PENGARUH SENAM OTAK TERHADAP PENURUNAN KECEMASAN MAHASISWA TINGKAT AKHIR S1 KEPERAWATAN STIKES NGUDI WALUYO UNGARAN Kecemasan merupakan gangguan alam perasaan (afektif) yang ditandai dengan perasaan khawatir, takut akan pikirannya sendiri, tegang, gelisah, mudah terkejut, tidak tenang, gangguan konsentrasi dan daya ingat serta keluhan somantik seperti berdebar-debar. Penatalaksanaan non f
Fs_sunglasses.inddSunglasses Safety FactSheetHS05-045A (9-05) Sunglasses aren’t just fashion accessories. They are a necessary protection for the eyes. Most consumers know about the danger of sun exposure to the skin, but many are unaware that the sun’s rays can damage the eyes. To cor- rectly shield the eyes, the right type of sunglasses must be worn, especially since wearing the wrong type can cause more damage than not wearing glasses at all. The eyes are susceptible to being burned by sunrays. The cornea, lens, and retina are all vulnerable to overexpo- sure of ultraviolet (UV) rays. Over time these UV rays—in- Choose Your Color Wisely visible to the human eye—can harm the eye if left unpro- tected. Workers who are heavily exposed to sunlight should Different lens tints filter different wavelengths of light. protect their eyes with UV-blocking sunglasses.
Some may enhance or distort colors and affect contrast. Sunglasses help in two important ways. They filter light and protect the eyes from damaging UV rays. Long-term • Green—Allows true color perception and good con- exposure to UV rays can lead to cataracts, macular de- trast in bright light; reduces eyestrain in bright light.
generation, or skin cancer around the eyelids. Sunglasses • Gray—Allows true color perception, but does not should be worn outdoors to protect the eyes. enhance contrast; good for cycling or running.
• Brown—Good in hazy sun, enhances contrast; good • Amber—Brightens cloudy, hazy, or foggy skies; ex- cellent for contrast; minimizes eyestrain; distorts color It is important to look for the clear substance in sun- • Yellow—Improves contrast and depth perception in glasses which blocks harmful ultraviolet light. Tinted glasses without UV protection cause more harm than wear- • Red—Excellent depth perception in low light; con- ing no glasses. Individuals can protect their eyes by simply trast objects against blue or green backgrounds.
wearing sunglasses that block out 99 to 100 percent of UV. • Mirrored—Reflects high-intensity light to reduce Such glasses protect the eye from both UV-A—and the more harmful—UV-B rays. Studies show that exposure to ultraviolet light can contribute to a number of ocular com- Q: Am I at risk for eye problems caused by UV rays? plications, including: photokeratitis or “snow blindness”; A: Everyone is at risk for eye problems caused by the cataracts; pterygium (an abnormal growth on the eye’s sun. Even children are at risk for damaging their eyes. surface); macular degeneration; and even cancer. Tinted The risk of sun related eye problems is higher for contact lens do not protect against harmful rays.
Some tips for protecting the eyes in the sun.
• Wear a wide-brimmed hat or cap. This keeps out sunlight from directly overhead, which can slip past • are on certain medicines, such as tetracycline, sulfa • Never look directly at the sun, even through sunglass- drugs, birth control pills, diuretics, and tranquilizers es, because doing so can cause permanent damage to that increase the eye’s sensitivity to light. • Wear sunglasses and a hat if taking medications that Q: What type of sunglasses should I get? increase the sensitivity of the eyes to light, such as A: When buying sunglasses, look for a label that tells tetracycline (Achromycin V, Sumycin) or allopurinol how much UV radiation the lenses of the sunglasses reflect. Experts say that sunglasses should block 99- 100 percent of both UV-A and UV-B rays. They need to cover the entire eye area, including eyelids.
Q: What type of glasses should I wear while working? The following are tips for purchasing safety sunglasses: A: While conventional sunglasses may protect the eyes from glare, they do a poor job of protecting eyes from • glasses should be lightweight and adjustable; the industrial hazards of chemical splashes, flying • label should indicate 99 or 100 percent UV protection; objects, and dust. In fact, conventional sunglasses can • look for sunglasses that are close fitting to prevent UV present their own hazards in the workplace. It is a fact that the frame and lenses used in safety sunglasses are • look for larger lenses or wrap-around sunglasses to stronger than the frame and lenses used in conven- prevent light or other harmful substances from enter- tional sunglasses. When an object strikes the lens of the safety sunglasses it is very unlikely that the lens • don’t be misguided by price—higher priced safety would dislodge. This is not true of conventional eye- sunglasses usually reflect fashion, not UV protection; wear, especially those types with wire frames. When an object strikes the lens of conventional sunglasses, • know that dark-colored sunglasses don’t necessarily the lens shatters, showering the wearer’s eye with provide better protection, because the chemical coat- shards of glass or plastic. With a pair of approved ing applied to the lens responsible for UV protection safety sunglasses, the lens may break, but it will not Remember, your sunglasses will not make you look bet- Safety sunglasses can also have shields to reduce the ter, see more comfortably or protect your eyes when they risk of foreign objects reaching the eye from the sides, top, are in your purse, pocket or on the dashboard of your car. or bottom. Regular sunglasses do not. Because sunglasses Protect your eyes whenever you go outside, no matter how have a darkened lens, some people mistakenly believe these briefly.
glasses will provide the needed protection when welding, Remember to practice safety. Don’t learn it by accident.
brazing, or cutting. A darkened lens will not protect eyes from the infrared (IF) and ultra-violent (UV) radiation. This fact sheet was published with information from the Wearing glasses with darkened lenses that are not made for Mayo Clinic, Prevent Blindness America, and the Texas industrial applications can actually be more dangerous than Department of Insurance, Division of Workers’ Compensa- wearing no glasses at all. This is because the eye attempts tion (TDI/DWC) and is considered factual at the time of to compensate for less light by opening the pupil wider. In turn, this allows more of the damaging radiation in. For adequate protection from the visible light produced by wielding, the lens must be a specific shade. Sunglasses are Q: What should you look for when selecting safety sun A: First, be sure the glasses are indeed safety eye wear, by checking to see if they comply with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards, the organization which sets the criteria for safety eyewear. Look for “Z87.1.” This is the ANSI designation iden- tifying the glasses as approved safety eyewear.
Division of Workers’ Compensation (TDI/DWC) E-mail email@example.com
or call 1-800-687-7080 for more information.
Simultaneous Assessment of Cytochrome P450 Activity in Human Hepatocytes for Ligand-Mediated Activation of the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR), Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR), and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor ( Ah R) Abstract # 197 Susan P. Rhodes*, Jennifer N. Otten, Scott D. Kragerud, Gary P. Hingorani, Dylan P. Hartley, and Ronald B. Franklin, Array BioPharma Inc,