control I Note:For anyone at Harvard (or others with personal or institutional access), has a tutorialon Git Undo changesAccess snapshots of a project consisting of multiple files at various points in timeMake collaboration easier: know who edited what and why; submit proposals for changes beforeimplementing; edit the same version of the file(s)Go find some specific edit Track revision history for any type of file: source code, prose, resume! Viewing diffs is less helpful in images or Word docs. There are tools that make it useful, but theyusually aren't free.
Fork: copy someone else's work and its history to your own repository; make your own changeswithout affecting original author's repository Git: One of many version control systems. Git was designed by programmers for programmers. Popular. $ mkdir creates new directory
$ git init creates an empty git repository in directory
just need to do this the first time you set up your repository:
$ git config --global "Your Name"
$ git config
--global ""
you can check this by typing cat ~/.gitconfig, and you should see your name and email
$ git status shows tracked and untracked files
file:///Users/cerdmann/Downloads/2013-08-24-harvard-latest.html $ git add filename stages file before committing
$ git commit -m "useful commit message" commits current versions of tracked files and
records history
"commit" verb: take snapshot of repositorynoun: the snapshot that you take of a repository Don't be like this: Commit messages can be as long as they need to be.
Why do you need to $ git add every time you want to commit?
"It's kind of a safety valve."
"You may have changed multiple files, and those changes might be unrelated."
Each commit should have a single purpose.
With each change being a single purpose, you can roll-back one change but not the other.
Process is:$ git add [filename]$ git commit -m "useful commit message - useful description"(make changes)$ git add filename$ git commit -m "useful commit message - useful description"(make changes.) $ git log shows commits, chronologically, from most recent
$ git log --help git log takes lots of options
$ git diff shows changes to files that have not been committed or staged ("add")
--color is a helpful option, shows red for deletions, green for additions.
--cached shows changes to staged files
Git will un-stage files if changes are made after add.
create a text file called ".gitignore" and put in filenames of files that you want to ignore. These filescan include wildcards, so you can ignore all files of some type. It's a good idea to ignore files thatinclude logins or other sensitive information.
"Git" is the version control system"GitHub" is a commercial service for sharing repositories online (free for public accounts, pay forprivate accounts) file:///Users/cerdmann/Downloads/2013-08-24-harvard-latest.html .md files use markdown: Demo of using git for managing a thesaurus/taxonomy $ git clone to clone git repository from a web service
$ git push to send files and changes to online repo; will ask for login by default
GitHub allows some online editing, conversations about pull requests, and comments on specific diffs.
A Github tutorial is located at Check out for an example of how to collaboratively managea thesaurus using GitHub.
Also take a look at, which will contain a correct and expandedexample of the word-frequency exercise that you can use as a starting place for your future textanalysis scripts.
Regular Expressions
A pattern used to find matches in textgreat for finding things, finding and replacing thingsworks on text only (Downloaded to desktop as words.txt - it's a file containing every valid Scrabbleword) $ wc filename.txt -l counts lines in a file
$ grep "string" filename.txt finds lines that contain a string
$ grep "^string" filename.txt finds lines that start with the specified string
$ grep "OO$" filename.txt finds lines that end with the specified string
$ grep "Q" words.txt | grep -v "QU" looks for words containing Q and then searches those
results for words that do not contain U
$ grep "^L.B.RY$" words.txt finds 7-letter words that match this pattern
. is one wildcard character
$ grep "^A.Z$" words.txt gets ADZ
$ grep "^A.*Z$" words.txt gets

file:///Users/cerdmann/Downloads/2013-08-24-harvard-latest.html ALFEREZ

Ways to keep up/build Python skills:
"You never have to pay to learn to program."Boston Python User Group: Python: Tutor: the Harvard Software Carpentry email list to ask questionsSchedule an online consultation with ErikSoftware Carpentry IRC channel: #swcarpentry on irc.freenode.netIf you're interested in web scraping:


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